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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905610/dendritic-polyglycerol-and-n-isopropylacrylamide-based-thermoresponsive-nanogels-as-smart-carriers-for-controlled-delivery-of-drugs-through-the-hair-follicle
#1
Fitsum Feleke Sahle, Michael Giulbudagian, Julian Bergueiro, Jürgen Lademann, Marcelo Calderón
Nanoparticles with a size of several hundred nanometers can effectively penetrate into the hair follicles and may serve as depots for controlled drug delivery. However, they can neither overcome the hair follicle barrier to reach the viable cells nor release the loaded drug adequately. On the other hand, small drug molecules cannot penetrate deep into the hair follicles. Thus, the most efficient way for drug delivery through the follicular route is to employ nanoparticles that can release the drug close to the target structure upon exposure to some external or internal stimuli...
December 1, 2016: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904857/t-cadherin-expression-in-the-epidermis-and-adnexal-structures-of-normal-skin
#2
Stanislaw Buechner, Paul Erne, Therese J Resink
BACKGROUND: T-cadherin is an atypical glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored member of the cadherin superfamily of adhesion molecules. The role of T-cadherin in biology of the skin is poorly understood. Expression of T-cadherin in basal keratinocytes and dermal blood vessels of the healthy epidermis has been demonstrated, but studies on expression in skin appendages are rare. METHODS: We conducted an immunohistochemical analysis of T-cadherin expression in the epidermis and adnexal structures of normal skin...
September 2016: Dermatopathology (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904526/new-agents-approved-for-treatment-of-acute-staphylococcal-skin-infections
#3
Jan Tatarkiewicz, Anna Staniszewska, Magdalena Bujalska-Zadrożny
Vancomycin has been a predominant treatment for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections for decades. However, growing reservations about its efficacy led to an urgent need for new antibiotics effective against MRSA and other drug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains. This review covers three new anti-MRSA antibiotics that have been recently approved by the FDA: dalbavancin, oritavancin, and tedizolid. The mechanism of action, indications, antibacterial activity profile, microbial resistance, pharmacokinetics, clinical efficacy, adverse effects, interactions as well as available formulations and administration of each of these new antibiotics are described...
December 1, 2016: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904179/a-clinicopathological-and-dermoscopic-correlation-of-seborrheic-keratosis
#4
Geethu Francis Alapatt, D Sukumar, M Ramesh Bhat
BACKGROUND: Seborrheic keratosis (SK) is the most common benign epidermal tumor of the skin. Even though SK has been well characterized clinically, dermoscopically, and histopathologically, data regarding clinical dermoscopic and histopathological correlation of different types of SK are inadequate. AIM: We carried out this study to establish any correlation between the clinical, dermoscopic, and histopathological appearance of SK and its variants. METHODS: This was a descriptive study...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904078/effect-of-nerolidol-and-or-levulinic-acid-on-the-thermotropic-behavior-of-lipid-lamellar-structures-in-the-stratum-corneum
#5
Shunichi Utsumi, Tomohiro Nakamura, Yasuko Obata, Noboru Ohta, Kozo Takayama
Permeation enhancers are required to deliver drugs through the skin efficiently and maintain effective blood concentrations. Studies of the barrier function of the stratum corneum using l-menthol, a monocyclic monoterpene widely used in medicines and foods, have revealed an interaction between characteristic intercellular lipid structures in the stratum corneum and permeation enhancers. The variety of permeation enhancers that can be used to contribute to transdermal delivery systems beyond l-menthol is increasing...
2016: Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904077/synthesis-characterization-and-evaluation-of-thiazolidine-derivatives-of-cysteine-for-suppressing-eumelanin-production
#6
Yusuke Amino, Yoshinobu Takino, Megumi Kaneko, Fumie Ookura, Mai Yamamoto, Tatsuki Kashiwagi, Keiji Iwasaki
In the pathway of melanin biosynthesis, cysteine (Cys) is utilized for the synthesis of pheomelanin. Accordingly, Cys is considered to suppress the formation of brown-black eumelanin. Although attempts have been made to utilize Cys and its derivatives as skin-whitening agents, their instability and odor hinders their application as a cosmetic agent. Herein, N-acetyl-2-methylthiazolidine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid ethyl ester (AcCP2Et) was proposed as a candidate for a stable and prolonged-release derivative of Cys to inhibit dopachrome formation after its degradation in melanocytes...
2016: Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903963/cdh1-regulates-e2f1-degradation-in-response-to-differentiation-signals-in-keratinocytes
#7
Randeep K Singh, Lina Dagnino
The E2F1 transcription factor plays key roles in skin homeostasis. In the epidermis, E2F1 expression is essential for normal proliferation of undifferentiated keratinocytes, regeneration after injury and DNA repair following UV radiation-induced photodamage. Abnormal E2F1 expression promotes nonmelanoma skin carcinoma. In addition, E2F1 must be downregulated for proper keratinocyte differentiation, but the relevant mechanisms involved remain poorly understood. We show that differentiation signals induce a series of post-translational modifications in E2F1 that are jointly required for its downregulation...
November 26, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903865/imaging-mitochondrial-dynamics-in-human-skin-reveals-depth-dependent-hypoxia-and-malignant-potential-for-diagnosis
#8
Dimitra Pouli, Mihaela Balu, Carlo A Alonzo, Zhiyi Liu, Kyle P Quinn, Francisca Rius-Diaz, Ronald M Harris, Kristen M Kelly, Bruce J Tromberg, Irene Georgakoudi
Active changes in mitochondrial structure and organization facilitate cellular homeostasis. Because aberrant mitochondrial dynamics are implicated in a variety of human diseases, their assessment is potentially useful for diagnosis, therapy, and disease monitoring. Because current techniques for evaluating mitochondrial morphology are invasive or necessitate mitochondria-specific dyes, their clinical translation is limited. We report that mitochondrial dynamics can be monitored in vivo, within intact human skin by relying entirely on endogenous two-photon-excited fluorescence from the reduced metabolic coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)...
November 30, 2016: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903823/in%C3%A2-vitro-skin-models-and-tissue-engineering-protocols-for-skin-graft-applications
#9
REVIEW
Lucas B Naves, Chetna Dhand, Luis Almeida, Lakshminarayanan Rajamani, Seeram Ramakrishna
In this review, we present a brief introduction of the skin structure, a concise compilation of skin-related disorders, and a thorough discussion of different in vitro skin models, artificial skin substitutes, skin grafts, and dermal tissue engineering protocols. The advantages of the development of in vitro skin disorder models, such as UV radiation and the prototype model, melanoma model, wound healing model, psoriasis model, and full-thickness model are also discussed. Different types of skin grafts including allografts, autografts, allogeneic, and xenogeneic are described in detail with their associated applications...
November 30, 2016: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903244/cryopreservation-of-dermal-fibroblasts-and-keratinocytes-in-hydroxyethyl-starch-based-cryoprotectants
#10
Yahaira Naaldijk, Adiv A Johnson, Annett Friedrich-Stöckigt, Alexandra Stolzing
BACKGROUND: Preservation of human skin fibroblasts and keratinocytes is essential for the creation of skin tissue banks. For successful cryopreservation of cells, selection of an appropriate cryoprotectant agent (CPA) is imperative. The aim of this study was to identify CPAs that minimize toxic effects and allow for the preservation of human fibroblasts and keratinocytes in suspension and in monolayers. RESULTS: We cryopreserved human fibroblasts and keratinocytes with different CPAs and compared them to fresh, unfrozen cells...
December 1, 2016: BMC Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902286/macrococcus-canis-sp-nov-a-skin-bacterium-associated-with-infections-in-dogs
#11
Stefanie Gobeli Brawand, Kerstin Cotting, Elena Gómez-Sanz, Alexandra Collaud, Andreas Thomann, Isabelle Brodard, Sabrina Rodriguez Campos, Christian Strauss, Vincent Perreten
Gram-stain positive cocci were isolated from miscellaneous sites of the skin of healthy dogs as well as from infection sites in dogs. The closest relative by sequencing of the 16S rRNA was Macrococcus caseolyticus with 99.7% sequence identity, but compared to M. caseolyticus, the novel strains shared only 90.8% to 93.5% DNA identity to cpn60, dnaJ, rpoB, and sodA partial genes, respectively. The two species also exhibited other phenotypic characteristics and the majority displayed a visible haemolysis on sheep blood agar, while M...
November 16, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901519/predictors-of-comorbid-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-and-skin-picking-disorder-in-trichotillomania
#12
Nancy J Keuthen, Erin E Curley, Jeremiah M Scharf, Douglas W Woods, Christine Lochner, Dan J Stein, Esther S Tung, Erica Greenberg, S Evelyn Stewart, Sarah A Redden, Jon E Grant
BACKGROUND: Trichotillomania (TTM), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and skin-picking disorder (SPD) frequently occur together and share overlapping phenomenology, pathophysiology, and possible genetic underpinnings. This study sought to identify factors that predict OCD and SPD in hair pullers. METHODS: Five hundred fifty-five adult female hair pullers were recruited from specialty clinics and assessed using standardized, semi-structured interviews and self-reports...
November 2016: Annals of Clinical Psychiatry: Official Journal of the American Academy of Clinical Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897150/effect-of-microscopic-modeling-of-skin-in-electrical-and-thermal-analysis-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation
#13
Jose Gomez-Tames, Yukiya Sugiyama, Ilkka Laakso, Satoshi Tanaka, Soichiro Koyama, Norihiro Sadato, Akimasa Hirata
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a neuromodulation scheme where a small current is delivered to the brain via two electrodes attached to the scalp. The electrode design is an important topic, not only as regards efficacy, but also from a safety perspective, as tDCS may be related to skin lesions that are sometimes observed after stimulation. Previous computational models of tDCS have omitted the effects of microscopic structures in the skin, and the different soak conditions of the electrodes, and model validation has been limited...
December 21, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897041/novel-antifungal-agents-a-patent-review-2013-present
#14
María Victoria Castelli, Marcos Gabriel Derita, Silvia Noelí López
Superficial infections involving the skin and mucosa are the most common fungal disease in humans. Fungi can also produce invasive infections (IFI), which are increasing in incidence among the growing population of immunocompromised patients, and are characterized by a high mortality rate. Amphotericin B, new triazoles and echinocandins have improved treatment options in IFI. However, the frequency of less common and more resistant fungi, the limited activity of available antifungal drugs and their undesirable side effects reflect the urgent need for the development of new therapeutic strategies...
November 29, 2016: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896665/ultrasound-guided-thoracic-paravertebral-block-by-the-paralaminar-in-plane-approach-using-a-microconvex-array-transducer-methodological-utility-based-on-anatomical-structures
#15
Yasuko Taketa, Taro Fujitani, Yumi Irisawa, Satoko Sudo, Kazushi Takaishi
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the analgesic feasibility of paralaminar in-plane (PL) approach for ultrasound-guided thoracic paravertebral block (USG-TPVB). As the needle trajectory was expected to be closely affected by the distance from the skin to the lamina-transverse process junction (LTPJ), we examined the correlativity between them on computed tomography (CT) or ultrasonography. METHODS: Thirty-two patients undergoing thoracotomy were recruited. We measured the distances between the skin and LTPJ using preoperative CT (S-L) and procedural ultrasonography (US-L)...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896434/towards-a-functional-pathology-of-hereditary-neuropathies
#16
REVIEW
Joachim Weis, Kristl G Claeys, Andreas Roos, Hamid Azzedine, Istvan Katona, J Michael Schröder, Jan Senderek
A growing number of hereditary neuropathies have been assigned to causative gene defects in recent years. The study of human nerve biopsy samples has contributed substantially to the discovery of many of these neuropathy genes. Genotype-phenotype correlations based on peripheral nerve pathology have provided a comprehensive picture of the consequences of these mutations. Intriguingly, several gene defects lead to distinguishable lesion patterns that can be studied in nerve biopsies. These characteristic features include the loss of certain nerve fiber populations and a large spectrum of distinct structural changes of axons, Schwann cells and other components of peripheral nerves...
November 28, 2016: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895450/dermatofibrosarcoma-protuberans-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#17
D Paramythiotis, G Stavrou, D Panagiotou, G Petrakis, A Michalopoulos
BACKGROUND: Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) represents less than 0.1% of all tumors, but it is considered the most common skin sarcoma. Wide local excision (=5 cm) has been largely replaced by Mohs micrographic surgery; however, recurrence is not rare. Description of the case: A 35-year-old man presented with a large tumor on the upper side of his back and underwent local excision with the possible preoperative diagnosis of lipoma. Upon histological examination, the diagnosis of DFSP was made, and the patient underwent wide local excision with skin flap reconstruction and was referred for adjuvant radiotherapy...
January 2016: Hippokratia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894577/pre-expanded-prefabricated-monoblock-perforator-flap-for-total-facial-resurfacing
#18
REVIEW
Tao Zan, Yashan Gao, Haizhou Li, Bin Gu, Feng Xie, Qingfeng Li
In this article, we present the pre-expanded, prefabricated supercharged cervicothoracic monoblock perforator flap for total or subtotal facial resurfacing. This technique can be a reliable reconstruction option for extensive facial skin defect with undamaged muscles and deep structures, which could provide excellent aesthetic and functional outcomes with acceptable complications. Our approach may replace a conventional "skin-only" face allotransplantation in selected patients.
January 2017: Clinics in Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894386/-study-of-the-correlation-between-the-expression-of-angiotensin-%C3%A2-and-its-receptors-and-collagen-deposition-in-human-keloid
#19
J J Chen, X J Wu, Z Y Zhang, Z X Chen, Y Cen
Objective: To study the correlation between the expression of angiotensin Ⅱ, angiotensin Ⅱ type 1 receptor (AT1R), angiotensin Ⅱ type 2 receptor (AT2R) and collagen deposition in human keloid. Methods: The keloid from 19 keloid patients and normal skin from 13 patients performed with free skin transplantation hospitalized in our unit from May 2014 to January 2015 were obtained. The expressions of angiotensin Ⅱ, AT1R, and AT2R were detected by immunohistochemical staining, and the results were semi-quantitatively analyzed by immunohistochemical scoring...
November 20, 2016: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893674/relapsing-remitting-lesions-in-a-woman-with-progressive-hemifacial-atrophy-and-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-a-case-report
#20
Ying Zhang, Mingqin Zhu, Xiaozhen Li, Jing Miao, Chenchen Duan, Li Cui, Xuefan Yu
INTRODUCTION: Progressive hemifacial atrophy (PHA) is a rare disorder characterized by unilateral facial atrophy affecting the skin, subcutaneous tissue, and fat, muscle, and osteocartilagenous structures creating a sunken hemiface appearance.Etiopathogenesis of PHA is poorly understood; no definitive treatment is currently available. CLINICAL FINDINGS: We report a 41-year-old woman with PHA who showed an uncharacteristic "relapsing-remitting" evolution of brain lesions and was seropositive for hepatitis B virus (HBV)...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
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