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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934562/the-enduring-legacy-of-250-years-of-pharmacology-in-edinburgh
#1
John S Kelly, Angus V P Mackay
Two hundred fifty years ago, the University of Edinburgh appointed Francis Home to the first chair of materia medica, the accumulated knowledge of materials used in healing. Francis Home and his colleagues were determined to improve the quality of medical training in Edinburgh by introducing a final examination and compiling a catalog of medicines validated by the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh. The catalog, known as the Edinburgh Pharmacopoeia, was a great success, partly due to the orderly nature of its contents, its routine editing to eliminate worthless entries, and the introduction of new treatments whose preparation was precisely documented...
September 13, 2017: Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933509/-targeting-the-skin-erythema-multiforme-in-dogs-and-cats
#2
Ralf Mueller, Teresa M S A Boehm, Christoph J Klinger, Laura Udraite, Ralf S Mueller
This review article will describe the complex nature of erythema multiforme in dogs and cats. The disease pattern will be illustrated in terms of etiology, pathogenesis, clinical signs, diagnostics and therapy. Erythema multiforme is a rare, immune-mediated skin disorder with an acute specific reaction pattern of skin and mucous membranes against different underlying causes. Reported triggering factors include drugs, food ingredients and neoplasias, but viral or bacterial infections and vaccine reactions were also identified...
September 20, 2017: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe K, Kleintiere/Heimtiere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931735/dna-metabarcoding-of-orchid-derived-products-reveals-widespread-illegal-orchid-trade
#3
Hugo J de Boer, Abdolbaset Ghorbani, Vincent Manzanilla, Ancuta-Cristina Raclariu, Anna Kreziou, Sarawut Ounjai, Maslin Osathanunkul, Barbara Gravendeel
In eastern Mediterranean countries orchids continue to be collected from the wild for the production of salep, a beverage made of dried orchid tubers. In this study we used nrITS1 and nrITS2 DNA metabarcoding to identify orchid and other plant species present in 55 commercial salep products purchased in Iran, Turkey, Greece and Germany. Thirty samples yielded a total of 161 plant taxa, and 13 products (43%) contained orchid species and these belonged to 10 terrestrial species with tuberous roots. Another 70% contained the substitute ingredient Cyamopsis tetraganoloba (Guar)...
September 27, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924501/identification-and-analysis-of-cyp450-genes-from-transcriptome-of-lonicera-japonica-and-expression-analysis-of-chlorogenic-acid-biosynthesis-related-cyp450s
#4
Xiwu Qi, Xu Yu, Daohua Xu, Hailing Fang, Ke Dong, Weilin Li, Chengyuan Liang
BACKGROUND: Lonicera japonica is an important medicinal plant that has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for thousands of years. The pharmacological activities of L. japonica are mainly due to its rich natural active ingredients, most of which are secondary metabolites. CYP450s are a large, complex, and widespread superfamily of proteins that participate in many endogenous and exogenous metabolic reactions, especially secondary metabolism. Here, we identified CYP450s in L...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921826/growing-evidence-of-the-beneficial-effects-of-a-marine-protein-based-dietary-supplement-for-treating-hair-loss
#5
REVIEW
Carl S Hornfeldt
BACKGROUND: Hair loss is a common condition among women with a range of causes including nutritional deficiencies. AIMS: To review the clinical data supporting the use of an oral marine supplement designed to promote hair growth. PATIENTS/METHODS: Adult women with temporary thinning hair. Following an initial pilot study, five randomized, double-blind studies assessed the effectiveness of the oral marine supplement for promoting hair growth...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921579/material-basis-studies-of-anti-influenza-a-active-ingredients-in-tanreqing-injection
#6
Haiyan Zhu, Mingchang Chen, Xunlong Shi, Chenchen Shi, Chenggang Huang
Tanreqing Injection (TRQ) has been used primarily in treating infections of the upper respiratory tract and serious influenza in China, as a classical compound herbal recipe. TRQ had been demonstrated its effects of clearing heat, eliminating phlegm, detoxification, reducing inflammation and alleviating cough. The survival rate, histopathology of lungs and viral titers in mice were evaluated in this study to verify the curative effect of TRQ. However, there is not enough information about the components. In the present study, a high-performance and practical LC/QTOF/MS method was developed for characterization and identification of the natural ingredients in TRQ...
September 15, 2017: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917875/collagen-and-hyaluronic-acid-hydrogel-in-water-in-oil-microemulsion-delivery-systems
#7
Sylwia Kupper, Ilona Kłosowska-Chomiczewska, Patrycja Szumała
The increase in skin related health issues has promoted interest in research on the efficacy of microemulsion in dermal and transdermal delivery of active ingredients. Here, we assessed the water-in-oil microemulsion capacity to incorporate two natural polymers, i.e. collagen and hyaluronic acid with low and high molecular weight. Systems were extensively characterized in terms of conductivity, phase inversion studies, droplet diameter, polydispersity index and rheological properties. The results of this research indicate that the structure and extent of water phase in microemulsions is governed by ratio and amount of surfactant mixture (sorbitan ester derivatives)...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917846/an-efficient-chitosan-derived-carbon-silica-microspheres-supported-pd-catalyst-with-high-stability-for-heck-reactions
#8
Yechao Su, Luyao Ma, Jian Chen, Jianhong Xu
To maintain stability and activity in Heck-coupling reaction, a novel composite carrier with controllable uniform size, high complex ability and mechanical intensity was fabricated in microchannel using natural N-doped biomolecule chitosan and silica as ingredients. Post carbonization increased its thermal stability and supported Pd@C/silica catalysts can be acquired after Pd loading. Only 2mg supported Pd@C/silica catalysts (0.44μmol) can achieve high yield (>95%) in a typical Heck-coupling reaction and maintained activity even after 8 times of recycling...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917362/a-comparative-study-of-the-antacid-effect-of-some-commonly-consumed-foods-for-hyperacidity-in-an-artificial-stomach-model
#9
Vandana Panda, Priyanka Shinde, Jyoti Deora, Pankaj Gupta
OBJECTIVES: The incorporation of certain alkalinizing vegetables, fruits, milk and its products in the diet has been known to alleviate hyperacidity. These foods help to restore the natural gastric balance and function, curb acid reflux, aid digestion, reduce the burning sensation due to hyperacidity and soothe the inflamed mucosa of the stomach. The present study evaluates and compares the antacid effect of broccoli, kale, radish, cucumber, lemon juice, cold milk and curd in an artificial stomach model...
October 2017: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914788/a-decrease-of-incidence-cases-of-fumonisins-in-south-korean-feedstuff-between-2011-and-2016
#10
Juhee Park, Hansub Chang, Seungran Hong, Dongho Kim, Soohyun Chung, Chan Lee
Several plant pathogen Fusarium species produce fumonisins (FUMs); which can end up in food and feed and; when ingested; can exhibit harmful effects on humans and livestock. Mycotoxin intoxication by fumonisin B₁ (FB₁) and fumonisin B₂ (FB₂) can cause porcine pulmonary edema; leukoencephalomalacia in equines; esophageal cancer and birth defects by natural contamination. Herein; the occurrence of FB₁ and FB₂ in feedstuff (compound feed and feed ingredients) was investigated between 2011 and 2016 in South Korea...
September 15, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913690/natural-manganese-ore-catalyst-for-low-temperature-selective-catalytic-reduction-of-no-with-nh3-in-coke-oven-flue-gas
#11
Baozhong Zhu, Shoulai Yin, Yunlan Sun, Zicheng Zhu, Jiaxin Li
Different types of manganese ore raw materials were prepared for use as catalysts, and the effects of different manganese ore raw materials and calcination temperature on the NO conversion were analyzed. The catalysts were characterized by XRF, XRD, BET, XPS, H2-TPR, NH3-TPD, and SEM techniques. The results showed that the NO conversion of calcined manganese ore with a Mn:Fe:Al:Si ratio of 1.51:1.26:0.34:1 at 450 °C reached 80% at 120 °C and 98% at 180~240 °C. The suitable proportions and better dispersibility of active ingredients, larger BET surface area, good reductibility, a lot of acid sites, contents of Mn(4+) and Fe(3+), and surface-adsorbed oxygen played important roles in improving the NO conversion...
September 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913359/nutraceutical-anti-inflammatory-and-immune-modulatory-effects-of-%C3%AE-glucan-isolated-from-yeast
#12
Umar Bacha, Muhammad Nasir, Sanaullah Iqbal, Aftab Ahmad Anjum
β-Glucan is a dietary fibre, found in many natural sources, and controls chronic metabolic diseases effectively. However, β-glucan from the yeast has rarely been investigated. Objectively, conditions were optimized to isolate β-glucan from the yeast (max. 66% yield); those optimized conditions included 1.0 M NaOH, pH 7.0, and 90°C. The purity and identity of the isolated β-glucan were characterized through FT-IR, SEM, DSC, and physicofunctional properties. The obtained results from DSC revealed highly stable β-glucan (m...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911609/antibacterial-and-laxative-activities-of-strictinin-isolated-from-pu-er-tea-camellia-sinensis
#13
Sheng-Kuo Hsieh, Jun-Rui Xu, Nan-Hei Lin, Yue-Chiun Li, Guan-Heng Chen, Ping-Chung Kuo, Wen-Ying Chen, Jason T C Tzen
Strictinin, the major phenolic compound in Pu'er teas produced from young leaves and buds of wild trees, was isolated to evaluate its antibacterial and laxative activities. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of strictinin against Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis were determined as 250 μM and 2000 μM, respectively, apparently higher than those of several antibiotics commonly used for bacterial infections. The additive and synergistic effects on the inhibitory activities of strictinin combined with other commercial antibiotics were observed in two bacteria tested in this study via the analysis of fractional inhibitory concentrations...
October 2016: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911533/techniques-and-methods-to-study-functional-characteristics-of-emulsion-systems
#14
REVIEW
Yin-Ting Hu, Yuwen Ting, Jing-Yu Hu, Shu-Chen Hsieh
With the growing popularity of the functional food market, bioactive ingredients from natural sources are discovered one after another for their ability to promote better health and prevent chronic diseases. Emulsion, widely occurring in many food systems, has become a popular vehicle to facilitate the incorporation of bioactive components into the food system. Depending on the designated functionality, an emulsion can be developed with various physical and chemical properties. To ensure the successful development of a high-quality emulsion-based system to serve their purpose in food, knowledge of the analytical methods that could efficiently evaluate their quality parameters is important for investigators who work in this field...
January 2017: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910091/bioassay-guided-isolation-of-antioxidant-and-cytoprotective-constituents-from-a-maqui-berry-aristotelia-chilensis-dietary-supplement-ingredient-as-markers-for-qualitative-and-quantitative-analysis
#15
Jie Li, Chunhua Yuan, Li Pan, P Annécie Benatrehina, Heebyung Chai, William J Keller, C Benjamin Naman, A Douglas Kinghorn
Bioassay-guided phytochemical investigation of a commercially available maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis) extract used in botanical dietary supplement products led to the isolation of 16 compounds, including one phenolic molecule, 1, discovered for the first time from a natural source, along with several known compounds, 2-16, including three substances not reported previously in A. chilensis, 2, 14, and 15. Each isolate was characterized by detailed analysis of NMR spectroscopic and HRESIMS data, and tested for their in vitro hydroxyl radical scavenging and quinone-reductase inducing biological activities...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894105/a-duality-principle-for-the-multi-block-entanglement-entropy-of-free-fermion-systems
#16
J A Carrasco, F Finkel, A González-López, P Tempesta
The analysis of the entanglement entropy of a subsystem of a one-dimensional quantum system is a powerful tool for unravelling its critical nature. For instance, the scaling behaviour of the entanglement entropy determines the central charge of the associated Virasoro algebra. For a free fermion system, the entanglement entropy depends essentially on two sets, namely the set A of sites of the subsystem considered and the set K of excited momentum modes. In this work we make use of a general duality principle establishing the invariance of the entanglement entropy under exchange of the sets A and K to tackle complex problems by studying their dual counterparts...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891070/screening-bioactive-compounds-from-natural-product-and-its-preparations-using-capillary-electrophoresis
#17
Huifen Ma, Yun Bai, Jin Li, Yan-Xu Chang
Bioactive ingredients of natural products can protect human body from harm, as well as prevent and treat disease. Screening bioactive compounds from natural products is attracting particular attention. It is a great challenge to separate and detect the active compounds from complex matrix natural products. Capillary electrophoresis (CE) plays a vital role in screening active compounds because of its unique features such as high-efficiency separation, short analysis time, minimal sample consumption and ease to realize automatization etc...
September 11, 2017: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890698/multi-target-screening-and-experimental-validation-of-natural-products-from-selaginella-plants-against-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
Yin-Hua Deng, Ning-Ning Wang, Zhen-Xing Zou, Lin Zhang, Kang-Ping Xu, Alex F Chen, Dong-Sheng Cao, Gui-Shan Tan
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive and irreversible neurodegenerative disorder which is considered to be the most common cause of dementia. It has a greater impact not only on the learning and memory disturbances but also on social and economy. Currently, there are mainly single-target drugs for AD treatment but the complexity and multiple etiologies of AD make them difficult to obtain desirable therapeutic effects. Therefore, the choice of multi-target drugs will be a potential effective strategy inAD treatment...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889522/salidroside-a-chemopreventive-glycoside-diminishes-cytotoxic-effect-of-cisplatin-in-vitro
#19
Martina Zduriencikova, Dana Cholujova, Jozef Duraj, Maria Mastihubova, Vladimir Mastihuba, Elena Karnisova Potocka, Eliska Galova, Andrea Sevcovicova, Martina Klapakova, Eva Horvathova
Natural products represent the source or the inspiration for the majority of the active ingredients of medicines because of their structural diversity and a wide range of biological effects. Our aims in this study were (i) to synthesize enzymatically salidroside (SAL), the most effective phenylethanoid glycoside in Rhodiola species; (ii) to examine its antioxidant capacity using cell-free assays (reducing power, DPPH radicals scavenging and Fe(2+) -chelating assays); (iii) to assess its DNA-protective potential on plasmid DNA (DNA topology assay) and in HepG2 cells (comet assay) damaged by Fe(2+) ions and hydrogen peroxide, respectively; and (iv) to investigate the effects of SAL, cisplatin (CDDP) and combined treatments of SAL + CDDP on cell viability (MTT test), level of DNA damage (comet assay), proliferation, cell cycle (flow cytometry) and the expression of signalling molecules associated with cell growth and apoptotic pathways (western immunoblotting)...
September 10, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885973/hemorrhagic-stroke-in-a-young-healthy-male-following-use-of-pre-workout-supplement-animal-rage-xl
#20
Brandon F Harris, Coty Winn, Thomas B Ableman
So-called "pre-workout" supplements are substances marketed as natural dietary supplements with claims of helping athletes achieve more focused and intense workouts. The use of such products remains popular among American youth as a whole, but is especially high among active duty service members. Supplements are minimally regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and unlike pharmaceuticals, supplements are often brought to market without any testing to show neither efficacy nor safety. Several case reports have documented serious adverse events and raise the question of whether supplement use was a causative factor...
September 2017: Military Medicine
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