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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045459/microbial-composition-analyses-by-16s-rrna-sequencing-a-proof-of-concept-approach-to-provenance-determination-of-archaeological-ochre
#1
Claire E Lenehan, Shanan S Tobe, Renee J Smith, Rachel S Popelka-Filcoff
Many archaeological science studies use the concept of "provenance", where the origins of cultural material can be determined through physical or chemical properties that relate back to the origins of the material. Recent studies using DNA profiling of bacteria have been used for the forensic determination of soils, towards determination of geographic origin. This manuscript presents a novel approach to the provenance of archaeological minerals and related materials through the use of 16S rRNA sequencing analysis of microbial DNA...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045121/wafer-scale-synthesis-of-semiconducting-sno-monolayers-from-interfacial-oxide-layers-of-metallic-liquid-tin
#2
Torben Daeneke, Paul Atkin, Rebecca Orrell-Trigg, Ali Zavabeti, Taimur Ahmed, Sumeet Walia, Maning Liu, Yasuhiro Tachibana, Maria Javaid, Andrew D Greentree, Salvy P Russo, Richard B Kaner, Kourosh Kalantar-Zadeh
Atomically thin semiconductors are one of the fastest growing categories in materials science due to their promise to enable high-performance electronic and optical devices. Furthermore, a host of intriguing phenomena have been reported to occur when a semiconductor is confined within two dimensions. However, the synthesis of large area atomically thin materials remains as a significant technological challenge. Here we report a method that allows harvesting monolayer of semiconducting stannous oxide nanosheets (SnO) from the interfacial oxide layer of liquid tin...
October 18, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044467/the-influence-of-text-cohesion-and-picture-detail-on-young-readers-knowledge-of-science-topics
#3
Juliette C Désiron, Erica de Vries, Anna N Bartel, Nalini Varahamurti
BACKGROUND AND AIM: The effects of text cohesion and added pictures on acquired knowledge have been heavily studied each in isolation. Furthermore, studies on the effects of specific characteristics of pictures, whether facilitating or hindering, are scarce. Schnotz's ITCP Model (2014) allows to formulate hypotheses regarding the combined effect of text cohesion and presence and level of detail of a picture. This study investigates these hypotheses in the case of children reading scientific texts...
October 16, 2017: British Journal of Educational Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043778/tetraphenylethylene-based-aie-active-probes-for-sensing-applications
#4
Duong Duc La, Sidhanath V Bhosale, Lathe A Jones, Sheshanath Vishwanath Bhosale
This review article provides a comprehensive analysis of recent development in the field of Aggregation Induced Emisison (AIE)-active tetraphenylethylene (TPE) luminophores, and their applications in biomolecular science. It begins with a discussion of the diverse range of structural motifs that have found particular applications in sensing, and demonstrates that TPE structures and their derivatives have been used for a diverse range of analytes such as such as H+, anions, cations, heavy metals, organic volatiles, and toxic gases...
October 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041405/nanoparticle-doped-electrospun-fiber-random-lasers-with-spatially-extended-light-modes
#5
Vincenzo Resta, Andrea Camposeo, Martina Montinaro, Maria Moffa, Karolis Kazlauskas, Saulius Jursenas, Ausra Tomkeviciene, Juozas V Grazulevicius, Dario Pisignano
Complex assemblies of light-emitting polymer nanofibers with molecular materials exhibiting optical gain can lead to important advance to amorphous photonics and to random laser science and devices. In disordered mats of nanofibers, multiple scattering and waveguiding might interplay to determine localization or spreading of optical modes as well as correlation effects. Here we study electrospun fibers embedding a lasing fluorene-carbazole-fluorene molecule and doped with titania nanoparticles, which exhibit random lasing with sub-nm spectral width and threshold of about 9 mJ cm(-2) for the absorbed excitation fluence...
October 2, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039937/concentration-independent-stereodynamic-g-probe-for-chiroptical-enantiomeric-excess-determination
#6
Paolo Zardi, Klaus Wurst, Giulia Licini, Cristiano Zonta
Enantiomeric excess determination is crucial in many aspects of science ranging from synthesis to materials. Within this subject, the use of molecular sensors coupled with chiroptical techniques is a straightforward approach to the stereochemical analysis of chiral molecules, especially in terms of process immediacy and labor. Ste-reodynamic probes typically consist of racemic mixtures of rapidly interconverting enantiomeric conformers able to recognize a chiral analyte and greatly amplify its chiroptical readout...
October 17, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039682/on-the-habitability-of-desert-varnish-a-combined-study-by-micro-raman-spectroscopy-x-ray-diffraction-and-methylated-pyrolysis-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry
#7
C Malherbe, I B Hutchinson, R Ingley, A Boom, A S Carr, H Edwards, B Vertruyen, B Gilbert, G Eppe
In 2020, the ESA ExoMars and NASA Mars 2020 missions will be launched to Mars to search for evidence of past and present life. In preparation for these missions, terrestrial analog samples of rock formations on Mars are studied in detail in order to optimize the scientific information that the analytical instrumentation will return. Desert varnishes are thin mineral coatings found on rocks in arid and semi-arid environments on Earth that are recognized as analog samples. During the formation of desert varnishes (which takes many hundreds of years), organic matter is incorporated, and microorganisms may also play an active role in the formation process...
October 17, 2017: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037897/overcoming-multiple-gastrointestinal-barriers-by-bilayer-modified-hollow-mesoporous-silica-nanocarriers
#8
Ying Wang, Yating Zhao, Yu Cui, Qinfu Zhao, Qiang Zhang, Sara Musetti, Karina A Kinghorn, Siling Wang
Oral administration of nanocarriers remains a significant challenge in the pharmaceutical sciences. The nanocarriers must efficiently overcome multiple gastrointestinal barriers including the harsh gastrointestinal environment, the mucosal layer, and the epithelium. Neutral hydrophilic surfaces are reportedly necessary for mucus permeation, but hydrophobic and cationic surfaces are important for efficient epithelial absorption. To accommodate these conflicting surface property requirements, we developed a strategy to modify nanocarrier surfaces with cationic cell-penetrating peptides (CPP) concealed by a hydrophilic succinylated casein (SCN) layer...
October 13, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035270/quantifying-trace-element-and-isotope-fluxes-at-the-ocean-sediment-boundary-a-review
#9
William B Homoky, Thomas Weber, William M Berelson, Tim M Conway, Gideon M Henderson, Marco van Hulten, Catherine Jeandel, Silke Severmann, Alessandro Tagliabue
Quantifying fluxes of trace elements and their isotopes (TEIs) at the ocean's sediment-water boundary is a pre-eminent challenge to understand their role in the present, past and future ocean. There are multiple processes that drive the uptake and release of TEIs, and properties that determine their rates are unevenly distributed (e.g. sediment composition, redox conditions and (bio)physical dynamics). These factors complicate our efforts to find, measure and extrapolate TEI fluxes across ocean basins. GEOTRACES observations are unveiling the oceanic distributions of many TEIs for the first time...
November 28, 2016: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034096/evaluating-the-impact-of-brexit-on-the-pharmaceutical-industry
#10
REVIEW
Fawz Kazzazi, Cleo Pollard, Paul Tern, Alejandro Ayuso-Garcia, Jack Gillespie, Inesa Thomsen
INTRODUCTION: The UK Pharmaceutical Industry is arguably one of the most important industries to consider in the negotiations following the Brexit vote. Providing tens of thousands of jobs and billions in tax revenue and research investment, the importance of this industry cannot be understated. At stake is the global leadership in the sector, which produces some of the field's most influential basic science and translation work. However, interruptions and losses may occur at multiple levels, affecting patients, researchers, universities, companies and government...
2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033662/a-valid-name-for-the-xishuangbanna-gourd-a-cucumber-with-carotene-rich-fruits
#11
Susanne S Renner
Herbarium specimens deposited in publicly accessible collections are the basis for all scientific names because only permanent specimens can be re-studied by independent researchers, the very essence of science. Re-investigations may be done with morphological, chemical, genomic, computer-tomographic, or other methods. Based on new herbarium material, I here provide a name for the Xishuangbanna gourd, a plant long cultivated in Yunnan because of its large non-bitter fruits, rich in β-carotene. Genome re-sequencing of numerous accessions has shown that this cucumber mutant is closer to Cucumis sativus var...
2017: PhytoKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033648/recircumscription-and-taxonomic-revision-of-siderasis-with-comments-on-the-systematics-of-subtribe-dichorisandrinae-commelinaceae
#12
Marco O O Pellegrini, Robert B Faden
A new circumscription and a total of six microendemic species, four of them new to science, are herein presented for Siderasis, based on field and herbaria studies, and cultivated material. We provide an identification key to the species and a distribution map, description, comments, conservation assessment, and illustration for each species. Also, we present an emended key to the genera of subtribe Dichorisandrinae, and comments on the morphology and systematics of the subtribe.
2017: PhytoKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032016/neuropsychological-outcomes-following-paediatric-temporal-lobe-surgery-for-epilepsies-evidence-from-a-systematic-review
#13
REVIEW
Alice E Flint, Mitch Waterman, Grace Bowmer, Gayatri Vadlamani, Paul Chumas, Matthew C H J Morrall
OBJECTIVE: The systematic review aimed to assess the neuropsychological outcomes of temporal lobe resections for epilepsy in children. Additional objectives included determining whether earlier age at surgery leads to better neuropsychological outcomes; the relationships between and predictors of these outcomes. METHODS: Using advanced search terms, a systematic review of electronic databases was conducted, comprising MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, Global Health, Web of Science and CINAHL...
September 19, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030527/holistic-considerations-in-optimizing-a-sterile-product-package-to-ensure-container-closure-integrity
#14
Fran L DeGrazio
A new major chapter dealing with container closure integrity (CCI) was released by the United States Pharmacopeial Convention (USP). Chapter <1207> provides a significant amount of education and guidance concerning test methodologies to prove that a system is integral and safe for use. The test method used is only one of the major considerations in approaching the challenge of proving an integral system. This paper takes a holistic review of all the major considerations needed in qualifying a new vial system for container closure integrity...
October 12, 2017: PDA Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028883/a-new-pan-european-train-the-trainer-programme-for-bioinformatics-pilot-results-on-feasibility-utility-and-sustainability-of-learning
#15
Allegra Via, Teresa K Attwood, Pedro L Fernandes, Sarah L Morgan, Maria Victoria Schneider, Patricia M Palagi, Gabriella Rustici, Rochelle E Tractenberg
Demand for training life scientists in bioinformatics methods, tools and resources and computational approaches is urgent and growing. To meet this demand, new trainers must be prepared with effective teaching practices for delivering short hands-on training sessions-a specific type of education that is not typically part of professional preparation of life scientists in many countries. A new Train-the-Trainer (TtT) programme was created by adapting existing models, using input from experienced trainers and experts in bioinformatics, and from educational and cognitive sciences...
September 26, 2017: Briefings in Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028576/bioelectrochromic-hydrogel-for-fast-antibiotic-susceptibility-testing
#16
Ferran Pujol-Vila, Jiri Dietvorst, Laura Gall-Mas, María Díaz-González, Núria Vigués, Jordi Mas, Xavier Muñoz-Berbel
Materials science offers new perspectives in the clinical analysis of antimicrobial sensitivity. However, a biomaterial with the capacity to respond to living bacteria has not been developed to date. We present an electrochromic iron(III)-complexed alginate hydrogel sensitive to bacterial metabolism, here applied to fast antibiotic-susceptibility determination. Bacteria under evaluation are entrapped -and pre-concentrated- in the hydrogel matrix by oxidation of iron (II) ions to iron (III) and in situ formation of the alginate hydrogel in less than 2min and in soft experimental conditions (i...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026646/binary-titanium-alloys-as-dental-implant-materials-a-review
#17
REVIEW
Xiaotian Liu, Shuyang Chen, James K H Tsoi, Jukka Pekka Matinlinna
Titanium (Ti) has been used for long in dentistry and medicine for implant purpose. During the years, not only the commercially pure Ti but also some alloys such as binary and tertiary Ti alloys were used. The aim of this review is to describe and compare the current literature on binary Ti alloys, including Ti-Zr, Ti-In, Ti-Ag, Ti-Cu, Ti-Au, Ti-Pd, Ti-Nb, Ti-Mn, Ti-Mo, Ti-Cr, Ti-Co, Ti-Sn, Ti-Ge and Ti-Ga, in particular to mechanical, chemical and biological parameters related to implant application. Literature was searched using the PubMed and Web of Science databases, as well as google without limiting the year, but with principle key terms such as ' Ti alloy', 'binary Ti ', 'Ti-X' (with X is the alloy element), 'dental implant' and 'medical implant'...
October 2017: Regenerative Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026204/engineering-and-physical-sciences-in-oncology-challenges-and-opportunities
#18
REVIEW
Michael J Mitchell, Rakesh K Jain, Robert Langer
The principles of engineering and physics have been applied to oncology for nearly 50 years. Engineers and physical scientists have made contributions to all aspects of cancer biology, from quantitative understanding of tumour growth and progression to improved detection and treatment of cancer. Many early efforts focused on experimental and computational modelling of drug distribution, cell cycle kinetics and tumour growth dynamics. In the past decade, we have witnessed exponential growth at the interface of engineering, physics and oncology that has been fuelled by advances in fields including materials science, microfabrication, nanomedicine, microfluidics, imaging, and catalysed by new programmes at the National Institutes of Health (NIH), including the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB), Physical Sciences in Oncology, and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Alliance for Nanotechnology...
October 13, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025665/cell-attachment-evaluation-of-the-immobilized-bioactive-peptide-on-a-nanographene-oxide-composite
#19
Behzad Adibi-Motlagh, Abbas Sahebghadam Lotfi, Aram Rezaei, Ehsan Hashemi
The immobilization of bioactive peptides as key molecules in numerous biological and physiological functions holds promise for designing advanced biomaterials. Graphene and its derivatives, having unique physicochemical properties, have brought considerable attention in the life sciences. In this regard, the chemical manipulation of the graphene surface with bioactive peptides opens a new horizon to design bioactive materials for a variety of future nanobiotechnologies. In this study, the first straightforward strategy for the covalent immobilization of the cell-adhesion peptide onto the graphene surface based on the Ugi four-component assembly process (Ugi 4-CAP) will be presented...
January 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025093/discharge-communication-practices-and-healthcare-provider-and-patient-preferences-satisfaction-and-comprehension-a-systematic-review
#20
Harvey Newnham, Anna Barker, Edward Ritchie, Karen Hitchcock, Harry Gibbs, Sara Holton
Purpose: To systematically review the available evidence about hospital discharge communication practices and identify which practices were preferred by patients and healthcare providers, improved patient and provider satisfaction, and increased patients' understanding of their medical condition. Data sources: OVID Medline, Web of Science, ProQuest, PubMed and CINAHL plus. Study selection: Databases were searched for peer-reviewed, English-language papers, published to August 2016, of empirical research using quantitative or qualitative methods...
September 7, 2017: International Journal for Quality in Health Care
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