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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212109/sustainable-exposure-prevention-through-innovative-detection-and-remediation-technologies-from-the-niehs-superfund-research-program
#1
Heather F Henry, William A Suk
Innovative devices and tools for exposure assessment and remediation play an integral role in preventing exposure to hazardous substances. New solutions for detecting and remediating organic, inorganic, and mixtures of contaminants can improve public health as a means of primary prevention. Using a public health prevention model, detection and remediation technologies contribute to primary prevention as tools to identify areas of high risk (e.g. contamination hotspots), to recognize hazards (bioassay tests), and to prevent exposure through contaminant cleanups...
February 17, 2017: Reviews on Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211503/the-enforcement-of-moral-boundaries-promotes-cooperation-and-prosocial-behavior-in-groups
#2
Brent Simpson, Robb Willer, Ashley Harrell
The threat of free-riding makes the marshalling of cooperation from group members a fundamental challenge of social life. Where classical social science theory saw the enforcement of moral boundaries as a critical way by which group members regulate one another's self-interest and build cooperation, moral judgments have most often been studied as processes internal to individuals. Here we investigate how the interpersonal expression of positive and negative moral judgments encourages cooperation in groups and prosocial behavior between group members...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211056/targeted-mass-media-interventions-promoting-healthy-behaviours-to-reduce-risk-of-non-communicable-diseases-in-adult-ethnic-minorities
#3
REVIEW
Annhild Mosdøl, Ingeborg B Lidal, Gyri H Straumann, Gunn E Vist
BACKGROUND: Physical activity, a balanced diet, avoidance of tobacco exposure, and limited alcohol consumption may reduce morbidity and mortality from non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Mass media interventions are commonly used to encourage healthier behaviours in population groups. It is unclear whether targeted mass media interventions for ethnic minority groups are more or less effective in changing behaviours than those developed for the general population. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of mass media interventions targeting adult ethnic minorities with messages about physical activity, dietary patterns, tobacco use or alcohol consumption to reduce the risk of NCDs...
February 17, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208274/direct-trace-element-analysis-of-liquid-blood-samples-by-in-air-ion-beam-analytical-techniques-pixe-pige
#4
Robert Huszank, László Csedreki, Zsófia Török
There are various liquid materials whose elemental composition is of interest in various fields of science and technology. In many cases, sample preparation or the extraction can be complicated, or it would destroy the original environment before the analysis (for example, in the case of biological samples). However, multielement direct analysis of liquid samples can be realized by an external PIXE-PIGE measurement system. Particle-induced X-ray and gamma-ray emission spectroscopy (PIXE, PIGE) techniques were applied in external (in-air) microbeam configuration for the trace and main element determination of liquid samples...
February 7, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206775/one-hundred-years-of-the-journal-of-applied-psychology-background-evolution-and-scientific-trends
#5
Steve W J Kozlowski, Gilad Chen, Eduardo Salas
To launch this Special Issue of the Journal of Applied Psychology celebrating the 1st century of the journal we conducted a review encompassing the background of the founding of the journal; a quantitative assessment of its evolution across the century; and an examination of trends examining article type, article length, authorship patterns, supplemental materials, and research support. The journal was founded in March of 1917 with hopeful optimism about the potential of psychology being applied to practical problems could enhance human happiness, well-being, and effectiveness...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205401/computer-aided-drug-design-to-explore-cyclodextrin-therapeutics-and-biomedical-applications
#6
Azizeh Abdolmaleki, Fatemeh Ghasemi, Jahan B Ghasemi
Cyclodextrin (CD) is a subset of the macrocyclic structural class, which is an important class of small organic agents that are useful functional excipients. They have wide range application possibilities in different fields of sciences such as material preparation, medicine, analytical chemistry, and separation processes. They are used widely in pharmaceutical formulations and drug delivery for increasing the water solubility of low soluble drugs and drug candidates. Due to the ring structure, they behave differently than smaller molecules and may be capable of hitting new classes of targets...
February 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202966/stable-colloids-in-molten-inorganic-salts
#7
Hao Zhang, Kinjal Dasbiswas, Nicholas B Ludwig, Gang Han, Byeongdu Lee, Suri Vaikuntanathan, Dmitri V Talapin
A colloidal solution is a homogeneous dispersion of particles or droplets of one phase (solute) in a second, typically liquid, phase (solvent). Colloids are ubiquitous in biological, chemical and technological processes, homogenizing highly dissimilar constituents. To stabilize a colloidal system against coalescence and aggregation, the surface of each solute particle is engineered to impose repulsive forces strong enough to overpower van der Waals attraction and keep the particles separated from each other...
February 15, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199312/materials-science-organic-analogues-of-graphene
#8
Maryam Ebrahimi, Federico Rosei
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198933/applying-a-southern-solvent-an-interview-with-warwick-anderson
#9
Warwick Anderson, Marcos Cueto, Ricardo Ventura Santos
An interview by the editor and a member of the scientific board of História, Ciências, Saúde - Manguinhos with Warwick Anderson, a leading historian of science and race from Australia. He talks about his training, positions he held at US universities, his publications, and his research at the University of Sydney. He discusses his current concern with the circulation of racial knowledge and biological materials as well as with the construction of networks of racial studies in the global south during the twentieth century...
December 2016: História, Ciências, Saúde—Manguinhos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198384/hyperspectral-infrared-nanoimaging-of-organic-samples-based-on-fourier-transform-infrared-nanospectroscopy
#10
Iban Amenabar, Simon Poly, Monika Goikoetxea, Wiwat Nuansing, Peter Lasch, Rainer Hillenbrand
Infrared nanospectroscopy enables novel possibilities for chemical and structural analysis of nanocomposites, biomaterials or optoelectronic devices. Here we introduce hyperspectral infrared nanoimaging based on Fourier transform infrared nanospectroscopy with a tunable bandwidth-limited laser continuum. We describe the technical implementations and present hyperspectral infrared near-field images of about 5,000 pixel, each one covering the spectral range from 1,000 to 1,900 cm(-1). To verify the technique and to demonstrate its application potential, we imaged a three-component polymer blend and a melanin granule in a human hair cross-section, and demonstrate that multivariate data analysis can be applied for extracting spatially resolved chemical information...
February 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195226/controlled-growth-of-hexagonal-gold-nanostructures-during-thermally-induced-self-assembling-on-ge-001-surface
#11
B R Jany, N Gauquelin, T Willhammar, M Nikiel, K H W van den Bos, A Janas, K Szajna, J Verbeeck, S Van Aert, G Van Tendeloo, F Krok
Nano-sized gold has become an important material in various fields of science and technology, where control over the size and crystallography is desired to tailor the functionality. Gold crystallizes in the face-centered cubic (fcc) phase, and its hexagonal closed packed (hcp) structure is a very unusual and rare phase. Stable Au hcp phase has been reported to form in nanoparticles at the tips of some Ge nanowires. It has also recently been synthesized in the form of thin graphene-supported sheets which are unstable under electron beam irradiation...
February 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195194/in-situ-study-of-nucleation-and-aggregation-phases-for-nanoparticles-grown-by-laser-driven-methods
#12
M Barberio, P Antici
In the last decades, nanomaterials and nanotechnologies have become fundamental and irreplaceable in many fields of science and technology. When used in applications, their properties depend on many factors such as size, shape, internal structure and composition. For this, exact knowledge of their structural features is essential when developing fabrication technologies and searching for new types of nanostructures or nanoparticles with specific properties. For the latter, the knowledge of the precise temporal evolution of the growth processes is fundamental when it comes to industrial production and applications...
February 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194338/development-of-medical-writing-in-india-past-present-and-future
#13
REVIEW
Suhasini Sharma
Pharmaceutical medical writing has grown significantly in India in the last couple of decades. It includes preparing regulatory, safety, and publication documents as well as educational and communication material related to health and health-care products. Medical writing requires medical understanding, knowledge of drug development and the regulatory and safety domains, understanding of research methodologies, and awareness of relevant regulations and guidelines. It also requires the ability to analyze, interpret, and present biomedical scientific data in the required format and good writing skills...
January 2017: Perspectives in Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194178/role-of-helicobacter-pylori-eradication-therapy-on-platelet-recovery-in-chronic-immune-thrombocytopenic-purpura
#14
Khan Sheema, Ujjan Ikramdin, Naz Arshi, Naz Farah, Sheikh Imran
Background. Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is a bleeding disorder in which the immune system destroys native platelets. In this condition an autoantibody is generated against a platelet antigen. ITP affects women more often than men and is more common in children than adults. Objective. To assess the effect of Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy (HPET) on platelet count in Helicobacter pylori associated chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura (chronic ITP) in adult. Materials and Methods. It is an interventional prospective study conducted at Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro, from 2014 to 2015...
2017: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192957/integrated-extraction-chromatographic-separation-of-the-lithophile-elements-involved-in-long-lived-radiogenic-isotope-systems-rb-sr-u-th-pb-sm-nd-la-ce-and-lu-hf-useful-in-geochemical-and-environmental-sciences
#15
Christian Pin, Abdelmouhcine Gannoun
A fast and efficient sample preparation method in view of isotope ratio measurements is described, allowing the separation of 11 elements involved, either as "parent" or as "daughter" isotopes, in six radiogenic isotope systems used as chronometers and tracers in earth, planetary, and environmental sciences. The protocol is based on small extraction chromatographic columns, used either alone or in tandem, through which a single nitric acid solution is passed, without any intervening evaporation step. The columns use commercially available extraction resins (Sr resin, TRU resin, Ln resin, RE resin, and again Ln resin for isolating Sr and Pb, LREE then La-Ce-Nd-Sm, Lu(Yb), and Hf, Th, and U, respectively) along with an additional, in-house prepared resin for separating Rb...
February 9, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191947/review-of-stilbenes-applications-in-chemistry-life-sciences-and-materials-science-stilbenes-applications-in-chemistry-life-sciences-and-materials-science-by-gertz-likhtenshtein-wiley-vch-weinheim-germany-2009-360-pp-224-hardcover-isbn-978-3-527-32388-3
#16
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191896/strong-evidence-for-d-electron-spin-transport-at-room-temperature-at-a-laalo3-srtio3-interface
#17
Ryo Ohshima, Yuichiro Ando, Kosuke Matsuzaki, Tomofumi Susaki, Mathias Weiler, Stefan Klingler, Hans Huebl, Eiji Shikoh, Teruya Shinjo, Sebastian T B Goennenwein, Masashi Shiraishi
A d-orbital electron has an anisotropic electron orbital and is a source of magnetism. The realization of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) embedded at a LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface surprised researchers in materials and physical sciences because the 2DEG consists of 3d-electrons of Ti with extraordinarily large carrier mobility, even in the insulating oxide heterostructure. To date, a wide variety of physical phenomena, such as ferromagnetism and the quantum Hall effect, have been discovered in this 2DEG system, demonstrating the ability of d-electron 2DEG systems to provide a material platform for the study of interesting physics...
February 13, 2017: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191582/twisting-microfluidics-in-a-planetary-centrifuge
#18
Shoya Yasuda, Masayuki Hayakawa, Hiroaki Onoe, Masahiro Takinoue
This paper reports a twisting microfluidic method utilising a centrifuge-based fluid extruding system in a planetary centrifuge which simultaneously generates an orbital rotation and an axial spin. In this method, fluid extrusion from a micro-scale capillary to an 'open-space' solution or air enables release of the fluid from the capillary-based microchannel, which physically means that there is a release of fluids from a confined low-Reynolds-number environment to an open non-low-Reynolds-number environment...
February 13, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187682/polychaeta-orbiniidae-from-antarctica-the-southern-ocean-the-abyssal-pacific-ocean-and-off-south-america
#19
James A Blake
The orbiniid polychaetes chiefly from Antarctic and subantarctic seas and off South America are described based on collections of the National Museum of Natural History and new material from surveys conducted by the United States Antarctic Program and other federal and privately funded sources as well as participation in international programs. A total of 44 species of Orbiniidae distributed in 10 genera are reported from the Pacific Ocean and waters off South America and Antarctica. Twenty-one species are new to science; one species is renamed...
January 12, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187595/the-fruit-flies-diptera-tephritidae-described-by-theodor-becker-from-iran-and-western-china-revisited-in-the-collections-of-the-zoological-institute-saint-petersburg-and-museum-f%C3%A3-r-naturkunde-berlin
#20
Severyn V Korneyev, Valery A Korneyev
The type specimens of fruit flies described by Dr. Theodor Becker based on material collected in China (Xinjiang and Xizang) and Iran by Russian expeditions directed by Petr Kozlov and Mykola Zarudny are listed and figured. They are deposited in the collection of the Zoological Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint Petersburg with some duplicates in the Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin. Current concepts of the species, their morphological characters (illustrated by photographs of type specimens), current condition, and nomenclature are discussed...
January 31, 2017: Zootaxa
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