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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097633/meropenem-dosing-based-on-a-population-pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-model-in-elderly-patients-with-infection-of-the-lower-respiratory-tract
#1
Qing-Tao Zhou, Bei He, Ning Shen, Ying Liang, Li-Na Sun
BACKGROUND: Meropenem is used for the treatment of severe lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the clinical benefits of a strategy of meropenem dosing based on a population pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) model in elderly patients with an LRTI. METHODS: In this prospective single-center open-label randomized controlled trial, 79 elderly patients with an LRTI caused by Gram-negative bacilli were randomized to a study group (SG) or a control group (CG)...
January 17, 2017: Drugs & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097626/peer-mentors-delivering-a-physical-activity-intervention-for-cancer-survivors-effects-among-mentors
#2
Bernardine M Pinto, Shira Dunsiger, Kevin Stein, Chelsey Kamson
To further inform implementation efforts of a telephone-based physical activity (PA) intervention for breast cancer survivors, we assessed the PA, fatigue, mood, and quality of life of the peer mentors/coaches who delivered the program. The coaches were volunteers with the American Cancer Society's Reach to Recovery program. The coaches (n = 18) delivered the PA intervention to 76 breast cancer survivors in a randomized controlled trial. Coaches completed assessments of PA (self-report), motivational readiness for PA, and standardized measures of psychosocial variables at the start of coaching and at study exit...
January 17, 2017: Translational Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096877/efficacy-and-safety-of-bitopertin-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-and-predominant-negative-symptoms-subgroup-analysis-of-japanese-patients-from-the-global-randomized-phase-2-trial
#3
Yoshio Hirayasu, Shin-Ichi Sato, Norifumi Shuto, Miwa Nakano, Teruhiko Higuchi
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to perform a subgroup analysis of data from a phase II global, multi-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of bitopertin, a glycine reuptake inhibitor that activates N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors by increasing the concentration of glycine in the synaptic cleft, in Japanese and non-Japanese patients with schizophrenia and predominant negative symptoms. METHODS: Patients with schizophrenia and predominant negative symptoms on one or two antipsychotic drugs, including atypical antipsychotic drugs (olanzapine, risperidone, quetiapine, aripiprazole, and paliperidone) as the primary treatment, received bitopertin (10, 30, or 60 mg/day) or placebo once daily for 8 weeks as an add-on treatment...
January 2017: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096255/sheppheartcabg-trial-comprehensive-early-rehabilitation-after-coronary-artery-bypass-grafting-a-protocol-for-a-randomised-clinical-trial
#4
Ida Elisabeth Højskov, Philip Moons, Niels Viggo Hansen, Søren La Cour, Peter Skov Olsen, Christian Gluud, Per Winkel, Jane Lindschou, Lau Caspar Thygesen, Ingrid Egerod, Selina Kikkenborg Berg
INTRODUCTION: Patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery often experience a range of symptoms. Studies indicate that non-pharmacological interventions such as exercise training and psychoeducation have a positive physiological and psychological effect in early outpatient rehabilitation. The SheppHeartCABG trial will investigate the effect of early comprehensive rehabilitation in early phase rehabilitation versus usual care. The aim of this paper is to present the protocol for the SheppHeartCABG trial...
January 17, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096109/financial-ties-of-principal-investigators-and-randomized-controlled-trial-outcomes-cross-sectional-study
#5
Rosa Ahn, Alexandra Woodbridge, Ann Abraham, Susan Saba, Deborah Korenstein, Erin Madden, W John Boscardin, Salomeh Keyhani
OBJECTIVE:  To examine the association between the presence of individual principal investigators' financial ties to the manufacturer of the study drug and the trial's outcomes after accounting for source of research funding. DESIGN:  Cross sectional study of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). SETTING:  Studies published in "core clinical" journals, as identified by Medline, between 1 January 2013 and 31 December 2013. PARTICIPANTS:  Random sample of RCTs focused on drug efficacy...
January 17, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096020/effectiveness-of-a-psychoeducation-program-on-the-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-coronary-heart-disease-a-clinical-trial
#6
Sina Valiee, Narges Sadat Razavi, Mohammad Aghajani, Zahra Bashiri
AIM: The present study was conducted to evaluate effectiveness of a psychoeducation program (PEP) on the quality of life in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). BACKGROUND: CHD affects patients' quality of life. PEPs may be useful to help patients reach maximum functional health. METHODS: A pretest-posttest controlled clinical trial was conducted on a study population of 70 CHD patients, who were selected through convenience sampling and randomly allocated to either the intervention or the control group...
February 2017: Applied Nursing Research: ANR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095918/anti-staphylococcal-activity-resulting-from-epithelial-lining-fluid-elf-concentrations-of-amikacin-inhale-administered-via-the-pulmonary-drug-delivery-system
#7
Islam M Ghazi, Mordechai Grupper, David P Nicolau
BACKGROUND: Amikacin inhale (BAY41-6551), a unique drug-device combination of a specially formulated drug solution and a pulmonary drug delivery system device (AMK-I) is currently under phase III study as an adjunctive therapy to IV antibiotics for the treatment of Gram-negative pneumonia in mechanically ventilated patients. While the epidemiology of nosocomial pneumonia is predominated by Gram-negative pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus aureus is increasingly recognized as a pathogen of concern for these pulmonary based infections...
January 17, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095881/renal-function-in-patients-with-non-dialysis-chronic-kidney-disease-receiving-intravenous-ferric-carboxymaltose-an-analysis-of-the-randomized-find-ckd-trial
#8
Iain C Macdougall, Andreas H Bock, Fernando Carrera, Kai-Uwe Eckardt, Carlo Gaillard, David Van Wyck, Yvonne Meier, Sylvain Larroque, Simon D Roger
BACKGROUND: Preclinical studies demonstrate renal proximal tubular injury after administration of some intravenous iron preparations but clinical data on renal effects of intravenous iron are sparse. METHODS: FIND-CKD was a 56-week, randomized, open-label, multicenter study in which patients with non-dialysis dependent chronic kidney disease (ND-CKD), anemia and iron deficiency without erythropoiesis-stimulating agent therapy received intravenous ferric carboxymaltose (FCM), targeting either higher (400-600 μg/L) or lower (100-200 μg/L) ferritin values, or oral iron...
January 17, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095505/can-early-intervention-improve-maternal-well-being-evidence-from-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Orla Doyle, Liam Delaney, Christine O'Farrelly, Nick Fitzpatrick, Michael Daly
OBJECTIVE: This study estimates the effect of a targeted early childhood intervention program on global and experienced measures of maternal well-being utilizing a randomized controlled trial design. The primary aim of the intervention is to improve children's school readiness skills by working directly with parents to improve their knowledge of child development and parenting behavior. One potential externality of the program is well-being benefits for parents given its direct focus on improving parental coping, self-efficacy, and problem solving skills, as well as generating an indirect effect on parental well-being by targeting child developmental problems...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095067/pacing-strategies-and-metabolic-responses-during-4-minute-running-time-trials
#10
Jonathan Watkins, Simon Platt, Erik Andersson, Kerry McGawley
PURPOSE: The aim of the current study was to investigate pacing strategies and the distribution of physiological resources in best versus worst performances during a series of 4-minute, self-paced running time-trials (RunTTs). METHODS: Five male and five female recreational runners (age 32 ± 7 years) completed a sub-maximal ramp test and five RunTTs on a motor-driven treadmill fitted with a speed-controlling laser system. The supramaximal V̇O2 demand was estimated by linear extrapolation from the sub-maximal relationship between V̇O2 and speed, enabling computation of the accumulated oxygen deficit (AOD)...
January 17, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094903/evaluation-of-the-efficacy-of-insecticidal-coatings-based-on-teflutrin-and-chlorpyrifos-against-rhynchophorus-ferrugineus
#11
Massimo Pugliese, Alberto Rettori Andrea, Roberto Martinis, Khalid Al-Rohily, Velate Suresh, Moideen Mohamed Ashraf, Ali Al-Maashi
BACKGROUND: The date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is an important economic resource for many nations worldwide, recently threatened by the presence of different insect pests, like the red palm weevil (RPW) Rhynchophorus ferrugineus. RESULTS: Two products, a glue (polyvinyl acetate) and an oil (raw linseed oil), have been used as coatings and applied together with a repellent and two insecticides (teflutrin and chlorpyrifos) at different dosages on 2 species of palm (Phoenix dactylifera and Phoenix canariensis)...
January 17, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094664/feasibility-and-acceptability-of-active-book-clubs-in-cancer-survivors-an-explorative-investigation
#12
Nanna Maria Hammer, Lisbeth Kofoed Egestad, Susanne Grøn Nielsen, Eik Bjerre, Christoffer Johansen, Ingrid Egerod, Bernardine Pinto, Julie Midtgaard
BACKGROUND: While the increasing number of people surviving cancer is promising, the long-term health effects warrant broad, innovative interventions. We investigated the feasibility and acceptability of a 24-week intervention called 'Active Book Club' comprising audio book listening, pedometer walking and supervised book club meetings. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An exploratory and descriptive design was applied. Qualitative data included baseline and post-intervention focus group interviews as well as post-intervention individual interviews...
January 17, 2017: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094169/a-12-week-randomized-controlled-trial-of-twice-daily-intranasal-oxytocin-for-social-cognitive-deficits-in-people-with-schizophrenia
#13
L Fredrik Jarskog, Cort A Pedersen, Jacqueline L Johnson, Robert M Hamer, Shane W Rau, Tonya Elliott, David L Penn
Social cognition is impaired in people with schizophrenia and these deficits are strongly correlated with social functioning. Oxytocin is a hypothalamic peptide that contributes to maternal infant bonding and has diverse pro-social effects in adults. This study tested the hypothesis that 12weeks of intranasal oxytocin will improve social cognitive function in outpatients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. Sixty-eight eligible participants were randomized to oxytocin (24IU twice daily) or placebo...
January 13, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093987/the-prognostic-value-of-heart-type-fatty-acid-binding-protein-in-patients-with-suspected-acute-coronary-syndrome-a-systematic-review
#14
Julia D Jones, Pei Gee Chew, Rebecca Dobson, Andrew Wootton, Reza Ashrafi, Aleem Khand
BACKGROUND: Heart type fatty acid protein(HFABP) is a cytosolic protein released early after acute coronary syndrome(ACS) even in the absence of myocardial necrosis. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this systematic review was to determine whether HFABP levels in patients with suspected, or confirmed ACS, improves risk stratification when added to established means of risk assessment. METHODS: We searched Medline, Pubmed and Embase databases from inception to July 2015 to identify prospective studies with suspected or confirmed ACS, who had HFABP measured during the index admission with at least 1 month follow up data...
January 16, 2017: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093894/importance-of-body-water-in-the-efficacy-of-convective-solute-transport-in-online-hemodiafiltration
#15
Nicolás Macías, Alba Santos García, Almudena Vega Martínez, Soraya Abad Estébanez, Marian Goicoechea Diezhandino, Juan Manuel López Gómez
High-volume online hemodiafiltration (OL-HDF) has been associated with improved patient survival compared to conventional hemodialysis in recent trials, where the importance of convective volume (CV) in this benefit is noted. The purpose of this study was to determine the corporal composition parameters influencing the efficacy of CV in the removal of different molecular weight (MW) molecules. Demographic data, corporal composition parameters with bioimpedance spectroscopy, dialysis features and the reduction rates of different MW molecules in a four-hour OL-HDF session were collected in 61 patients...
January 16, 2017: Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093791/local-therapy-improves-overall-survival-in-patients-with-newly-diagnosed-metastatic-prostate-cancer
#16
Rahul R Parikh, John Byun, Sharad Goyal, Isaac Yi Kim
BACKGROUND: The role of local therapy, in the form of radiation therapy (RT) or radical prostatectomy(RP), and its association on outcomes is not well established in patients with metastatic prostate cancer. METHODS: Using the National Cancer Database (NCDB), we evaluated patterns of care and outcomes among patients diagnosed with metastatic prostate cancer from 2004 to 2013 treated with local therapy (RP, intensity-modulated radiation therapy [IMRT], or 2D/3D-conformal radiation therapy [CRT])...
January 17, 2017: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093280/metronomics-in-the-neoadjuvant-and-adjuvant-treatment-of-breast-cancer
#17
Elisabetta Munzone, Marco Colleoni
The concept of metronomic chemotherapy (MC) has evolved from a descriptive preclinical phenomenon encompassing inhibition of angiogenesis to a clinically validated treatment concept involving multiple potential mechanisms of action. Clinicians are progressively more incline to consider MC as a component of mainstream medical oncology practice in advanced breast cancer. However, more recently MC has been tested even in the adjuvant/neoadjuvant setting, taking the opportunity to obtain tumor specimens and blood samples, in order to identify tumor-specific or patient-specific biomarkers for personalizing treatments...
January 13, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093274/a-direct-quantitative-pcr-based-measurement-of-herpes-simplex-virus-susceptibility-to-antiviral-drugs-and-neutralizing-antibodies
#18
Dezső P Virók, Ildikó Eszik, Tímea Mosolygó, Kamil Önder, Valéria Endrész, Katalin Burián
Herpes simplex viruses (HSV) are common human pathogens that can cause painful but benign manifestations and recurrent complaints, but can also cause significant morbidity and mortality on infection of the eye or brain and with disseminated infection of an immunosuppressed patient or a neonate. HSV growth inhibition measurement by plaque or yield reduction is a key task in the development of novel antiviral compounds but the manual methods are very labour intensive. The sensitive and specific PCR technology could be an effective method for quantitation of HSV DNA related to virus replication; however the currently described PCR approaches have a major limitation, namely the requirement of purification of DNA from the infected cells...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093088/diagnostic-impact-of-18-f-flutemetamol-pet-in-early-onset-dementia
#19
Marissa D Zwan, Femke H Bouwman, Elles Konijnenberg, Wiesje M van der Flier, Adriaan A Lammertsma, Frans R J Verhey, Pauline Aalten, Bart N M van Berckel, Philip Scheltens
BACKGROUND: Early-onset dementia patients often present with atypical clinical symptoms, hampering an accurate clinical diagnosis. The purpose of the present study was to assess the diagnostic impact of the amyloid-positron emission tomography (PET) imaging agent [(18)F]flutemetamol in early-onset dementia patients, in terms of change in (confidence in) diagnosis and patient management plan. METHODS: This prospective bi-center study included 211 patients suspected of early-onset dementia who visited a tertiary memory clinic...
January 17, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092792/curiosity-improves-coping-efficacy-and-reduces-suicidal-ideation-severity-among-military-veterans-at-risk-for-suicide
#20
Lauren M Denneson, Derek J Smolenski, Nigel E Bush, Steven K Dobscha
Curiosity, the tendency to engage in novel and challenging opportunities, may be an important source of resilience for those at risk for suicide. We hypothesized that curiosity would have a buffering effect against risk conferred by multiple sources of distress, whereby curiosity would be associated with reduced suicidal ideation and increased coping efficacy. As part of a larger intervention trial designed to improve coping skills and reduce suicidal ideation, 117 military veterans with suicidal ideation completed measures of curiosity and distress (perceived stress, depression, anxiety, and sleep disturbances) at baseline, and completed measures of suicidal ideation and coping efficacy (to stop negative thoughts, to enlist support from friends and family) at baseline and 3-, 6-, and 12-week follow up...
January 9, 2017: Psychiatry Research
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