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Salih Katircioglu, Aysem Celebi
This study investigates the role of external debt stock in Turkey, which has suffered from heavy (external and domestic) debt stock for many years. Annual data from 1960 to 2013 was analyzed using time series analysis in order to study this. The results confirm the validity of the conventional environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) in the case of Turkey. However, this study also found that Turkey's external debt stock did not influence the Turkish economy's long-term EKC behavior. Fortunately, the results suggest that there are important interactions among external debt stock, CO2 emissions, energy consumption, and real income; that is, changes in external debt volume precede changes in these aggregates' volumes...
January 12, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Joachim H A Krug
BACKGROUND: Forests have always played an important role in agreeing on accounting rules during the past two decades of international climate policy development. Starting from activity-based gross-net accounting of selected forestry activities to mandatory accounting against a baseline-rules have changed quite rapidly and with significant consequences for accounted credits and debits. Such changes have direct consequences on incentives for climate-investments in forestry. There have also been strong arguments not to include forests into the accounting system by considering large uncertainties, procedural challenges and a fear of unearned credits corrupting the overall accounting system, among others...
January 3, 2018: Carbon Balance and Management
M P Cameron, M J Roskruge, N Droste, P G Miller
Aims: To evaluate how well people in the night-time economy can assess their own breath alcohol concentration (BrAC), in the context of a change in breath alcohol limits for driving. Methods: We conducted a field study of 242 participants over 5 nights in the central business district of a university town in New Zealand. Participants completed a short survey, which included questions on their self-reported level of intoxication and the self-estimated BrAC. At the conclusion of the interview each participant was breath-tested...
January 10, 2018: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
Kirsten M Prior, Todd M Palmer
While foundation species can stabilize ecosystems at landscape scales, their ability to persist is often underlain by keystone interactions occurring at smaller scales. Acacia drepanolobium is a foundation tree, comprising >95% of woody cover in East African black-cotton savanna ecosystems. Its dominance is underlain by a keystone mutualistic interaction with several symbiotic ant species in which it provides housing (swollen thorns) and carbohydrate-rich nectar from extra-floral nectaries (EFN). In return, it gains protection from catastrophic damage from mega-herbivores...
January 12, 2018: Ecology
Grégory Emery, Camille Le Fur, Anne-Aurélie Epis-de-Fleurian, Anne Josseran
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 16, 2017: Thérapie
Dominik Grau, Benedikt W Grau, Frank Hampel, Svetlana B Tsogoeva
An unprecedented organocatalytic three-component domino Knoevenagel/vinylogous Michael reaction starting from simple enolizable aldehydes, malononitrile and nitroolefins is reported. This facile two-step domino process provides a stereoselective straightforward route to multifunctional vinyl malononitrile products (up to 82% yield, 85:15 d.r.), comprising a nitroalkane moiety, and contributes to development of sustainability and atom economy. The application of the obtained domino products for synthesis of highly functionalized o-terphenyls (of high interest for materials science and medicinal chemistry) through subsequent three-step domino reaction involving cyclization/ tautomerization/ aromatization steps, has been demonstrated...
January 11, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Nicholas R Lamoureux, Grant R Tomkinson, Benjamin J Peterson, John S Fitzgerald
The purpose of this study was to determine the importance of skating economy to fatigue during repeated high-intensity efforts of a simulated ice hockey shift. Forty-five collegiate and Junior A male ice hockey players (aged 18-24 years) performed a continuous graded exercise test using a skate treadmill. Breath-by-breath data for oxygen consumption (V[Combining Dot Above]O2) and respiratory exchange ratio were collected and used to derive energy expenditure (EE) averaged over the final 10 seconds of each stage...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Antonia Dawes
This paper is based on ethnographic research conducted with migrant and Italian street vendors in Naples, southern Italy, in 2012. It tells the story of Via Bologna market which was nearly closed down by the City Hall at the time. Naples is a city where issues of poverty and unemployment pre-date and have been exacerbated by manifold narratives of crisis now unfolding across Europe regarding the economy, political legitimacy, security and migration. Street markets have always been an important and visible economic survival strategy for both Neapolitans and migrants there...
January 10, 2018: British Journal of Sociology
Samuel S Urlacher, Karen L Kramer
Despite broad implications for understanding human life history, energetics, and health, the impact of physical activity on childhood growth remains unclear. Particularly understudied is the effect of secular changes in physical activity on child development. We address these shortcomings using data spanning the transition from traditional to semi-developed economy among Yucatec Maya agriculturalists. Anthropometric and behavioral observation data were collected from children living in a subsistence-based rural community in 1992 and again in 2012 following the introduction of a school and mechanized technologies but minimal overt dietary change...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kuan Zhao, Jia-Cong Gao, Jun-Yao Xiong, Jin-Chao Guo, Yong-Bo Yang, Cheng-Gang Jiang, Yan-Dong Tang, Zhi-Jun Tian, Xue-Hui Cai, Guang-Zhi Tong, Tong-Qing An
Highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) possesses greater replicative capacity and pathogenicity than classical PRRSV. However, the factors that lead to enhanced replication and pathogenicity remain unclear. In our study, an alignment of all available full-length sequences of North-American type PRRSVs (n = 204) revealed two consistent amino acid mutations that differed between HP-PRRSV and classical PRRSV and were located at positions 519 and 544 in non-structural protein 9...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Virology
Jonathan Karnon, Laura Edney, Hossein Afzali
Health technology assessment provides a common framework for evaluating the costs and benefits of new health technologies to inform decisions on the public funding of new pharmaceuticals and other health technologies. In Australia and England, empirical analyses of the opportunity costs of government spending on new health technologies suggest more quality adjusted life years are being forgone than are being gained by a non-trivial proportion of funded health technologies. This essay considers the relevance of available empirical estimates of opportunity costs and explores the relationship between the public funding of health technologies and broader political and economic factors...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Health Services Research & Policy
Corina Carranca, Gustavo Brunetto, Massimo Tagliavini
Although perennial fruit crops represent 1% of global agricultural land, they are of a great economic importance in world trade and in the economy of many regions. The perennial woody nature of fruit trees, their physiological stages of growth, the root distribution pattern, and the presence of herbaceous vegetation in alleys make orchard systems efficient in the use and recycling of nitrogen (N). The present paper intends to review the existing literature on N nutrition of young and mature deciduous and evergreen fruit trees with special emphasis to temperate and Mediterranean climates...
January 10, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Sheena L Faherty, José Luis Villanueva-Cañas, Marina B Blanco, Mar M Albà, Anne D Yoder
Hibernation is an adaptive strategy some mammals use to survive highly seasonal or unpredictable environments. We present the first investigation on the transcriptomics of hibernation in a natural population of primate hibernators: Crossley's dwarf lemurs (Cheirogaleus crossleyi). Using capture-mark-recapture techniques to track the same animals over a period of seven months in Madagascar, we used RNA-seq to compare gene expression profiles in white adipose tissue (WAT) during three distinct physiological states...
January 10, 2018: Molecular Ecology
Ettore Beghi, Josemir W Sander
The classification of epileptic seizures and the epilepsies has recently been revised by the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) and a new classification scheme issued. Areas covered: The new classification scheme has been critically appraised in the light of the previous classifications and subsequent revisions. The purposes of the classification and its potential use have been extensively discussed. Expert Commentary: This ILAE classification scheme, the latest of a series of proposals published in the last thirty years, has made progress as it has a multi-level structure (seizure types, epilepsy types, epilepsy syndromes) allowing for differing uses and combines the previously separate seizure types and epilepsies schemes into a single instrument...
January 10, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Masoumeh Bavadi, Khodabakhsh Niknam
A mild, efficient synthetic approach for the synthesis of highly functionalized dihydro-2-oxopyrroles is developed by using graphene oxide, a readily available and inexpensive material, as an eco-benign solid acid catalyst in ethanol at room temperature. The present methodology displays several advantages such as practical simplicity, high atom economy, easy workup procedure, and high yields of the products.
January 9, 2018: Molecular Diversity
Zhiqiang Wang, Chen Hong, Yi Xing, Yifei Li, Lihui Feng, Mengmeng Jia
The combustion behaviors of sewage sludge (SS), pulverized coal (PC), and their blends were studied using a thermogravimetric analyzer. The effect of the mass ratio of SS to PC on the co-combustion characteristics was analyzed. The experiments showed that the ignition performance of the blends improved significantly as the mass percentage of SS increased, but its combustion intensity decreased. The burnout temperature (Tb) and comprehensive combustibility index (S) of the blends were almost unchanged when the mass percentage of SS was less than 10%...
January 6, 2018: Waste Management
Claudio Schuftan
The long-term trend of globalization masks a frank deterioration of the situation of the have-nots. Since 1970, polarization has grown faster than inequality, with alarming consequences for human rights and the economy overall. Globalization has continued to enrich the few at the expense of providing a decent livelihood and respecting the human rights of the many. Industrialized countries continue to be the rule makers-poor countries the rule takers. Rich countries go for growth, but an inequality-entrenching growth that brings about human rights violations and poverty...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Health Services: Planning, Administration, Evaluation
Adam L Gordon, Claire Goodman, Sue L Davies, Tom Dening, Heather Gage, Julienne Meyer, Justine Schneider, Brian Bell, Jake Jordan, Finbarr C Martin, Steve Iliffe, Clive Bowman, John R F Gladman, Christina Victor, Andrea Mayrhofer, Melanie Handley, Maria Zubair
Introduction: care home residents have high healthcare needs not fully met by prevailing healthcare models. This study explored how healthcare configuration influences resource use. Methods: a realist evaluation using qualitative and quantitative data from case studies of three UK health and social care economies selected for differing patterns of healthcare delivery to care homes. Four homes per area (12 in total) were recruited. A total of 239 residents were followed for 12 months to record resource-use...
January 5, 2018: Age and Ageing
Richard C Blagrove, Louis P Howe, Emily J Cushion, Adam Spence, Glyn Howatson, Charles R Pedlar, Philip R Hayes
PURPOSE: Strength training activities have consistently been shown to improve running economy (RE) and neuromuscular characteristics, such as force producing ability and maximal speed, in adult distance runners. However the effects on adolescent (<18 years) runners remains elusive. This randomized control trial aimed to examine the effect of strength training on several important physiological and neuromuscular qualities associated with distance running performance. METHODS: Participants (n=25, 13 female, 17...
January 8, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Qingong Li, Kun Zhao, Anssi Peuronen, Kari Rissanen, Dieter Enders, Yefeng Tang
The Plakortin polyketides represent a structurally and biologically fascinating class of marine natural products. Herein, we report a unified strategy that enables the divergent syntheses of various Plakortin polyketides with remarkable step-economy and overall efficiency. As proof-of-concept cases, the enantioselective total syntheses of (+)-hippolachnin A, (+)-gracilioether A, (-)-gracilioether E and (-)-gracilioether F have been accomplished based on a series of bio-inspired, rationally designed or serendipitously discovered reactions, which include 1) an organocatalytic asymmetric 1,4-conjugate addition to assemble the common chiral -butenolide intermediate en route to all of the aforementioned targets, 2) a challenging bio-mimetic [2+2]-photocycloaddition to forge the oxacyclobutapentalene core of (+)-hippolachnin A, 3) a [2+2]-photocycloaddition followed by one-pot oxidative cleavage of methyl ether/Baeyer-Villiger rearrangement to access (-)-gracilioether F, and 4) an unprecedented hydrogen-atom-transfer (HAT)-triggered oxygenation of vinylcyclobutane to af-ford (+)-gracilioether A and (-)-gracilioether E in one pot...
January 9, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
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