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Baseball and hip

Zachary Y Kerr, Robert C Lynall, Karen G Roos, Sara L Dalton, Aristarque Djoko, Thomas P Dompier
CONTEXT: Research on non-time-loss (NTL) injuries, which result in less than 24 hours of restriction from participation, is limited. OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiology of NTL injuries among collegiate and high school student-athletes. DESIGN: Descriptive epidemiology study. SETTING: Aggregate injury and exposure data collected from a convenience sample of National College Athletic Association varsity teams and 147 high schools in 26 states...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Athletic Training
Stacey M Kung, Sarah P Shultz, Andreas Kontaxis, Andrew P Kraszewski, Mandi W Gibbons, Sherry I Backus, Philip W Fink, Stephen Fealy, Howard J Hillstrom
BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated detailed 3-dimensional lower extremity kinematics during baseball pitching in adolescent athletes during extended play. Changes in these parameters may affect performance outcomes. PURPOSE: To investigate whether adolescent baseball pitchers experience changes in lower extremity kinematics and event timing during a simulated game-length pitching bout. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive laboratory study. METHODS: Twelve male adolescent pitchers (aged 14-16 years) threw 6 sets of 15 fastball pitches from an artificial pitching mound to a target at regulation distance...
April 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Scott W Cheatham, Kathryn Kumagai Shimamura, Morey J Kolber
The purpose of this study was to measure passive hip internal (IR) and external rotation (ER) range of motion (ROM) in collegiate baseball pitchers and compare to published youth and professional values. Measures were taken on the bilateral hips of 29 participants (mean age 20.0±1.4, range 18-22 years). Results identified no significant differences between the stance and stride hip in collegiate right handed pitchers for IR (p= 0.22, ES 0.23) and ER (p=.08, ES= 0.25). There was no significant difference in left handed pitchers for IR (p= 0...
September 2016: Journal of the Canadian Chiropractic Association
Jun Sakata, Emi Nakamura, Makoto Suzukawa, Atsushi Akaike, Kuniaki Shimizu
BACKGROUND: The physical risk factors for a medial elbow injury in junior baseball players are unknown. PURPOSE: To identify the risk factors for an initial medial elbow injury in junior baseball players. STUDY DESIGN: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. METHODS: Junior baseball players (aged 6-12 years) without a history of elbow pain underwent a clinical assessment, ultrasonography, and physical function measurements before the baseball season started...
January 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Ryan M Degen, Kara G Fields, C Sally Wentzel, Bethanne Bartscherer, Anil S Ranawat, Struan H Coleman, Bryan T Kelly
OBJECTIVE: Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) has been increasingly recognized in cutting sports including soccer, hockey and football. More recently, the prevalence among overhead athletes has also been recognized. The purpose of this study was to review impingement patterns, return-to-play rates and clinical outcome following arthroscopic treatment of FAI among high-level baseball players. METHODS: Between 2010 and 2014, 70 competitive baseball players (86 hips; age 22...
November 2016: Physician and Sportsmedicine
Woo-Yong Lee, Chan Kang, Deuk-Soo Hwang, Je-Hyung Jeon, Long Zheng
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of symptomatic femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) in athletic patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From July 2003 to May 2013, 388 patients (422 hips) who underwent arthroscopic surgery for FAI were evaluated demographic characteristics. The patients' age, gender, diagnosis, and type of sports were analyzed using medical records and radiography. RESULTS: Among 422 hips in 388 patients, 156 hips were involved with sports...
March 2016: Hip & Pelvis
Kensuke Fukushima, Naonobu Takahira, Sousuke Imai, Tetsuya Yamazaki, Tomonori Kenmoku, Katsufumi Uchiyama, Masashi Takaso
BACKGROUND: Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is a known patho-mechanism that causes hip pain and osteoarthritis (OA) and is considered uncommon in Japan, while secondary OA due to hip dysplasia is considered common. However, no studies have specifically targeted athletes in Japan and/or Asia. This study aimed to determine FAI prevalence using radiological findings among baseball players playing on a professional, Japanese team. METHODS: We retrospectively assessed 63 plain anteroposterior (AP) hip radiographs (126 hips from 47 [74...
November 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Science: Official Journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association
Kelsey J Picha, Josie L Harding, Kellie C Huxel Bliven
CONTEXT: The repetitive demands of throwing affect glenohumeral (GH) range of motion (ROM) and strength. Less is known about hip alterations in skeletally immature athletes. OBJECTIVE: To compare GH and hip ROM and strength between age, position, and side of youth baseball athletes. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Multicenter testing. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: Seventy-two healthy baseball athletes...
June 2, 2016: Journal of Athletic Training
Struan H Coleman, Stephanie W Mayer, Jared J Tyson, Keshia M Pollack, Frank C Curriero
Injuries of the hip and groin among professional baseball players can result in a significant number of disabled list days. The epidemiology of these injuries has not been delineated. The purpose of this study is to describe the incidence, mechanism, type, and rehabilitation course of hip and groin injuries among Major League Baseball (MLB) and Minor League Baseball (MiLB) players. The MLB injury database for hip and groin injuries from 2011-2014 was analyzed. Occurrence of injuries was assessed based on level of play, field location, activity during which the injury occurred, mechanism of injury, and days missed...
March 2016: American Journal of Orthopedics
Christopher L Camp, Matthew S Conti, Terrance Sgroi, Frank P Cammisa, Joshua S Dines
In recent years, increased attention has been paid to injuries occurring in Major League Baseball (MLB) players. Although most of the current orthopedic literature regarding baseball injuries pertains to the shoulder and elbow, lumbar spine injuries are another common reason for time out of play. Back and core injuries may represent as many as 12% of all injuries that result in time out of play from MLB. This high rate of injury is likely related to the critical role that the spine plays in every major baseball-related movement...
March 2016: American Journal of Orthopedics
Eileen A Crawford, David Whiteside, Jessica M Deneweth, James R Ross, Asheesh Bedi, Grant C Goulet
PURPOSE: To compare passive and real-time active hip range of motion (ROM) in asymptomatic collegiate pitchers, to investigate whether differences in hip morphology and ROM exist between lead and trail hips, and to relate active hip ROM during the pitch to hip morphology and femoroacetabular impingement. METHODS: Eleven collegiate baseball pitchers participated in kinematic testing that involved throwing 4 fastball pitches while wearing a full-body inertial-based motion-capture system...
May 2016: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
Brandon J Erickson, Terrance Sgori, Peter N Chalmers, Patrick Vignona, Matthew Lesniak, Charles A Bush-Joseph, Nikhil N Verma, Anthony A Romeo
PURPOSE: To determine if shoulder and elbow kinematics, pitching velocity and accuracy, and pain change during a simulated baseball game in adolescent pitchers. METHODS: Adolescent male pitchers aged 13 to 16 years were included. Pitchers were excluded if they had undergone previous shoulder or elbow surgery, currently had a known shoulder or elbow injury, or were unable to complete the simulated game for any reason. Shoulder range of motion was assessed before and after the game...
May 2016: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
Xinning Li, Richard Ma, Hanbing Zhou, Matthew Thompson, Courtney Dawson, Joseph Nguyen, Struan Coleman
Normal hip range of motion (ROM) is essential in running and transfer of energy from lower to upper extremities during overhead throwing. Dysfunctional hip ROM may alter lower extremity kinematics and predispose athletes to hip and groin injuries. The purpose of this study is characterize hip internal/external ROM (Arc) and its effect on the risk of hip, hamstring, and groin injuries in professional baseball players. Bilateral hip internal and external ROM was measured on all baseball players (N=201) in one professional organization (major and minor league) during spring training...
December 28, 2015: Orthopedic Reviews
W Jeffrey Grantham, Ian R Byram, Molly C Meadows, Christopher S Ahmad
BACKGROUND: Many factors are believed to contribute to throwing injuries in baseball pitchers, in particular overuse and poor throwing mechanics. The impact of fatigue on pitching biomechanics in live-game situations is not well understood. HYPOTHESIS: Pitchers will demonstrate significant deviation in their pitching motions with increasing levels of fatigue. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive laboratory study. METHODS: Eleven National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I collegiate baseball pitchers were filmed in multiple live-game situations throughout a single season using 2 orthogonal high-speed cameras at 120 Hz...
June 2014: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
Manabu Saito, Tomonori Kenmoku, Kentaro Kameyama, Ryo Murata, Takashi Yusa, Nobuyasu Ochiai, Takehiro Kijima, Naonobu Takahira, Kensuke Fukushima, Noriyuki Ishige, Masashi Takaso
BACKGROUND: Repetitive tensile stresses from valgus torque can induce elbow injury in adolescent baseball players. Insufficient hip range of motion (ROM) can change throwing mechanics, reducing the transfer of energy from the lower to the upper extremities. Thus, hip ROM limitations may force the upper extremities to bear the burden of a strong throw. Improper pitching mechanics caused by insufficient hip ROM are thought to increase valgus torque on the elbow when throwing, increasing the risk of elbow injury...
May 2014: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
Patrick C McCulloch, Jayesh K Patel, Prem N Ramkumar, Philip C Noble, David M Lintner
BACKGROUND: There is a renewed interest in examining the association between hip range of motion and injury in athletes, and the data on baseball players are conflicting. Understanding whether asymmetrical hip rotation is a normal adaptation or a risk factor for injury will help therapists, trainers, and physicians develop rehabilitation programs to improve kinetic energy transfer and prevent injury. As our knowledge of hip pathology among baseball pitchers improves, establishing baselines for hip motion is critical in the further assessment of injury...
February 2014: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
Giorgio Zeppieri, Trevor A Lentz, Michael W Moser, Kevin W Farmer
BACKGROUND: Adaptations in hip range of motion (ROM) and strength have been shown to influence performance and injury risk in overhead athletes. These adaptations in hip ROM and strength have not been examined longitudinally, and little is known regarding whether these changes are a result of pitching workload. HYPOTHESIS/PURPOSE: The authors hypothesized that hip rotation ROM and strength would change over the course of a season, and would be associated with pitching workload (number of pitches over the course of a season)...
August 2015: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
Yi-Chien Peng, Kuo-Cheng Lo, Lin-Hwa Wang
This study investigated the differences in joint motions and muscle activities of the lower extremities involved in various squatting postures. The motion capture system with thirty-one reflective markers attached on participants was used for motion data collection. The electromyography system was applied over the quadriceps, biceps femoris, tibialis anterior, and gastrocnemius muscles of the pivot and stride leg. The joint extension and flexion in wide squatting are greater than in general squatting (p = 0...
September 2015: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
Taylor Holt, Gretchen D Oliver
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between dynamic hip rotational range of motion and upper extremity kinematics during baseball pitching. Thirty-one youth baseball pitchers (10.87 ± 0.92 years; 150.03 ± 5.48 cm; 44.83 ± 8.04 kg) participated. A strong correlation was found between stance hip rotation and scapular upward rotation at maximum shoulder external rotation (r = 0.531, P = 0.002) and at ball release (r = 0.536, P = 0.002). No statistically significant correlations were found between dynamic hip rotational range of motion and passive hip range of motion...
2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
Jeffrey S Corben, Sara A Cerrone, Julie E Soviero, Susan Y Kwiecien, Stephen J Nicholas, Malachy P McHugh
BACKGROUND: Monitoring pitch count is standard practice in minor league baseball but not in softball because of the perception that fast-pitch softball pitching is a less stressful motion. PURPOSE: To examine muscle fatigue after fast-pitch softball performances to provide an assessment of performance demand. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive laboratory study. METHODS: Bilateral strength measurements (handheld dynamometer) were made on 19 female softball pitchers (mean age [±SD], 15...
August 2015: American Journal of Sports Medicine
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