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Dry eye

Servet Kilic, Kadri Kulualp
This study compared the endodontic absorbent paper point test (EAPTT) and the phenol red thread test (PRTT) for the assessment of tear production rate in a mouse model of dry eye. Fourteen BALB/c breed female mice were allocated into experimental and control groups of equal number. For 6 wk, the experimental group was kept in dry-eye cabinets, whereas the control group was kept in normal cages under ambient conditions. In both groups, the tear production rate was measured by using EAPTT and PRTT before the study, at study baseline, and at weeks 2, 4, and 6...
2016: Comparative Medicine
Hui Zhao, Jing-Yao Chen, Yu-Qian Wang, Zhi-Rong Lin, Shen Wang
BACKGROUND: Dry eye patients suffer from all kinds of symptoms. Sometimes, the clinical signs evaluation does not disclose any obvious difference in routine examination; in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) is a powerful tool for ocular surface disease. This study aimed to clarify meibomian gland (MG) alterations in dry eye patients with different symptoms and to compare the findings using IVCM. METHODS: A total of sixty patients were recruited, all subjected to Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) and Salisbury Eye Evaluation Questionnaire (SEEQ), and questionnaires for the assessment of dry eye symptoms before clinical sign examinations were given to the patients...
2016: Chinese Medical Journal
Emi Nakajima, Ryan D Walkup, Thomas R Shearer, Mitsuyoshi Azuma
PURPOSE: Corneal sensation, cell proliferation, and wound healing all depend on adequate corneal innervation. Disruption of corneal innervation can lead to dry eye and delayed wound healing. Our studies in rats and rabbits show that the substituted fluorobenzamide drug FK962 accelerates the extension of neuronal processes and recovery of corneal sensitivity. The purpose of the present study was 1) to determine whether FK962 induces sprouting and elongation of neurites in cultured monkey trigeminal ganglion cells, and 2) to investigate the involvement of the neurotrophic peptide GDNF in FK962-induced neurite elongation...
October 24, 2016: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
Emna Farhat, Mourad Zouari, Ines Ben Abdelaziz, Cyrine Drissi, Rahma Beyrouti, Mohamed Ben Hammouda, Fayçal Hentati
BACKGROUND: Cerebellar ataxia represents a rare and severe complication of Sjӧgren syndrome (SS), especially with a progressive onset and cerebellar atrophy on imaging. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a 30-year-old woman, with a past history of dry eyes and mouth, who presented a severe cerebellar ataxia worsening over 4 years associated with tremor of the limbs and the head. Brain MRI showed bilateral hyperintensities on T2 and FLAIR sequences, affecting periventricular white matter, with marked cerebellar atrophy...
2016: Cerebellum & Ataxias
Daull Philippe, Feraille Laurence, Barabino Stefano, Cimbolini Nicolas, Antonelli Sophie, Mauro Virgine, Garrigue Jean-Sébastien
Dry eye disease (DED) is a complex, multifactorial pathology characterized by corneal epithelium lesions and inflammation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of a cationic emulsion of cyclosporine A (CsA) in a mouse model that mimics severe dry eye. Eight to 12-week-old female C57BL/6N mice with tail patches of scopolamine were housed in controlled environment chambers to induce dry eye. At day three, following dry eye confirmation by corneal fluorescein staining (CFS, score 0-15) and phenol red thread (PRT) lacrimation test, the mice (n = 10/gp) were either treated 3 times a day in both eyes with drug-free cationic emulsion, a 0...
October 21, 2016: Experimental Eye Research
Michele Lanza, Stefania Iaccarino, Gilda Varricchi, Tito D'Errico, Ugo Antonello Gironi Carnevale, Mario Bifani
PURPOSE: To evaluate light backscattering (LB) in corneal layers in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome dry eye (SSDE) utilizing in vivo corneal confocal microscopy (IVCM) and to determine the eventual association with the lacrimal functional test values. METHODS: A complete ophthalmic evaluation, Schirmer test with and without stimulation, break-up time (BUT) and IVCM were performed on 55 patients affected by SSDE and in an age- and sex-matched cohort of healthy participants (HP)...
October 24, 2016: Acta Ophthalmologica
Yunes Panahi, Danial Roshandel, Mohammad Mehdi Sadoughi, Mostafa Ghanei, Amirhossein Sahebkar
Sulfur mustard (SM; mustard gas) is a classic chemical warfare agent that has been used in several wars and is still a potential threat especially in the Middle-East region. Victims experience acute symptoms in air-exposed organs including skin, respiratory tract and the eyes. Survivors of the acute stage might develop chronic or delayed-onset complications in the exposed organs. The exact mechanism(s) of SM-induced tissue damage is still unknown, however DNA alkylation and oxidative damage are the most relevant mechanisms...
October 21, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Ling Wang, Xi Chen, Jingfang Hao, Lu Yang
Essential fatty acids had been applied in the treatment of dry eye syndrome (DES), but the effects of different combinations of fatty acids have not been investigated. 360 long-term contact lens wearers were included in this double-blinded study. Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids were combined in different ratios and supplied to the participants that were randomly divided into six groups, and the effects of different essential fatty acids mixture on DES with or without topical cyclosporine were investigated. More than half of long-term contact lens wearers suffered from DES, which were found to be attenuated by oral supplement of properly balanced O3FA and O6FA fatty acid...
October 20, 2016: Inflammopharmacology
Nada H Aldahlawi, Sally Hayes, David P S O'Brart, Naomi D O'Brart, Keith M Meek
The aim of this study was to investigate corneal enzymatic resistance following epithelium off and on riboflavin/UVA cross-linking (CXL). One hundred and fourteen porcine eyes were divided into four non-irradiated control groups and seven CXL groups. The latter comprised; (i) epithelium-off, 0.1% iso-osmolar riboflavin, 9 mW UVA irradiation for 10 min, (ii) disrupted epithelium, 0.1% hypo-osmolar riboflavin, 9 mW UVA for 10 min, (iii) epithelium-on, 0.25% hypo-osmolar riboflavin with 0.01% benzylalkonium chloride (BACS), 9 mW UVA for 10 min, (iv) epithelium-on, 5 min iontophoresis at 0...
October 17, 2016: Experimental Eye Research
Hyo Myung Kim, Youngsub Eom, Jong Suk Song
Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) is a leading cause of dry eye disease (DED). Meibomian gland dysfunction is divided into two major categories based on meibomian gland secretion: low delivery and high delivery. The low-delivery states are further classified as either hyposecretory or obstructive subtype, and the high-delivery state is termed "hypersecretory MGD." Two parameters are commonly used to evaluate meibomian gland function: lipid layer thickness and meibum quality and expressibility. To evaluate the morphology of meibomian glands, meibography is used to detect meibomian gland dropout...
October 13, 2016: Eye & Contact Lens
Michel Guillon, Kathy Dumbleton, Panagiotis Theodoratos, Trisha Patel, Tom Karkkainen, Kurt Moody
INTRODUCTION: Contact lens wearers of Asian descent may be predisposed to experience microtrauma of the ocular surface as a result a thinner post-lens tear film and higher eyelid tension, and these effects would be anticipated to be most marked in an older population. The objective of this study was to quantify the mechanical effects of the study contact lenses on the ocular surface in a population of presbyopic contact lens wearers of Asian descent. METHODS: Twenty established presbyopic contact lens wearers (hydrogel n=5, none habitual wearers of etafilcon A lenses; silicone hydrogel n=15) of Asian descent were refitted with etafilcon A multifocal daily disposable contact lenses (1-DAY ACUVUE MOIST MULTIFOCAL) for a period of 1 month of daily lens wear...
October 13, 2016: Eye & Contact Lens
Marcella Nebbioso, Valeria Fameli, Magda Gharbiya, Marta Sacchetti, Anna Maria Zicari, Alessandro Lambiase
The dry eye disease (DED) is a chronic multifactorial disorder of the tears that also involves the ocular surface, the lacrimal glands, and meibomian dysfunction. Furthermore, DED is often associated with Sjögren's syndrome (SS) and other autoimmune disorders. Sometimes, this chronic or subclinical condition is difficult to diagnose and treat, due to its heterogeneity. Areas covered: A literature search of relevant publications about treatment of DED was performed. All relevant articles published between 2011 and 2016 were identified through a computerized search for review and clinical trials using Pub Med database...
October 18, 2016: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
Kang Won Lee, Jung Yong Kim, Hee Seung Chin, Kyoung Yul Seo, Tae-Im Kim, Ji Won Jung
PURPOSE: We aimed to compare the tear meniscus measurements using strip meniscometry (SM) and Keratograph5M (K5M) between 3 subtypes of dry eye disease patient groups, classified according to the presence of meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD), and normal subjects. METHODS: We enrolled 145 eyes from 145 subjects and measured the tear meniscus using SM and K5M, tear film breakup time, ocular surface staining, and ocular surface disease index; the Schirmer test; and examined lid margins and meibomian glands...
October 5, 2016: Cornea
Beata Bergler-Czop, Monika Bilewicz-Stebel, Anna Stańkowska, Teresa Bilewicz-Wyrozumska
Retinoids are compounds chemically related to vitamin A, which are frequently used in dermatological practice (1). They are characterized by numerous mechanisms of action leading to normalization of keratinocyte proliferation and maturation. They have anti-seborrhoeic, immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects (1, 2). A number of side effects to retinoid treatment have been recorded; one group of such side effects relates to eyes and vision. Dry eye syndrome and blepharoconjunctivitis are the most common side effects, appearing in 20-50 % of patients treated with retinoids...
December 1, 2016: Acta Pharmaceutica
Y Chen, Q Le, J Hong, L Gong, J Xu
PurposeTo explore the morphological characteristics of toxic keratopathy (TK), which clinically presented as superficial punctate keratopathy (SPK), with the application of in vivo laser-scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), and evaluate its potential in the early diagnosis of TK.Patients and methodsThis was a cross-sectional study involving 16 patients with TK and 16 patients with dry eye (DE), demonstrating SPK under slit-lamp observation, and 10 normal eyes were enrolled in the study. All participants underwent history interviews, fluorescein staining, tear film break-up time (BUT) tests, Schirmer tests, and in vivo LSCM...
October 14, 2016: Eye
Seunghee Cha, Hong-Kyun Kim, Hong-Seop Kho, Young Seok Park
Pilocarpine hydrochloride is commonly prescribed to patients with dry mouth and eye using a frequent dosing schedule. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sustained effects of this highly soluble drug carried by a gelatin hydrogel, which was administered by an implant mediated drug delivery system (IMDDS). The IMDDS was installed in a total of 24 rabbits. After complete healing, pilocarpine hydrochloride was administered as 30 mg per se (Group 1; n=8), 30 mg in gelatin hydrogel (Group 2; n=8), and 60 mg in gelatin hydrogel (Group 3; n=8)...
October 13, 2016: Current Drug Delivery
Masahiko Ayaki, Motoko Kawashima, Kazuno Negishi, Taishiro Kishimoto, Masaru Mimura, Kazuo Tsubota
The aim of the present study was to evaluate sleep and mood disorders in women aged 30-69 with dry eye disease (DED). All subjects underwent corneal examinations, with 890 completing a questionnaire regarding symptoms of DED and 213 completing both the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) questionnaires. Subjects were then divided into three groups based on age (younger [30-45 years], perimenopausal [46-55 years], and older [56-69 years]), and comparisons were made among groups in subjects with and without DED...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
Jan M Keppel Hesselink, Flavia Chiosi, Ciro Costagliola
Resolvins are a novel class of lipid-derived endogenous molecules (autacoids) with potent immunomodulating properties, which regulate the resolution phase of an active immune response. These modulating factors are locally produced, influencing the function of cells and/or tissues, which are produced on demand and subsequently metabolized in the same cells and/or tissues. This review is focused on certain lipid autacoids with putative relevance for ophthalmology in general and for dry eye more specifically. We also briefly investigate the concept of aliamides and the role of palmitoylethanolamide in ophthalmology, and analyze in more detail the putative role and the preclinical and clinical development of resolvins as emerging treatments for dry eye and related disorders, with a focus on one of the lead resolvin derivatives - RX-10045...
2016: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Daniel Sarezky, Aaishah R Raquib, Joshua L Dunaief, Benjamin J Kim
PURPOSE: Alpha lipoic acid (ALA) is an antioxidant and iron-chelating supplement that has potential benefits for geographic atrophy in dry age-related macular degeneration as well as other eye diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine the tolerability of ALA in the elderly population. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifteen subjects, age ≥65 years, took sequential ALA doses of 600, 800, and 1,200 mg. Each dose was taken once daily with a meal for 5 days. After each dose was taken by the subjects for 5 days, the subjects were contacted by phone, a review of systems was performed, and they were asked if they thought they could tolerate taking that dose of ALA for an extended period of time...
2016: Clinical Ophthalmology
Kazuo Tsubota, Norihiko Yokoi, Jun Shimazaki, Hitoshi Watanabe, Murat Dogru, Masakazu Yamada, Shigeru Kinoshita, Hyo-Myung Kim, Hung-Won Tchah, Joon Young Hyon, Kyung-Chul Yoon, Kyoung Yul Seo, Xuguang Sun, Wei Chen, Lingyi Liang, Li Mingwu, Zuguo Liu
For the last 20 years, a great amount of evidence has accumulated through epidemiological studies that most of the dry eye disease encountered in daily life, especially in video display terminal (VDT) workers, involves short tear film breakup time (TFBUT) type dry eye, a category characterized by severe symptoms but minimal clinical signs. An unstable tear film also affects the visual function, possibly due to the increase of higher order aberrations. Based on the change in the understanding of the types, symptoms, and signs of dry eye disease, the Asia Dry Eye Society agreed to the following definition of dry eye: "Dry eye is a multifactorial disease characterized by unstable tear film causing a variety of symptoms and/or visual impairment, potentially accompanied by ocular surface damage...
October 7, 2016: Ocular Surface
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