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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144419/air-pollution-and-dispensed-medications-for-asthma-and-possible-effect-modifiers-related-to-mental-health-and-socio-economy-a-longitudinal-cohort-study-of-swedish-children-and-adolescents
#1
Anna Oudin, Lennart Bråbäck, Daniel Oudin Åström, Bertil Forsberg
It has been suggested that children that are exposed to a stressful environment at home have an increased susceptibility for air pollution-related asthma. The aim here was to investigate the association between air pollution exposure and asthma, and effect modification by mental health and by socio-economic status (as markers of a stressful environment). All individuals under 18 years of age in four Swedish counties during 2007 to 2010 (1.2 million people) were included. The outcome was defined as dispensing at least two asthma medications during follow up...
November 16, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143932/forecasting-carbon-dioxide-emissions-based-on-a-hybrid-of-mixed-data-sampling-regression-model-and-back-propagation-neural-network-in-the-usa
#2
Xin Zhao, Meng Han, Lili Ding, Adrian Cantemir Calin
The accurate forecast of carbon dioxide emissions is critical for policy makers to take proper measures to establish a low carbon society. This paper discusses a hybrid of the mixed data sampling (MIDAS) regression model and BP (back propagation) neural network (MIDAS-BP model) to forecast carbon dioxide emissions. Such analysis uses mixed frequency data to study the effects of quarterly economic growth on annual carbon dioxide emissions. The forecasting ability of MIDAS-BP is remarkably better than MIDAS, ordinary least square (OLS), polynomial distributed lags (PDL), autoregressive distributed lags (ADL), and auto-regressive moving average (ARMA) models...
November 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142579/pakistan-s-recommendations-for-optimal-management-of-diabetes-from-primary-to-tertiary-care-level-prompt
#3
A Samad Shera, Abdul Basit, Prompt Team
Pakistan is a developing country with limited resources and diverse socio-economic standards. Pakistan has high prevalence of diabetes and its complications, which is a great challenge to the existing health care system. National action plans for control of diabetes have been developed and initiatives have been taken but not at an ideal pace. First National Practice Guidelines for Pakistan were published in 1999. It was very helpful in standardizing the management of Type-2 diabetes. In view of important developments in the field of diabetes during the recent years, it was felt that 1999 National Clinical Practice Guidelines edited, should be revised...
September 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142191/immune-neuroendocrine-interactions-evolution-ecology-and-susceptibility-to-illness
#4
Johanna M C Blom, Enzo Ottaviani
The integration between immune and neuroendocrine systems is crucial for maintaining homeostasis from invertebrates to humans. In the first, the phagocytic cell, i.e., the immunocyte, is the main actor, while in the latter, the principle player is the lymphocyte. Immunocytes are characterized by the presence of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) peptides, CRH, and other molecules that display a significant similarity to their mammalian counterparts regarding their functions, as both are mainly involved in fundamental functions such as immune (chemotaxis, phagocytosis, cytotoxicity, etc...
November 16, 2017: Medical Science Monitor Basic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140661/an-international-model-for-antibiotics-regulation
#5
Emilie Aguirre
We face a global antibiotics resistance crisis. Antibiotic drugs are rapidly losing their effectiveness, potentially propelling us toward a post-antibiotic world. The largest use of antibiotics in the world is in food-producing animals. Food producers administer these drugs in routine, low doses—the types of doses that are incidentally the most conducive to breeding antibiotic resistance. In general, individual countries have been too slow to act in regulating misuse and overuse of antibiotics in foodproducing animals...
2017: Food and Drug Law Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140293/the-trends-in-cardiovascular-diseases-and-respiratory-diseases-mortality-in-urban-and-rural-china-1990-2015
#6
Weiwei Sun, Yun Zhou, Zhuang Zhang, Limin Cao, Weihong Chen
With the rapid development of the economy over the past 20 years, the mortality rates from cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and respiratory diseases (RDs) have changed in China. This study aimed to analyze the trends of mortality rates and years of life lost (YLLs) from CVDs and RDs in the rural and urban population from 1990 to 2015. Using data from Chinese yearbooks, joinpoint regression analysis was employed to estimate the annual percent change (APC) of mortality rates from CVDs and RDs. YLLs due to CVDs and RDs were calculated by a standard method, adopting recommended standard life expectancy at birth values of 80 years for men and 82...
November 15, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140266/forecasting-the-water-demand-in-chongqing-china-using-a-grey-prediction-model-and-recommendations-for-the-sustainable-development-of-urban-water-consumption
#7
Hua'an Wu, Bo Zeng, Meng Zhou
High accuracy in water demand predictions is an important basis for the rational allocation of city water resources and forms the basis for sustainable urban development. The shortage of water resources in Chongqing, the youngest central municipality in Southwest China, has significantly increased with the population growth and rapid economic development. In this paper, a new grey water-forecasting model (GWFM) was built based on the data characteristics of water consumption. The parameter estimation and error checking methods of the GWFM model were investigated...
November 15, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138735/social-determinants-of-maternal-health-in-afghanistan-a-review
#8
Said Ahmad Maisam Najafizada, Ivy Lynn Bourgeault, Ronald Labonté
Introduction: Afghanistan has a high maternal mortality rate of 400 per 100,000 live births. Although direct causes of maternal morbidity and mortality in Afghanistan include hemorrhage, obstructed labor, infection, high blood pressure, and unsafe abortion, the high burden of diseases responsible for maternal mortality arises in large part due to social determinants of health. The focus of this literature review is to examine the impact of various social determinants of health on maternal health in Afghanistan, filling an important gap in the existing literature...
2017: Central Asian Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135950/establishing-smoke-free-homes-in-the-indigenous-populations-of-australia-new-zealand-canada-and-the-united-states-a-systematic-literature-review
#9
REVIEW
Leah Stevenson, Sandy Campbell, India Bohanna, Gillian S Gould, Jan Robertson, Alan R Clough
A smoke-free home can have multiple benefits by reducing exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS), supporting quit attempts among active smokers, and discouraging adolescents from taking up smoking. The aim of this review was to summarize the literature on the establishment of smoke-free homes in Indigenous populations and identify the supporting influences and barriers, using the Social Cognitive Theory lens. A search of the Medline, CINAHL, Cochrane Collaboration and PyscINFO databases and manual searches of relevant peer-reviewed literature was completed, focusing on Indigenous populations in developed economies of North America and Oceania...
November 14, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135109/18f-fdg-pet-ct-versus-99tcm-mibi-spect-which-is-better-for-detection-of-solitary-pulmonary-nodules
#10
Guoliang Xia, Chuanguo An, Zonghua Ming, Hong Guo, Lihong Liu, Yufeng Li
PURPOSE: To compare the diagnostic value of 99Tcm-MIBI- SPECT and 18F-FDG-PET/CT in differentiating benign from malignant solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs). METHODS: 170 SPNs were involved in this study (78 with 99Tcm-MIBI-SPECT and 92 with 18F-FDG-PET/CT). Definite diagnosis of SPNs was determined by biopsy. The diagnostic efficiency of 99Tcm-MIBI-SPECT and 18F-FDGPET/ CT in differentiating benign from malignant SPNs was analyzed and compared. RESULTS: Seventy-eight patients with SPNs were examined with 99Tcm-MIBI-SPECT (26 with malignant SPNs and 52 with benign SPNs)...
September 2017: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132118/primary-malignant-melanoma-of-the-female-urethra-report-of-a-rare-neoplasm-of-the-urinary-tract
#11
Namita Bhutani, Pradeep Kajal, Devendra Pawar
INTRODUCTION: Melanoma is a malignant tumor that can affect any area of the anatomical economy. Its occurance in the female urethra is extremely rare. We report a case of primary malignant urethral melanoma developed in an elderly female patient. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 70 years old female presented with dysuria, poor stream, gross haematuria, intermittent blood spots, and a painful mass. On physical examination, there were no suspicious lesions on the skin. On external genital examination, a lesion at the level of the urethral meatus was observed...
November 8, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132007/asta-a-method-for-multi-criteria-evaluation-of-water-supply-technologies-to-assess-the-most-sustainable-alternative-for-copenhagen
#12
B Godskesen, M Hauschild, H-J Albrechtsen, M Rygaard
Utilities in larger cities have to make complex decisions planning future investments in urban water infrastructure. Changes are driven by physical water stress or political targets for environmental water flows e.g. through the implementation of the European water framework directive. To include these environmental, economic and social sustainability dimensions we introduce a novel multi-criteria assessment method for evaluation of water supply technologies. The method is presented and demonstrated for four alternatives for water supply based on groundwater, rain- & stormwater or seawater developed for augmenting Copenhagen's current groundwater based water supply...
November 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130264/the-economic-cost-of-communicable-disease-surveillance-in-local-public-health-agencies
#13
Adam Atherly, Melanie Whittington, Lisa VanRaemdonck, Sarah Lampe
OBJECTIVE: We identify economic costs associated with communicable disease (CD) monitoring/surveillance in Colorado local public health agencies and identify possible economies of scale. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: Data were collected via a survey of local public health employees engaged in CD work. Survey respondents logged time spent on CD surveillance for 2-week periods in the spring of 2014 and fall of 2014. Forty-three of the 54 local public health agencies in Colorado participated...
December 2017: Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129189/a-review-of-the-economic-impact-of-mental-illness
#14
Christopher M Doran, Irina Kinchin
Objective To examine the impact and cost associated with mental illness.Methods A rapid review of the literature from Australia, New Zealand, UK and Canada was undertaken. The review included literature pertaining to the cost-of-illness and impact of mental illness as well as any modelling studies. Included studies were categorised according to impact on education, labour force engagement, earlier retirement or welfare dependency. The well-accepted Drummond 10-point economic appraisal checklist was used to assess the quality of the studies...
November 13, 2017: Australian Health Review: a Publication of the Australian Hospital Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128771/the-acute-thermal-respiratory-response-is-unique-among-species-in-a-guild-of-larval-anuran-amphibians-implications-for-energy-economy-in-a-warmer-future
#15
Christopher L Rowe, Erin A Crandall
Climate change is bringing about increased temperatures of amphibian habitats throughout the world, where ectothermic larvae will experience elevated respiratory (metabolic) energy demands. We compared the acute, thermal respiratory response ("TRR") of four species of sympatric larval amphibians (Lithobates sphenocephalus, L. catesbeianus, Scaphiopus holbrookii, and Hyla chrysoscelis) to determine species-specific differences in the rate at which metabolic energy requirements increase with temperature. The TRR, the slope of the relationship between respiration rate and temperature within critical thermal limits, varied significantly among species such that the absolute, per capita change in metabolic energy requirement as temperature increased was greater for L...
November 9, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128768/contaminated-land-in-colombia-a-critical-review-of-current-status-and-future-approach-for-the-management-of-contaminated-sites
#16
REVIEW
Victor Andres Arias Espana, Alfonso R Rodriguez Pinilla, Paul Bardos, Ravi Naidu
Environmental contaminants can have negative effects on human health and land, air and water resources. Consequently, there have been significant advances in regulation for protecting the environment in developed countries including the development of remediation frameworks and guidelines. On the other hand, fewer studies have been reported on the risks and health effects of contaminants in developing regions and there is scarce information regarding contaminated land assessment and environmental remediation...
November 9, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127791/land-use-changes-and-socio-economic-development-strongly-deteriorate-river-ecosystem-health-in-one-of-the-largest-basins-in-china
#17
Xian Cheng, Liding Chen, Ranhao Sun, Peiru Kong
It is important to assess river ecosystem health in large-scale basins when considering the complex influence of anthropogenic activities on these ecosystems. This study investigated the river ecosystem health in the Haihe River Basin (HRB) by sampling 148 river sites during the pre- and post-rainy seasons in 2013. A model was established to assess the river ecosystem health based on water physicochemical, nutrient, and macroinvertebrate indices, and the health level was divided into "very poor," "poor," "fair," "good," and "excellent" according to the health score calculated from the assessment model...
November 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127304/on-economic-complexity-and-the-fitness-of-nations
#18
Greg Morrison, Sergey V Buldyrev, Michele Imbruno, Omar Alonso Doria Arrieta, Armando Rungi, Massimo Riccaboni, Fabio Pammolli
Complex economic systems can often be described by a network, with nodes representing economic entities and edges their interdependencies, while network centrality is often a good indicator of importance. Recent publications have implemented a nonlinear iterative Fitness-Complexity (FC) algorithm to measure centrality in a bipartite trade network, which aims to represent the 'Fitness' of national economies as well as the 'Complexity' of the products being traded. In this paper, we discuss this methodological approach and conclude that further work is needed to identify stable and reliable measures of fitness and complexity...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126255/economic-evaluations-of-mass-drug-administration-the-importance-of-economies-of-scale-and-scope
#19
Hugo C Turner, Jaspreet Toor, T Déirdre Hollingsworth, Roy M Anderson
It is recognised that changing the current approaches for the control of the neglected tropical diseases will be needed to reach the World Health Organization's (WHO) 2020 goals. Consequently, it is important that economic evaluations of the alternative approaches are conducted. A vital component of such evaluations is the issue of how the intervention's costs should be incorporated. We discuss this issue - focusing on mass drug administration. We argue that the common approach of assuming an intervention's cost per treatment is constant, regardless of the number of individuals treated, is a misleading way to consider the delivery costs of mass drug administration due to the occurrence of economies/diseconomies of scale and scope...
November 8, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126108/laboratory-scale-photobiotechnology-current-trends-and-future-perspectives
#20
Holger Morschett, Varun Loomba, Gregor Huber, Wolfgang Wiechert, Eric von Lieres, Marco Oldiges
Phototrophic bioprocesses are a promising puzzle piece in future bio-economy concepts but mostly fail for economic reasons, yet. Besides other aspects, this is mainly attributed to the omnipresent issue of optimal light supply impeding scale-up and -down of phototrophic processes according to classic established concepts. This MiniReview examines two current trends in photobiotechnology, namely microscale cultivation and modeling and simulation. Micro photobioreactors are a valuable and promising trend with microfluidic chips and microtiter plates as predominant design concepts...
November 8, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
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