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materials science

Rodney A Green, Laura Y Whitburn, Anita Zacharias, Graeme Byrne, Diane L Hughes
Blended learning has become increasingly common in higher education. Recent findings suggest that blended learning achieves better student outcomes than traditional face-to-face teaching in gross anatomy courses. While face-to-face content is perceived as important to learning there is less evidence for the significance of online content in improving student outcomes. Students enrolled in a second-year anatomy course from the physiotherapy (PT), exercise physiology (EP), and exercise science (ES) programs across two campuses were included (n = 500)...
December 13, 2017: Anatomical Sciences Education
Lars-Gunnar Lundh
The present paper outlines the nature of a three-dimensional ontology and the place of psychological science within this ontology, in a way that is partly similar to and partly different from that of Pérez-Álvarez. The first dimension is the material realities, and involves different levels (physical, chemical, biological, psychological, etc.), where each level builds on a lower level but also involves the development of new emergent properties, in accordance with Bunge's emergent materialism. Each level involves systems, with components, structures and mechanisms, and an environment...
December 12, 2017: Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science
Diogo Montalvão, Andrew Wren
The necessity to increase performances in terms of lifetime and security in mechanical components or structures is the motivation for intense research in fatigue. Applications range from aeronautics to medical devices. With the development of new materials, there is no longer a fatigue limit in the classical sense, where it was accepted that the fatigue limit is the stress level such that there is no fracture up to 1E7 cycles. The recent development of ultrasonic testing machines where frequencies can go as high as 20 kHz or over enabled tests to be extended to ranges larger than 1E9 in just a few days...
November 2017: Heliyon
Christiana E Udoh, João T Cabral, Valeria Garbin
The precise spatiotemporal delivery of nanoparticles from polymeric capsules is required for applications ranging from medicine to materials science. These capsules derive key performance aspects from their overall shape and dimensions, porosity, and internal microstructure. To this effect, microfluidics provide an exceptional platform for emulsification and subsequent capsule formation. However, facile and robust approaches for nanocomposite capsule fabrication, exhibiting triggered nanoparticle release, remain elusive because of the complex coupling of polymer-nanoparticle phase behavior, diffusion, phase inversion, and directional solidification...
December 2017: Science Advances
Linda S Garavalia, Ligaya Chan, Marvin Ortiz, Monica Muniz-Delgado, Jesse F Martinez
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This paper describes a student-led co-curricular training program to increase pharmacy student proficiency with medical Spanish terminology. Western University of Health Sciences (WesternU) pharmacy students frequently can interact with Spanish-speaking patients in experiential rotations. Moreover, the clear majority of program graduates remain in California, a state with a high Spanish-speaking population. Developing foundational knowledge of medical Spanish terminology can enhance communication with Spanish-speaking patients, who may have limited English proficiency and experience a lack of language concordance when interacting with the healthcare system...
July 2017: Currents in Pharmacy Teaching & Learning
Wesley Nuffer, Sheila Botts, Kari Franson, Eric Gilliam, Randy Knutsen, Monika Nuffer, Elizabeth O'Brien, Joseph Saseen, Megan Thompson, Joseph Vande Griend, Robert Willis
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The University of Colorado Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences (SSPPS) used the opportunity of curriculum renewal to integrate knowledge and skills learned from didactic courses into the introductory pharmacy practice experiences (IPPEs) occurring simultaneously. This paper describes and evaluates the meaningful application of course content into IPPEs, and evaluates the success using qualitative feedback. EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY AND SETTING: Students entering the renewed curriculum starting in fall 2012 were provided a list of pharmacy skills and activities from didactic course directors that reinforced course content for that semester...
November 2017: Currents in Pharmacy Teaching & Learning
David M R Orr, Michael Preston-Shoot, Suzy Braye
Hoarding has become increasingly prominent in clinical practice and popular culture in recent years, giving rise to extensive research and commentary. Critical responses in the social sciences have criticised the cultural assumptions built in to the construct of 'hoarding disorder' and expressed fears that it may generate stigma outweighing its benefits; however, few of these studies have engaged directly with 'hoarders' themselves. This paper reports on in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 10 individuals living in England, who received assessment and intervention for hoarding from Social Services...
December 12, 2017: Anthropology & Medicine
Shine K Albert, Irla Sivakumar, Murali Golla, Hari Veera Prasad Thelu, Nithiyanandan Krishnan, Joseph Libin K L, Ashish, Reji Varghese
Design and synthesis of high aspect ratio 2D nanosheets with surface having ultradense array of information-rich molecule such as DNA is extremely challenging. Herein, we report a universal strategy based on amphiphilicity-driven self-assembly for the crafting of high aspect ratio, 2D sheets that are densely surface-decorated with DNA. Microscopy and X-ray analyses have shown that the sheets are crystalline. The most unique feature of the sheets is DNA-directed surface addressability, which is demonstrated through the decoration of either faces of the sheet with gold nanoparticles through sequence-specific DNA hybridization...
December 13, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Satish Jaiswal, R Manoj Kumar, Pallavi Gupta, Murali Kumaraswamy, Partha Roy, Debrupa Lahiri
Development of biodegradable implants has grown into one of the important areas in medical science. Degradability becomes more important for orthopaedic accessories used to support fractured and damaged bones, in order to avoid second surgery for their removal after healing. Clinically available biodegradable orthopaedic materials are mainly made of polymers or ceramics. These orthopaedic accessories have an unsatisfactory mechanical strength, when used in load-bearing parts. Magnesium and its alloys can be suitable candidate for this purpose, due to their outstanding strength to weight ratio, biodegradability, non-toxicity and mechanical properties, similar to natural bone...
November 21, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Bernhard Blümich, Kawarpal Singh
NMR spectroscopy is an indispensable method of analysis in chemistry, which until recently suffered from high demands for space, high costs for acquisition and maintenance, and operational complexity. This has changed with the introduction of compact NMR spectrometers suitable for small-molecule analysis on the chemical workbench. These spectrometers contain permanent magnets giving rise to proton NMR frequencies between 40 and 80 MHz. The enabling technology is to make small permanent magnets with homogeneous fields...
December 12, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
K Adrjanowicz, M Paluch, R Richert
Static electric fields were observed to modify the crystallization behavior in a simple supercooled liquid, leading to a new crystal polymorph that could not be obtained in the absence of a field, even under high-pressure conditions. Using different thermal protocols and field amplitudes in the range from 40 to 200 kV cm-1, changes in both nucleation and crystal growth rates of 4-vinyl-propylene carbonate (vinyl-PC) are revealed. Remarkably, all field-induced changes in the crystallization behaviour were found to be fully reversible and do not affect dynamics of the tested liquid...
December 12, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Martin Cheek
Background: Although many new species to science have been discovered from thousands of specimens resulting from botanical inventories to support conservation management in Cameroon in recent years, additional species remain to be formally evaluated taxonomically and described. These include species from genera which have been taxonomically neglected for many decades in Africa, such as Microcos. Methods: This study is based mainly on herbarium specimens and field observations made in Cameroon during a series of botanical surveys...
2017: PeerJ
Keyume Ablajan, Grace B Panetti, Xiaodong Yang, Byeong-Seon Kim, Patrick J Walsh
The direct arylation of weakly acidic sp3-hybridized C-H bonds via deprotonated cross-coupling processes (DCCP) is a challenge. Herein, a Pd(NIXANTPHOS)-based catalyst for the mono arylation of 4-pyridylmethyl 2-aryl ethers to generate diarylated 4-pyridyl methyl ethers is introduced. Furthermore, under similar conditions, the diarylation of 4-pyridylmethyl ethers with aryl bromides has been developed. These methods enable the synthesis of new pyridine derivatives, which are common in medicinally active compounds and in application in materials science...
June 6, 2017: Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis
Tetsuya Kambe, Naoki Haruta, Takane Imaoka, Kimihisa Yamamoto
Superatoms, clusters that mimic the properties of elements different to those of which they are composed, have the potential to serve as building blocks for unprecedented materials with tunable properties. The development of a method for the solution-phase synthesis of superatoms would be an indispensable achievement for the future progress of this research field. Here we report the fabrication of aluminum clusters in solution using a dendrimer template, producing Al13-, which is the most well-known superatom...
December 11, 2017: Nature Communications
Liu Wang, Zijie Zhang, Biwu Liu, Yibo Liu, Anand Lopez, Jian Wu, Juewen Liu
Calcium phosphate (CaP) has long been used for DNA delivery, although its fundamental interaction with DNA, especially with single-stranded DNA oligonucleotides, remains to be fully understood. Using fluorescently labeled oligonucleotides, we herein studied DNA adsorption isotherm and the effect of DNA length and sequence. Longer DNAs are adsorbed more strongly, and at neutral pH, poly-C DNAs are adsorbed more than the other three DNA homopolymers. However, at near pH 11, the pH of CaP synthesis, T30 DNA is adsorbed more strongly than C30 or A30...
December 11, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
R S P Horler, A Turner, P Fretter, M Ambrose
SeedStor ( acts as the publicly available database for the seed collections held by the Germplasm Resources Unit (GRU) based at the John Inness Centre, Norwich, UK. The GRU is a national capability supported by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC). The GRU curates' germplasm collections of a range of temperate cereal, legume and Brassica crops and their associated wild relatives as well as precise genetic stocks, near-isogenic lines and mapping populations...
December 8, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
Lucas R Parent, Evangelos Bakalis, Maria Proetto, Yiwen Li, Chiwoo Park, Francesco Zerbetto, Nathan C Gianneschi
Revolutions in science and engineering frequently result from the development, and wide adoption, of a new, powerful characterization or imaging technique. Beginning with the first glass lenses and telescopes in astronomy, to the development of visual-light microscopy, staining techniques, confocal microscopy, and fluorescence super-resolution microscopy in biology, and most recently aberration-corrected, cryogenic, and ultrafast (4D) electron microscopy, X-ray microscopy, and scanning probe microscopy in nanoscience...
December 11, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
(no author information available yet)
Original Article: Huynh, A. C., Oakes, H., Shay, G. R., & McGregor, I. (2017). The wisdom in virtue: Pursuit of virtue predicts wise reasoning about personal conflicts. Psychological Science, 28, 1848-1856. doi:10.1177/0956797617722621 In this article, results for the Pursuit of Virtue × Conflict Type interaction in Study 2 were incorrectly reported. The final paragraph on page 1854 stated, "As in Study 1, we found a significant Pursuit of Virtue × Conflict Type interaction, F(1, 353) = 4.61, p = .032, η p2 = ...
December 2017: Psychological Science
Ping Zhang, Peng Yuan, Xiong Jiang, Siping Zhai, Jianhua Zeng, Yaoqi Xian, Hongbo Qin, Daoguo Yang
With the development of energy science and electronic technology, interfacial thermal transport has become a key issue for nanoelectronics, nanocomposites, energy transmission, and conservation, etc. The application of thermal interfacial materials and other physical methods can reliably improve the contact between joined surfaces and enhance interfacial thermal transport at the macroscale. With the growing importance of thermal management in micro/nanoscale devices, controlling and tuning the interfacial thermal resistance (ITR) at the nanoscale is an urgent task...
December 11, 2017: Small
Zhisen Liang, Shudi Zhang, Xiaoping Li, Tongtong Wang, Yaping Huang, Wei Hang, Zhilin Yang, Jianfeng Li, Zhongqun Tian
Spectroscopic methods with nanoscale lateral resolution are becoming essential in the fields of physics, chemistry, geology, biology, and materials science. However, the lateral resolution of laser-based mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) techniques has so far been limited to the microscale. This report presents the development of tip-enhanced ablation and ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TEAI-TOFMS), using a shell-isolated apertureless silver tip. The TEAI-TOFMS results indicate the capability and reproducibility of the system for generating nanosized craters and for acquiring the corresponding mass spectral signals...
December 2017: Science Advances
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