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Hörmet Yiltiz, Lihan Chen
Perceptions of ambiguous biological motion are modulated by different individual cognitive abilities (such as inhibition and empathy) and emotional states (such as anxiety). This study explored facing-the-viewer bias (FTV) in perceiving ambiguous directions of biological motion, and investigated whether task-irrelevant simultaneous face emotional cues in the background and the individual social anxiety traits could affect FTV. We found that facial motion cues as background affect sociobiologically relevant scenarios, including biological motion, but not non-biological situations (conveyed through random dot motion)...
March 13, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Ivo Iavicoli, Veruscka Leso, Luca Fontana, Edward J Calabrese
The concept of hormesis, as an adaptive response of biological systems to moderate environmental challenges, has raised considerable nano-toxicological interests in view of the rapid pace of production and application of even more innovative nanomaterials and the expected increasing likelihood of environmental and human exposure to low-dose concentrations. Therefore, the aim of this review is to provide an update of the current knowledge concerning the biphasic dose-responses induced by nanoparticle exposure...
March 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Mattia P Arena, Coen Govers, Concetta Lotti, Luigi Ricciardi, Harry J Wichers, Jurriaan J Mes
More understanding of the risk-benefit effect of the glycoalkaloid tomatine is required to be able to estimate the role it might play in our diet. In this work, we focused on effects towards intestinal epithelial cells based on a Caco-2 model in order to analyze the influence on the cell monolayer integrity and on the expression levels of genes involved in cholesterol/sterol biosynthesis (LDLR), lipid metabolism (NR2F2), glucose and amino acid uptake (SGLT1, PAT1), cell cycle (PCNA, CDKN1A), apoptosis (CASP-3, BMF, KLF6), tight junctions (CLDN4, OCLN2) and cytokine-mediated signaling (IL-8, IL1β, TSLP, TNF-α)...
March 13, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Regina G Belz, Marjo Patama, Aki Sinkkonen
Toxicants are known to have negligible or stimulatory, i.e. hormetic, effects at low doses below those that decrease the mean response of a plant population. Our earlier observations indicated that at such low toxicant doses the growth of very fast- and slow-growing seedlings is selectively altered, even if the population mean remains constant. Currently, it is not known how common these selective low-dose effects are, whether they are similar among fast- and slow-growing seedlings, and whether they occur concurrently with hormetic effects...
March 9, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Hiroshi Sakagami, Mayumi Tsuji, Mineko Tomomura, Yoshiko Masuda, Soichi Iwama, Mika Nakagawa, Hayato Suzuki, Kenta Tanaka, Tomoyuki Abe, Nobuaki Tamura, Akito Tomomura, Satoshi Yokose, Hiroshi Takeshima, Takenori Natori, Misaki Horiuchi, Tomohiro Fujisawa, Yuji Kiuchi, Katsuji Oguchi, Toshikazu Yasui, Hiroshi Oizumi, Takaaki Oizumi
BACKGROUND/AIM: We have previously reported the protection of doxorubicin-induced keratinocyte toxicity by alkaline extract of the leaves of Sasa senanensis Rehder (SE). In order to extend the generality of the cell protective effect of SE, we investigated whether it also protects rat PC12 and human SH-SY5Y neuron model cells from amyloid β-peptide (Aβ)-induced injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Viability of cells was determined by the MTT method. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by the concentration that reduces the cell viability by 50% (CC50 )...
March 2018: In Vivo
Haoyu Sun, Yongzheng Pan, Yue Gu, Zhifen Lin
Cross-phenomenon in which the concentration-response curve (CRC) for a mixture crosses the CRC for the reference model has been identified in many studies, expressed as a heterogeneous pattern of joint toxic action. However, a mechanistic explanation of the cross-phenomenon has thus far been extremely insufficient. In this study, a time-dependent cross-phenomenon was observed, in which the cross-concentration range between the CRC for the mixture of sulfamethoxypyridazine (SMP) and (Z-)-4-Bromo-5-(bromomethylene)-2(5H)-furanone (C30) to the bioluminescence of Aliivibrio fischeri (A...
February 19, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Ilia N Karatsoreos
"Stress is complicated". A phrase uttered by many a stress researcher. This is true, from the vast array of stimuli considered "stressors" to the interactive and hormetic nature of the molecular, cellular, endocrine, and behavioral responses generated by such stressors. This commentary takes the position that stress researchers are poised to make even bigger contributions if they begin to shift from investigating the myriad effects of stress on brain and body, and to refocus a larger part of our efforts on more in-depth investigations of common themes in stress biology, with the goal of uncovering potential "universal principles" of stress that may help us better interpret the findings at higher levels of analysis, and provide a structured approach to help breach the next frontiers of stress research...
February 19, 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
Regina G Belz, Muhammad B Farooq, Jean Wagner
BACKGROUND: A field-evolved herbicide-resistant weed population can represent a heterogeneous composite of subpopulations that differ in their susceptibility and responsiveness to herbicide hormesis. Variable hormesis responsiveness can result in selection for and against certain subpopulations under low herbicide doses, and this has the potential to contribute to the evolution of resistance. The relevance of this hypothesis at practical field rates was studied for two field-collected acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase) target-site resistant (TSR) biotypes of Alopecurus myosuroides Huds...
February 15, 2018: Pest Management Science
Bahareh Nahidian, Faezeh Ghanati, Maryam Shahbazi, Neda Soltani
The vegetative growth of Haematococcus pluvialis TMU1 was studied under batchwise cultivation in three common media, namely BBM, BG11, and 3NBBM. The BBM provided the best condition for the algal growth. It was further studied at different levels of nitrate and phosphate as macronutrients as well as iron and boron as trace elements. The dose-response of the algal growth to these macro/micronutrients was modeled with Monod/hormetic-type kinetics. Applying the modified BBM with 3-fold higher phosphate led to the highest cell density and up to 86% increase in the growth rate...
January 31, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Nan Yu, Sinian Wang, Xiujun Song, Ling Gao, Wei Li, Huijie Yu, Chuanchuan Zhou, Zhenxia Wang, Fengsheng Li, Qisheng Jiang
For dendritic cells (DCs) to initiate an immune response, their ability to migrate and to produce interleukin-12 (IL-12) is crucial. It has been previously shown that low-dose radiation (LDR) promoted IL-12 production by DCs, resulting in increased DC activity that contributed to LDR hormesis in the immune system. However, the molecular mechanism of LDR-induced IL-12 production, as well as the effect of LDR on DC migration capacity require further elucidation. Using the JAWSII immortalized mouse dendritic cell line, we showed that in vitro X-ray irradiation (0...
February 8, 2018: Radiation Research
Meltem Ağca, Fatma Tokgöz Akyıl, Merve Hörmet, Oğuzhan Akman, Canan Akman, Ayçim Şen, Tülin Sevim
Pulmonary lymphangitic carcinomatosis (PLC) is defined as infiltration of the lymphatic vessels and perilymphatic connective tissue with tumor cells, which is secondary to malignancy. Therefore, it rarely appears as an initial finding preceding a diagnosis of malignancy. A 30-year-old male patient was hospitalized in our clinic with a pre-diagnosis of interstitial lung disease owing to the complaints of dry cough, progressive dyspnea, and acute respiratory insufficiency. He was diagnosed with signet ring cell carcinoma, which is a histologic subtype of adenocarcinoma, via gastroscopy, and lung involvement was consistent with PLC...
July 2017: Turkish Thoracic Journal
Franziska Dickel, Daniel Münch, Gro Vang Amdam, Johanna Mappes, Dalial Freitak
Recent studies of honeybees and bumblebees have examined combinatory effects of different stressors, as insect pollinators are naturally exposed to multiple stressors. At the same time the potential influences of simultaneously occurring agricultural agents on insect pollinator health remain largely unknown. Due to different farming methods, and the drift of applied agents and manure, pollinators are most probably exposed to insecticides but also bacteria from organic fertilizers at the same time. We orally exposed honeybee workers to sub-lethal doses of the insecticide thiacloprid and two strains of the bacterium Enterococcus faecalis, which can occur in manure from farming animals...
2018: PloS One
Bertanne Visser, Caroline M Williams, Daniel A Hahn, Clancy A Short, Giancarlo López-Martínez
Oxygen is essential for most animals and exposure to a complete lack of oxygen, i.e. anoxia, can result in irreparable damage to cells that can extend up to the organismal level to negatively affect performance. While it is known that brief anoxia exposure may confer cross-tolerance to other stressors, few data exist on the biochemical and organismal consequences of repeated intermittent bouts of anoxia exposure. In nature, the Caribbean fruit fly Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)(Diptera: Tephritidae) is frequently exposed to heavy tropical rainfall while pupating in the soil, equating to multiple exposures to hypoxia or anoxia during development...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Joel N Meyer, Jessica H Hartman, Danielle F Mello
Recent decades have seen a rapid increase in reported toxic effects of drugs and pollutants on mitochondria. Researchers have also documented many genetic differences leading to mitochondrial diseases, currently reported to affect ∼1 person in 4,300, creating a large number of potential gene-environment interactions in mitochondrial toxicity. We briefly review this history, and then highlight cutting-edge areas of mitochondrial research including the role of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species in signaling; increased understanding of fundamental biological processes involved in mitochondrial homeostasis (DNA maintenance and mutagenesis, mitochondrial stress response pathways, fusion and fission, autophagy and biogenesis, and exocytosis); systemic effects resulting from mitochondrial stresses in specific cell types; mitochondrial involvement in immune function; the growing evidence of long-term effects of mitochondrial toxicity; mitochondrial-epigenetic cross-talk; and newer approaches to test chemicals for mitochondrial toxicity...
January 11, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
E J Calabrese
In 2006, Henschler disputed the claim of Calabrese and Baldwin that Hugo Schulz should be considered the originator of the hormesis concept. Henschler cited an 1854 paper by Rudolf Virchow on the effects of two agents on the beating of cilia, which showed a hormetic-biphasic dose response. The interpretation of Henschler became broadly accepted over the past decade based on citations in the literature. However, a recent translation of the Virchow paper from German into English reveals that the claims of Henschler are not supported by the article...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
Iavor K Vladimirov, Desislava Tacheva, Antonio Diez
Background: To create hypothesis, which can give a logical explanation related to the benefits of freezing/thawing embryos. Cryopreservation is not only a technology used for storing embryos, but also a method of embryo treatment that can potentially improve the success rate in infertile couples. Methods: From the analysis of multiple results in assisted reproductive technology, which have no satisfactory explanation to date, we found evidence to support a 'therapeutic' effect of the freezing/thawing of embryos on the process of recovery of the embryo and its subsequent implantation...
April 2017: Reproductive Medicine and Biology
Jericó J Bello-Bello, Rocío A Chavez-Santoscoy, Carlos A Lecona-Guzmán, Nina Bogdanchikova, Josafhat Salinas-Ruíz, Fernando Carlos Gómez-Merino, Alexey Pestryakov
Background: Hormesis is considered a dose-response phenomenon characterized by growth stimulation at low doses and inhibition at high doses. The hormetic response by silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on in vitro multiplication of sugarcane was evaluated using a temporary immersion system. Methods: Sugarcane shoots were used as explants cultured in Murashige and Skoog medium with AgNPs at concentrations of 0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/L. Shoot multiplication rate and length were used to determine hormetic response...
October 2017: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
Luana Haselein Maurer, Andriely Moreira Bersch, Roberta Oliveira Santos, Simone Cezar Trindade, Eduarda Lasch Costa, Marcelle Moreira Peres, Carlos Augusto Malmann, Mauricio Schneider, Vivian Caetano Bochi, Claudia Kaehler Sautter, Tatiana Emanuelli
Ultraviolet light type C (UV-C) was studied as a tool to increase enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defenses and phytochemical levels in 'Isabel' grapes (Vitis labrusca×Vitis vinifera L.). Grapes were exposed to 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, or 4.0kJm-2 UV-C and stored for 1, 3, or 5days post-treatment. One day after UV-C irradiation, the activities of grape antioxidant enzymes and thiols were increased, especially at 1.0 and 2.0kJm-2 . These doses increased total phenolic content by almost 20%, while 0.5 and 4...
December 2017: Food Research International
Antoni Sureda, Xavier Capó, Carla Busquets-Cortés, Silvia Tejada
The use of sunscreens to protect against ultraviolet radiation exposure progressively increases as result of a greater awareness of the people and the greater arrival of tourists. The components of these creams can end up in the waters affecting coastal species. Mediterranean mussels (Mytillus galloprovincialis) were subjected to an acute exposure of a sunscreen with TiO2 in their composition during 24h. The low and medium concentrations used in the assays contained a concentration of TiO2 in the range of values found in coastal waters of the Balearic Islands...
November 15, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Se-A Kim, Yu-Mi Lee, Je-Yong Choi, David R Jacobs, Duk-Hee Lee
Although the toxicity of synthetic chemicals at high doses is well known, chronic exposure to low-dose chemical mixtures has only recently been linked to many age-related diseases. However, it is nearly impossible to avoid the exposure to these low-dose chemical mixtures as humans are exposed to a myriad of synthetic chemicals as a part of their daily lives. Therefore, coping with possible harms due to low dose chemical mixtures is challenging. Interestingly, within the range of environmental exposure, disease risk does not increase linearly with increasing dose of chemicals, but often tends to plateau or even decrease with increasing dose...
November 7, 2017: Environmental Pollution
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