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Baseball and hip and injury

Zachary Y Kerr, Robert C Lynall, Karen G Roos, Sara L Dalton, Aristarque Djoko, Thomas P Dompier
CONTEXT: Research on non-time-loss (NTL) injuries, which result in less than 24 hours of restriction from participation, is limited. OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiology of NTL injuries among collegiate and high school student-athletes. DESIGN: Descriptive epidemiology study. SETTING: Aggregate injury and exposure data collected from a convenience sample of National College Athletic Association varsity teams and 147 high schools in 26 states...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Athletic Training
Stacey M Kung, Sarah P Shultz, Andreas Kontaxis, Andrew P Kraszewski, Mandi W Gibbons, Sherry I Backus, Philip W Fink, Stephen Fealy, Howard J Hillstrom
BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated detailed 3-dimensional lower extremity kinematics during baseball pitching in adolescent athletes during extended play. Changes in these parameters may affect performance outcomes. PURPOSE: To investigate whether adolescent baseball pitchers experience changes in lower extremity kinematics and event timing during a simulated game-length pitching bout. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive laboratory study. METHODS: Twelve male adolescent pitchers (aged 14-16 years) threw 6 sets of 15 fastball pitches from an artificial pitching mound to a target at regulation distance...
April 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Scott W Cheatham, Kathryn Kumagai Shimamura, Morey J Kolber
The purpose of this study was to measure passive hip internal (IR) and external rotation (ER) range of motion (ROM) in collegiate baseball pitchers and compare to published youth and professional values. Measures were taken on the bilateral hips of 29 participants (mean age 20.0±1.4, range 18-22 years). Results identified no significant differences between the stance and stride hip in collegiate right handed pitchers for IR (p= 0.22, ES 0.23) and ER (p=.08, ES= 0.25). There was no significant difference in left handed pitchers for IR (p= 0...
September 2016: Journal of the Canadian Chiropractic Association
Jun Sakata, Emi Nakamura, Makoto Suzukawa, Atsushi Akaike, Kuniaki Shimizu
BACKGROUND: The physical risk factors for a medial elbow injury in junior baseball players are unknown. PURPOSE: To identify the risk factors for an initial medial elbow injury in junior baseball players. STUDY DESIGN: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. METHODS: Junior baseball players (aged 6-12 years) without a history of elbow pain underwent a clinical assessment, ultrasonography, and physical function measurements before the baseball season started...
January 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Struan H Coleman, Stephanie W Mayer, Jared J Tyson, Keshia M Pollack, Frank C Curriero
Injuries of the hip and groin among professional baseball players can result in a significant number of disabled list days. The epidemiology of these injuries has not been delineated. The purpose of this study is to describe the incidence, mechanism, type, and rehabilitation course of hip and groin injuries among Major League Baseball (MLB) and Minor League Baseball (MiLB) players. The MLB injury database for hip and groin injuries from 2011-2014 was analyzed. Occurrence of injuries was assessed based on level of play, field location, activity during which the injury occurred, mechanism of injury, and days missed...
March 2016: American Journal of Orthopedics
Christopher L Camp, Matthew S Conti, Terrance Sgroi, Frank P Cammisa, Joshua S Dines
In recent years, increased attention has been paid to injuries occurring in Major League Baseball (MLB) players. Although most of the current orthopedic literature regarding baseball injuries pertains to the shoulder and elbow, lumbar spine injuries are another common reason for time out of play. Back and core injuries may represent as many as 12% of all injuries that result in time out of play from MLB. This high rate of injury is likely related to the critical role that the spine plays in every major baseball-related movement...
March 2016: American Journal of Orthopedics
Brandon J Erickson, Terrance Sgori, Peter N Chalmers, Patrick Vignona, Matthew Lesniak, Charles A Bush-Joseph, Nikhil N Verma, Anthony A Romeo
PURPOSE: To determine if shoulder and elbow kinematics, pitching velocity and accuracy, and pain change during a simulated baseball game in adolescent pitchers. METHODS: Adolescent male pitchers aged 13 to 16 years were included. Pitchers were excluded if they had undergone previous shoulder or elbow surgery, currently had a known shoulder or elbow injury, or were unable to complete the simulated game for any reason. Shoulder range of motion was assessed before and after the game...
May 2016: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
Xinning Li, Richard Ma, Hanbing Zhou, Matthew Thompson, Courtney Dawson, Joseph Nguyen, Struan Coleman
Normal hip range of motion (ROM) is essential in running and transfer of energy from lower to upper extremities during overhead throwing. Dysfunctional hip ROM may alter lower extremity kinematics and predispose athletes to hip and groin injuries. The purpose of this study is characterize hip internal/external ROM (Arc) and its effect on the risk of hip, hamstring, and groin injuries in professional baseball players. Bilateral hip internal and external ROM was measured on all baseball players (N=201) in one professional organization (major and minor league) during spring training...
December 28, 2015: Orthopedic Reviews
W Jeffrey Grantham, Ian R Byram, Molly C Meadows, Christopher S Ahmad
BACKGROUND: Many factors are believed to contribute to throwing injuries in baseball pitchers, in particular overuse and poor throwing mechanics. The impact of fatigue on pitching biomechanics in live-game situations is not well understood. HYPOTHESIS: Pitchers will demonstrate significant deviation in their pitching motions with increasing levels of fatigue. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive laboratory study. METHODS: Eleven National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I collegiate baseball pitchers were filmed in multiple live-game situations throughout a single season using 2 orthogonal high-speed cameras at 120 Hz...
June 2014: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
Manabu Saito, Tomonori Kenmoku, Kentaro Kameyama, Ryo Murata, Takashi Yusa, Nobuyasu Ochiai, Takehiro Kijima, Naonobu Takahira, Kensuke Fukushima, Noriyuki Ishige, Masashi Takaso
BACKGROUND: Repetitive tensile stresses from valgus torque can induce elbow injury in adolescent baseball players. Insufficient hip range of motion (ROM) can change throwing mechanics, reducing the transfer of energy from the lower to the upper extremities. Thus, hip ROM limitations may force the upper extremities to bear the burden of a strong throw. Improper pitching mechanics caused by insufficient hip ROM are thought to increase valgus torque on the elbow when throwing, increasing the risk of elbow injury...
May 2014: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
Patrick C McCulloch, Jayesh K Patel, Prem N Ramkumar, Philip C Noble, David M Lintner
BACKGROUND: There is a renewed interest in examining the association between hip range of motion and injury in athletes, and the data on baseball players are conflicting. Understanding whether asymmetrical hip rotation is a normal adaptation or a risk factor for injury will help therapists, trainers, and physicians develop rehabilitation programs to improve kinetic energy transfer and prevent injury. As our knowledge of hip pathology among baseball pitchers improves, establishing baselines for hip motion is critical in the further assessment of injury...
February 2014: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
Giorgio Zeppieri, Trevor A Lentz, Michael W Moser, Kevin W Farmer
BACKGROUND: Adaptations in hip range of motion (ROM) and strength have been shown to influence performance and injury risk in overhead athletes. These adaptations in hip ROM and strength have not been examined longitudinally, and little is known regarding whether these changes are a result of pitching workload. HYPOTHESIS/PURPOSE: The authors hypothesized that hip rotation ROM and strength would change over the course of a season, and would be associated with pitching workload (number of pitches over the course of a season)...
August 2015: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
Taylor Holt, Gretchen D Oliver
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between dynamic hip rotational range of motion and upper extremity kinematics during baseball pitching. Thirty-one youth baseball pitchers (10.87 ± 0.92 years; 150.03 ± 5.48 cm; 44.83 ± 8.04 kg) participated. A strong correlation was found between stance hip rotation and scapular upward rotation at maximum shoulder external rotation (r = 0.531, P = 0.002) and at ball release (r = 0.536, P = 0.002). No statistically significant correlations were found between dynamic hip rotational range of motion and passive hip range of motion...
2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
J W Thomas Byrd, Kay S Jones
PURPOSE: To report the results of hip arthroscopy among high-level baseball players as recorded by outcome scores and return to baseball. METHODS: All patients undergoing hip arthroscopy were prospectively assessed with the modified Harris Hip Score. On review of all procedures performed over a 12-year period, 44 hips were identified among 41 intercollegiate or professional baseball players who had achieved 2-year follow-up. RESULTS: Among the 41 players, follow-up averaged 45 months (range, 24 to 120 months), with a mean age of 23 years (range, 18 to 34 years)...
August 2015: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
Terrance Sgroi, Peter N Chalmers, Andrew J Riff, Matthew Lesniak, Eli T Sayegh, Markus A Wimmer, Nikhil N Verma, Brian J Cole, Anthony A Romeo
BACKGROUND: Shoulder and elbow injuries are a common cause of pain, dysfunction, and inability to play in overhead throwers. Pitch velocity plays an integral part in the etiology of these injuries; however, the demographic and biomechanical correlates with throwing velocity remain poorly understood. We hypothesized that pitchers with higher velocity would have shared demographic and kinematic characteristics. METHODS: Normal preseason youth and adolescent pitchers underwent dual-orthogonal high-speed video analysis while pitch velocity was collected with a radar gun...
September 2015: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
Kathryn Kumagai Shimamura, Scott Cheatham, Wendy Chung, Daniel Farwell, Francisco De la Cruz, Jennifer Goetz, Kaleigh Lindblom, Darcy Powers
BACKGROUND: Pitchers may be at greater risk of injury in comparison to other overhead throwing athletes due to the repetition of the pitching motion. It has been reported that approximately 30% of all baseball injuries occur in the lower body. This may be related to limited hip mobility, which can compromise pitching biomechanics while placing excessive stress on the trunk and upper quarter. Hip motion and strength measurements have been reported in professional baseball pitchers but have not been reported in collegiate pitchers...
February 2015: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
Gretchen Dawn Oliver, Wendi Weimar
Lower to upper extremity sequencing of energy and force is linked by virtue of the scapula. It was the purpose of this study to examine the relationship between passive hip rotational range of motion and scapular kinematics during baseball pitching. Nineteen youth baseball players (11.3 ± 0.6 years; 151.8 ± 8.8 cm; 45.9 ± 10.9 kg) with no history of injury participated. Bilateral hip passive rotational range of motion was measured pre and post pitching a simulated game. Scapular kinematics at the position of shoulder maximum external rotation during the pitching cycle were recorded in the first and last innings of the simulated game...
2015: Journal of Sports Sciences
Gretchen D Oliver, Wendi H Weimar
Oliver, GD and Weimar, WH. Hip and shoulder range of motion in youth baseball pitchers. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2823-2827, 2016-Lack of range of motion (ROM) has long been suspected as contributing to injury in baseball pitchers. However, all previous ROM research has focused on collegiate and professional pitchers. It was thus the purpose of this study to measure and evaluate bilateral hip and throwing shoulder rotational passive range of motion (PROM) in youth baseball pitchers. Twenty-six youth baseball pitchers (11...
October 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Michael Beckett, Michael Hannon, Christopher Ropiak, Christopher Gerona, Karen Mohr, Orr Limpisvasti
BACKGROUND: Proper scapulothoracic and hip mechanics are essential aspects of the throwing kinetic chain. Little is known regarding these entities in preadolescent and adolescent baseball players. HYPOTHESIS: Scapular malposition and dyskinesis as well as hip dysfunction are highly prevalent in preadolescent and adolescent baseball players and may be identified by simple clinical testing. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive laboratory study. METHODS: A total of 112 baseball players aged 7 to 18 years were recruited from local Little Leagues, traveling teams, and high schools...
October 2014: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Stuart D Kinsella, Stephen J Thomas, G Russell Huffman, John D Kelly
Throwers, or athletes who engage in repetitive overhead motions, are a unique subset of athletes that experience distinct shoulder injuries. Athletes engaged in baseball comprise the majority of patients seeking orthopedic care for throwing related injuries. Injuries specific to throwers most commonly involve the labrum and the undersurface of the rotator cuff. In addition, tissue changes in both the anterior and posterior glenohumeral capsule are common with repetitive overhead motions. These capsular changes alter...
July 2014: Orthopedic Clinics of North America
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