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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351716/effect-of-metformin-on-glycemic-control-in-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#1
Haiyang Meng, Ailing Zhang, Yan Liang, Jie Hao, Xiaojian Zhang, Jingli Lu
BACKGROUND: For T1D patients, adding metformin to insulin therapies is thought to improve blood glucose levels, but current evidence does not support this clinical benefit. Additional data from large clinical trials are now available; therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis of studies on assessing the efficacy and adverse effects of metformin. METHODS: We searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library databases for data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs)...
January 19, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351303/automated-inverse-optimization-facilitates-lower-doses-to-normal-tissue-in-pancreatic-stereotactic-body-radiotherapy
#2
Ivaylo B Mihaylov, Eric A Mellon, Raphael Yechieli, Lorraine Portelance
PURPOSE: Inverse planning is trial-and-error iterative process. This work introduces a fully automated inverse optimization approach, where the treatment plan is closely tailored to the unique patient anatomy. The auto-optimization is applied to pancreatic stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The automation is based on stepwise reduction of dose-volume histograms (DVHs). Five uniformly spaced points, from 1% to 70% of the organ at risk (OAR) volumes, are used...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351128/fluid-removal-with-ultrasound-guided-protocol-improves-the-efficacy-and-safety-of-dehydration-in-post-resuscitated-critically-ill-patients-a-quasi-experimental-before-and-after-study
#3
Luhao Wang, Chunfang Qiu, Xiangdong Guan, Minying Chen, Juan Chen, Xiang Si, Zhicheng Du, Yanqiu Liu, Bin Ouyang
Fluid overload is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. However, researches rarely study the precise start or end point of fluid removal and no protocol was developed to control the fluid removal process. We hypothesized that individualized fluid removal with ultrasound-guided protocol could improve the efficacy and safety of fluid removal in post-resuscitated critically ill patients. A quasi-experimental, before and after trial was conducted to identify the benefits of ultrasound-guided fluid removal...
January 18, 2018: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350771/recombinant-relaxin-protects-liver-transplants-from-ischemia-damage-via-hepatocyte-glucocorticoid-receptor-from-bench-to-bedside
#4
Shoichi Kageyama, Kojiro Nakamura, Takehiro Fujii, Bibo Ke, Rebecca A Sosa, Elaine F Reed, Nakul Datta, Ali Zarrinpar, Ronald W Busuttil, Jerzy W Kupiec-Weglinski
Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) represents a major risk factor of early graft dysfunction and acute/chronic rejection as well as a key obstacle to expanding the donor pool in orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Although glucocorticoid receptor (GR) signaling may enhance cytoprotective programs, clinical use of glucocorticoid is limited due to adverse effects, while clinical relevance of GR-facilitated cytoprotection in OLT remains unknown. We aimed to evaluate the significance of hepatic GR in clinical OLT and verify the impact of recombinant human relaxin (rhRLX), which may function as GR agonist in tissue/disease-specific manner...
January 19, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349922/association-between-breast-milk-intake-at-9-10%C3%A2-months-of-age-and-growth-and-development-among-malawian-young-children
#5
Chiza Kumwenda, Jaimie Hemsworth, John Phuka, Ulla Ashorn, Mary Arimond, Kenneth Maleta, Elizabeth L Prado, Marjorie J Haskell, Kathryn G Dewey, Per Ashorn
World Health Organization recommends exclusive breastfeeding for infants for the first 6 months of life, followed by introduction of nutritious complementary foods alongside breastfeeding. Breast milk remains a significant source of nourishment in the second half of infancy and beyond; however, it is not clear whether more breast milk is always better. The present study was designed to determine the association between amount of breast milk intake at 9-10 months of age and infant growth and development by 12-18 months of age...
January 19, 2018: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349762/advances-in-endocrine-therapy-for-postmenopausal-metastatic-breast-cancer
#6
Lisa E Flaum, William J Gradishar
A majority of breast cancers are hormone receptor (HR) positive and are responsive to various types of hormone manipulation. Endocrine therapy is the preferred first-line therapy for patients with advanced estrogen receptor (ER) positive, HER2-negative breast cancer who do not have symptomatic visceral disease. Endocrine therapy is often continued in the second- and third-line setting, with chemotherapy deferred until tumor becomes endocrine therapy refractory and/or a visceral crisis in imminent. Therapeutic options vary based on clinical presentation and include single-agent therapies such as tamoxifen, aromatase inhibitors and fulvestrant, and combination therapies options...
2018: Cancer Treatment and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349268/socioeconomic-status-indicators-and-common-mental-disorders-evidence-from-a-study-of-prenatal-depression-in-pakistan
#7
Joanna Maselko, Lisa Bates, Sonia Bhalotra, John A Gallis, Karen O'Donnell, Siham Sikander, Elizabeth L Turner
There is growing interest in the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES), poverty, and mental health in low and middle-income countries (LMIC). However, it is not clear whether a gradient approach focused on a wider SES distribution or a binary poverty approach is more salient for mental health in LMIC. Yet this distinction has implications for interventions aimed at improving population health. We contribute to the literature by examining how multiple indicators of socioeconomic status, including gradient SES and binary poverty indicators, contribute to prenatal depression symptoms in a LMIC context...
April 2018: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346260/race-risk-and-willingness-of-end-stage-renal-disease-patients-without-hepatitis-c-hcv-to-accept-an-hcv-infected-kidney-transplant
#8
Maureen McCauley, Adam Mussell, David Goldberg, Deirdre Sawinski, Rodolfo N Molina, Ricarda Tomlin, Sahil D Doshi, Peter Abt, Roy Bloom, Emily Blumberg, Sanjay Kulkarni, Gabriela Esnaola, Justine Shults, Carrie Thiessen, Peter P Reese
BACKGROUND: Despite effective antiviral treatment, hundreds of kidneys from deceased donors with hepatitis C virus (HCV) are discarded annually. Little is known about the determinants of willingness to accept HCV-infected kidneys among HCV-negative patients. METHODS: At 2 centers, 189 patients undergoing initial or reevaluation for transplant made 12 hypothetical decisions about accepting HCV-infected kidneys in which we systematically varied expected HCV cure rate, allograft quality and wait-time for an uninfected kidney...
January 18, 2018: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345594/should-stemi-patients-receive-opiate-analgesia-the-morphine-paradox
#9
Mohamed Farag, Nikolaos Spinthakis, Manivannan Srinivasan, Diana Adrienne Gorog
BACKGROUND: The very significant benefit of P2Y12 receptor inhibitor administration in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), in reducing future ischaemic events and stent thrombosis, is undisputed. Morphine analgesia is very frequently co-administered to these patients for pain relief, along with antiplatelet therapy, at the time of presentation, and prior to reperfusion with primary percutaneous coronary intervention. METHODS: Research and online content related to opiates use in STEMI was reviewed...
January 17, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345443/suv-calculation-in-breast-cancer-which-normalization-should-be-applied-when-using-18f-fdg-pet
#10
Olivier Humbert, Jean-Marc Riedinger, David Chardin, Isabelle Desmoulins, François Brunotte, Alexandre Cochet
BACKGROUND: When using 18F-FDG PET, glucose metabolism quantification is affected by various factors. We aimed to investigate the benefit of different SUV normalizations to improve the accuracy of 18F-FDG uptake to predict breast cancer aggressiveness and response to treatment. METHODS: Two hundred fifty-two women with locally advanced breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) were included. Women underwent 18F-FDG PET before and after the first course of NAC...
January 17, 2018: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345357/the-prognostic-value-of-pi3k-mutational-status-in-breast-cancer-a-meta-analysis
#11
N Sobhani, G Roviello, S P Corona, M Scaltriti, A Ianza, M Bortul, F Zanconati, D Generali
Breast cancer (BC) is the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. The availability of reliable biomarkers of response/resistance to cancer treatments would benefit patients and clinicians allowing for a better selection of BC patients most likely to respond to a specific treatment. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) enzymes are involved in numerous cellular- functions and processes. The gene encoding for PI3K catalytic subunit p110α is mutated in 20-40% of BC. We performed a meta-analysis of the current literature on randomized clinical trials, investigating the role of PIK3CA mutational status as prognostic factor and predictor of response to anti-cancer treatments...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344763/visual-awareness-negativity-is-an-early-neural-correlate-of-awareness-a-preregistered-study-with-two-gabor-sizes
#12
Rasmus Eklund, Stefan Wiens
Electrophysiological recordings are commonly used to study the neural correlates of consciousness in humans. Previous research is inconsistent as to whether awareness can be indexed with visual awareness negativity (VAN) at about 200 ms or if it occurs later. The present study was preregistered with two main aims: First, to provide independent evidence for or against the presence of VAN, and second, to study whether stimulus size may account for the inconsistent findings. Subjects were shown low-contrast Gaussian filtered gratings (Gabor patches) in the four visual quadrants...
January 18, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344579/prognostic-significance-of-cytogenetic-heterogeneity-in-patients-with-newly-diagnosed-multiple-myeloma
#13
Maximilian Merz, Anna Jauch, Thomas Hielscher, Tilmann Bochtler, Stefan Olaf Schönland, Anja Seckinger, Dirk Hose, Uta Bertsch, Kai Neben, Marc Steffen Raab, Jens Hillengass, Hans Salwender, Igor Wolfgang Blau, Hans-Walter Lindemann, Ingo G H Schmidt-Wolf, Christof Scheid, Mathias Haenel, Katja C Weisel, Hartmut Goldschmidt
We investigated subclonal cytogenetic aberrations (CA) detected by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (iFISH) in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM) enrolled in the Haemato Oncology Foundation for Adults in the Netherlands (HOVON)-65/German-Speaking MM Group (GMMG)-HD4 phase 3 trial. Patients were either treated with 3 cycles of vincristine, Adriamycin, and dexamethasone or bortezomib, Adriamycin, and dexamethasone and then thalidomide or bortezomib maintenance after tandem autologous transplantation...
January 9, 2018: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344106/overall-survival-and-progression-free-survival-with-endocrine-therapy-for-hormone-receptor-positive-her2-negative-advanced-breast-cancer-review
#14
REVIEW
Tomás Reinert, Carlos H Barrios
We reviewed randomized phase II/III trials comparing first- or second-line endocrine therapy as monotherapy or in combination with targeted therapies for treatment of postmenopausal patients with hormone receptor-positive advanced breast cancer. First-line was defined as treatment for endocrine therapy-naïve advanced breast cancer or advanced disease treated with endocrine therapy in the adjuvant/neoadjuvant setting. Second-line was defined as endocrine therapy for advanced breast cancer following disease progression on endocrine therapy for advanced disease...
November 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343930/yoga-based-postoperative-cardiac-rehabilitation-program-for-improving-quality-of-life-and-stress-levels-fifth-year-follow-up-through-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
Eraballi Amaravathi, Nagendra Hongasandra Ramarao, Nagarathna Raghuram, Balaram Pradhan
Objectives: This study was aimed to assess the efficacy of yoga-based lifestyle program (YLSP) in improving quality of life (QOL) and stress levels in patients after 5 years of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). Methodology: Three hundred patients posted for elective CABG in Narayana Hrudayalaya Super Speciality Hospital, Bengaluru, were randomized into two groups: YLSP and conventional lifestyle program (CLSP), and follow-up was done for 5 years. Intervention: In YLSP group, all practices of integrative approach of yoga therapy such as yama, niyama, asana, pranayama, and meditation were used as an add-on to conventional cardiac rehabilitation...
January 2018: International Journal of Yoga
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343521/t-type-ca2-channels-t-for-targetable
#16
REVIEW
Marta C Sallán, Anna Visa, Soni Shaikh, Mireia Nàger, Judit Herreros, Carles Cantí
In the past decade, T-type Ca2+ channels (TTCC) have been unveiled as key regulators of cancer cell biology and thus have been proposed as chemotherapeutic targets. Indeed, in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that TTCC pharmacologic blockers have a negative impact on the viability of cancer cells and reduce tumor size, respectively. Consequently mibefradil, a TTCC blocker approved in 1997 as an antihypertensive agent but withdrawn in 1998 because of drug-drug interactions, was granted 10 years later the orphan drug status by the FDA to investigate its efficacy against brain, ovary, and pancreatic cancer...
January 17, 2018: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343462/a-tailored-web-based-advice-tool-for-skiers-and-snowboarders-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#17
Ellen Kemler, Vincent Gouttebarge
BACKGROUND: Being active in sports has many positive health effects. The direct effects of engaging in regular physical activity are particularly apparent in the prevention of several chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, hypertension, obesity, depression, and osteoporosis. Besides the beneficial health effects of being active, sports participation is unfortunately also associated with a risk of injuries. In the case of many sports injuries (eg, winter sports) preventive measures are not compulsory, which means that a behavioral change in sports participants is necessary to increase the use of effective measures, and subsequently prevent or reduce injuries in sports...
January 17, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343283/the-classroom-communication-resource-ccr-intervention-to-change-peer-s-attitudes-towards-children-who-stutter-cws-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#18
Rizwana Mallick, Harsha Kathard, Lehana Thabane, Mershen Pillay
BACKGROUND: Children who stutter (CWS) are at a high-risk of being teased and bullied in primary school because of negative peer attitudes and perceptions towards stuttering. There is little evidence to determine if classroom-based interventions are effective in changing peer attitudes towards stuttering. The primary objective is to determine the effect of the Classroom Communication Resource (CCR) intervention versus usual practice, measured using the Stuttering Resource Outcomes Measure (SROM) 6-months post-intervention among grade 7 students...
January 17, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343275/early-babesia-canis-transmission-in-dogs-within-24%C3%A2-h-and-8%C3%A2-h-of-infestation-with-infected-pre-activated-male-dermacentor-reticulatus-ticks
#19
Marie Varloud, Julian Liebenberg, Josephus Fourie
BACKGROUND: This study was designed to assess the ability of fed male Dermacentor reticulatus ticks to transmit Babesia canis to dogs after being detached from previous canine or ovine hosts. METHODS: The study was an exploratory, parallel group design conducted in two trials. All the animals were sero-negative for babesiosis prior to enrolment. In a first trial, donor dogs and donor sheep were infested with Babesia canis infected male and uninfected female ticks for 72 h...
January 17, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343230/the-sybil-aa-real-time-fmri-neurofeedback-study-protocol-of-a-single-blind-randomized-controlled-trial-in-alcohol-use-disorder
#20
Martin Fungisai Gerchen, Martina Kirsch, Nathalie Bahs, Patrick Halli, Sarah Gerhardt, Axel Schäfer, Wolfgang H Sommer, Falk Kiefer, Peter Kirsch
BACKGROUND: Alcohol Use Disorder is a highly prevalent mental disorder which puts a severe burden on individuals, families, and society. The treatment of Alcohol Use Disorder is challenging and novel and innovative treatment approaches are needed to expand treatment options. A promising neuroscience-based intervention method that allows targeting cortical as well as subcortical brain processes is real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging neurofeedback. However, the efficacy of this technique as an add-on treatment of Alcohol Use Disorder in a clinical setting is hitherto unclear and will be assessed in the Systems Biology of Alcohol Addiction (SyBil-AA) neurofeedback study...
January 17, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
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