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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813107/climatic-characteristics-of-the-2010-2016-drought-in-the-semiarid-northeast-brazil-region
#1
José A Marengo, Lincoln M Alves, Regina C S Alvala, Ana Paula Cunha, Sheila Brito, Osvaldo L L Moraes
This study discusses the climatological aspects of the most severe drought ever recorded in the semiarid region Northeast Brazil. Droughts are recurrent in the region and while El Nino has driven some of these events others are more dependent on the tropical North Atlantic sea surface temperature fields. The drought affecting this region during the last 5 years shows an intensity and impact not seen in several decades in the regional economy and society. The analysis of this event using drought indicators as well as meteorological fields shows that since the middle 1990s to 2016, 16 out of 25 years experienced rainfall below normal...
August 14, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812822/how-could-private-healthcare-better-contribute-to-healthcare-coverage-in-vietnam
#2
Mai Phuong Nguyen, Andrew Wilson
Private healthcare services in Vietnam are seen as a major part of the solution to the rapid increase in need and demand for healthcare services. Formally recognized over 20 years ago, the private health services coexist with public services and are available all over the country. However, the scale and size of private sector is still small compared to the public sector and public acceptance and reputation still limited. There are substantial concerns with the quality of services and the adequacy of regulation...
January 22, 2017: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812808/history-structure-and-agency-in-global-health-governance-comment-on-global-health-governance-challenges-2016-are-we-ready
#3
Stephen Gill, Solomon R Benatar
Ilona Kickbusch's thought provoking editorial is criticized in this commentary, partly because she fails to refer to previous critical work on the global conditions and policies that sustain inequality, poverty, poor health and damage to the biosphere and, as a result, she misreads global power and elides consideration of the fundamental historical structures of political and material power that shape agency in global health governance. We also doubt that global health can be improved through structures and processes of multilateralism that are premised on the continued reproduction of the ecologically myopic and socially unsustainable market civilization model of capitalist development that currently prevails in the world economy...
August 29, 2016: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812613/making-sure-the-blue-economy-is-green
#4
Jay S Golden, John Virdin, Douglas Nowacek, Patrick Halpin, Lori Bennear, Pawan G Patil
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 24, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811160/high-efficiency-removal-of-lead-from-wastewater-by-biochar-derived-from-anaerobic-digestion-sludge
#5
Shih-Hsin Ho, Yi-di Chen, Zhong-Kai Yang, Dillirani Nagarajan, Jo-Shu Chang, Nan-Qi Ren
The properties of biochar derived from waste activated sludge and anaerobic digestion sludge under pyrolysis temperature varying from 400°C to 800°C were investigated. The heavy metals adsorption efficiency of the sludge-derived biochar was also examined. Among the biochar samples tested, ADSBC600 possessing highly porous structure, special surface chemical behaviors and high thermal stability was found to remove Pb(2+) from aqueous solutions efficiently with an adsorption capacity of 51.20mg/g. The Pb(2+) adsorption kinetics and isotherm for ADSBC600 can be described using the pseudo second-order model and Langmuir isotherm, respectively...
August 7, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810942/psychosocial-maladjustment-at-student-and-classroom-level-as-indicators-of-peer-victimization
#6
Patrik Söderberg, Johan Korhonen, Kaj Björkqvist
The purpose of this study was to examine the role of aggressive behavior, anxiety, and peer rejection as multilevel indicators of peer victimization. A cross-sectional sample of 1,115 Finnish 9th grade students nested in 76 classrooms (mean age 15 years) were used to conduct multilevel models. All forms of psychosocial maladjustment, as well as student family economy, were found to predict peer victimization within classrooms. In addition, classrooms with more aggressive behavior and a higher proportion of rejected students suffered more peer victimization, beyond compositional effects of aggressive and rejected students being victimized...
August 15, 2017: Violence and Victims
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809561/transition-metal-free-direct-trifluoromethylthiolation-and-trifluoromethylsulfoxidation-of-electron-rich-aromatics-with-cf3so2na-in-the-presence-of-pcl3
#7
Xia Zhao, Aoqi Wei, Bo Yang, Tianjiao Li, Quan Li, Di Qiu, Kui Lu
A new transition-metal-free route for the direct trifluoromethylthiolation and trifluoromethylsulfoxidation of electron-rich aromatics with CF3SO2Na in the presence of PCl3 was developed. Notably, PCl3 was used as a reducing and chlorination reagent to convert CF3SO2Na into CF3SCl. The transition-metal-free protocol utilized cheap and readily available reagents, and exhibited good atom economy; therefore, it will serve as an alternative and practical strategy for the trifluoromethylthiolation and trifluoromethylsulfoxidation of electron-rich aromatics...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808914/from-pleistocene-to-holocene-the-prehistory-of-southwest-asia-in-evolutionary-context
#8
Trevor Watkins
In this paper I seek to show how cultural niche construction theory offers the potential to extend the human evolutionary story beyond the Pleistocene, through the Neolithic, towards the kind of very large-scale societies in which we live today. The study of the human past has been compartmentalised, each compartment using different analytical vocabularies, so that their accounts are written in mutually incompatible languages. In recent years social, cognitive and cultural evolutionary theories, building on a growing body of archaeological evidence, have made substantial sense of the social and cultural evolution of the genus Homo...
August 14, 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808103/a-bioarchitectonic-approach-to-the-modular-engineering-of-metabolism
#9
REVIEW
Cheryl A Kerfeld
Dissociating the complexity of metabolic processes into modules is a shift in focus from the single gene/gene product to functional and evolutionary units spanning the scale of biological organization. When viewing the levels of biological organization through this conceptual lens, modules are found across the continuum: domains within proteins, co-regulated groups of functionally associated genes, operons, metabolic pathways and (sub)cellular compartments. Combining modules as components or subsystems of a larger system typically leads to increased complexity and the emergence of new functions...
September 26, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807608/benefits-of-flu-vaccination-for-persons-with-diabetes-mellitus-a-review
#10
REVIEW
M Goeijenbier, T T van Sloten, L Slobbe, C Mathieu, P van Genderen, Walter E P Beyer, Albert D M E Osterhaus
Diabetes mellitus imposes a significant and increasing burden on society, with major consequences for human health, welfare and the economy worldwide. Persons with diabetes mellitus are at increased risk of developing severe complications after influenza virus infection and guidelines advise vaccination. The present evidence for influenza vaccine effectiveness in persons with diabetes mellitus is mainly based on observational studies with clinical endpoints like hospitalization and death, indicating a beneficial reduction of morbidity and mortality...
August 11, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806506/quantifying-recycling-and-losses-of-cr-and-ni-in-steel-throughout-multiple-life-cycles-using-matrace-alloy
#11
Shinichiro Nakamura, Yasushi Kondo, Kenichi Nakajima, Hajime Ohno, Stefan Pauliuk
Alloying metals are indispensable ingredients of high quality alloy steel such as austenitic stainless steel, the cyclical use of which is vital for sustainable resource management. Under the current practice of recycling, however, different metals are likely to be mixed in an uncontrolled manner, resulting in function losses and dissipation of metals with distinctive functions, and in the contamination of recycled steels. The latter could result in dilution loss, if metal scrap needed dilution with virgin iron to reduce the contamination below critical levels...
August 14, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805709/cyber-physical-systems-for-user-reliability-measurements-in-a-sharing-economy-environment
#12
Aria Seo, Junho Jeong, Yeichang Kim
As the sharing economic market grows, the number of users is also increasing but many problems arise in terms of reliability between providers and users in the processing of services. The existing methods provide shared economic systems that judge the reliability of the provider from the viewpoint of the user. In this paper, we have developed a system for establishing mutual trust between providers and users in a shared economic environment to solve existing problems. In order to implement a system that can measure and control users' situation in a shared economic environment, we analyzed the necessary factors in a cyber physical system (CPS)...
August 13, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805597/the-climate-impact-on-female-acute-pyelonephritis-in-taiwan-a%C3%A2-population-based-study
#13
Jui-Ming Liu, Yu-Lung Chang, Ren-Jun Hsu, Her-Young Su, Sen-Wen Teng, Fung-Wei Chang
OBJECTIVE: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the main reason of community-acquired infection which causes large losses in social economy. The individual as well as climate factors make changes on the incidence. Acute pyelonephritis (APN) is one of the most serious UTI in female. The object of our study is to analyze whether climate factors will have effect on the incidence of female APN in Taiwan. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study consisted of 14,568 female patients with APN from 2001 to 2013 in Taiwan and patients with repeated APN were excluded...
August 2017: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803764/effect-of-a-food-waste-disposer-policy-on-solid-waste-and-wastewater-management-with-economic-implications-of-environmental-externalities
#14
Amani Maalouf, Mutasem El-Fadel
In this study, the carbon footprint of introducing a food waste disposer (FWD) policy was examined in the context of its implications on solid waste and wastewater management with economic assessment of environmental externalities emphasizing potential carbon credit and increased sludge generation. For this purpose, a model adopting a life cycle inventory approach was developed to integrate solid waste and wastewater management processes under a single framework and test scenarios for a waste with high organic food content typical of developing economies...
August 10, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803527/science-s-disparate-responsibilities-patterns-across-european-countries
#15
Niels Mejlgaard
It is a distinctive feature of European science policy that science is expected to meet economic and broader societal objectives simultaneously. Science should be governed democratically and take significant responsibilities towards the economy, the political system and civil society, but the coherency of these multiple claims is underexplored. Using metrics that emerge from both quantitative and qualitative studies, we examine the interrelatedness of different responsibilities at the level of countries. A total of 33 European Union member states and associated countries are included in the analysis...
August 1, 2017: Public Understanding of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803457/development-of-a-proficiency-based-virtual-reality-simulation-training-curriculum-for-laparoscopic-appendicectomy
#16
Pramudith Sirimanna, Marc A Gladman
BACKGROUND: Proficiency-based virtual reality (VR) training curricula improve intraoperative performance, but have not been developed for laparoscopic appendicectomy (LA). This study aimed to develop an evidence-based training curriculum for LA. METHODS: A total of 10 experienced (>50 LAs), eight intermediate (10-30 LAs) and 20 inexperienced (<10 LAs) operators performed guided and unguided LA tasks on a high-fidelity VR simulator using internationally relevant techniques...
August 13, 2017: ANZ Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803332/financial-development-and-oil-resource-abundance-growth-relations-evidence-from-panel-data
#17
Siong Hook Law, Maryam Moradbeigi
This study investigates whether financial development dampens the negative impact of oil resource abundance on economic growth. Because of substantial cross-sectional dependence in our data, which contain a core sample of 63 oil-producing countries from 1980 through 2010, we use the common correlated effect mean group (CCEMG) estimator to account for the high degree of heterogeneity and drop the outlier countries. The empirical results reveal that oil resource abundance affects the growth rate in output contingent on the degree of development in financial markets...
August 12, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803063/cascading-biomethane-energy-systems-for-sustainable-green-gas-production-in-a-circular-economy
#18
REVIEW
David M Wall, Shane McDonagh, Jerry D Murphy
Biomethane is a flexible energy vector that can be used as a renewable fuel for both the heat and transport sectors. Recent EU legislation encourages the production and use of advanced, third generation biofuels with improved sustainability for future energy systems. The integration of technologies such as anaerobic digestion, gasification, and power to gas, along with advanced feedstocks such as algae will be at the forefront in meeting future sustainability criteria and achieving a green gas supply for the gas grid...
July 23, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802894/doomed-to-collapse-why-algerian-steppe-rangelands-are-overgrazed-and-some-lessons-to-help-land-use-transitions
#19
Jaime Martínez-Valderrama, Javier Ibáñez, Gabriel Del Barrio, Francisco J Alcalá, Maria E Sanjuán, Alberto Ruiz, Azziz Hirche, Juan Puigdefábregas
This work illustrates the application of a simulation model to analyse how swiftly large-scale land-use changes can drive broad territories to collapse. In this sense, the economic needs of a population should not clash with the natural environment but rather be reconciled with it. Abundant literature deals with the integration of socioeconomic drivers, ecological aspects, farming management, and climatology related to Algerian rangeland degradation. The present study seeks to compare the time course of Alfa grass biomass and the livestock raised on these distinctive rangelands under two different land-use strategies...
August 9, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802398/a-mycobacterial-growth-inhibition-assay-mgia-for-bovine-tb-vaccine-development
#20
Ilaria Pepponi, Bhagwati Khatri, Rachel Tanner, Bernardo Villarreal-Ramos, Martin Vordermeier, Helen McShane
Human tuberculosis remains a significant cause of mortality and morbidity throughout the world. The global economic impact of bovine TB is considerable. An effective vaccine would be the most cost-effective way to control both epidemics, particularly in emerging economies. TB vaccine research would benefit from the identification of an immune correlate of protection with which vaccines could be gated at both preclinical and clinical levels. In-vitro mycobacterial growth inhibition assays (MGIA) are functional assays that include most aspects of the complex host immune response to mycobacteria, and they may serve as functional immune correlates for vaccine development...
September 2017: Tuberculosis
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