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materials science

Jie Feng, Yingyue Zhang, Simon A McManus, Kurt D Ristroph, Hoang D Lu, Kai Gong, Claire E White, Robert K Prud'homme
While the formulation of nanoparticle (NP) suspensions has been widely applied in materials and life science, the recovery of NPs from such a suspension into a solid state is practically important to confer long-term storage stability. However, solidification, while preserving the original nanoscale properties, remains a formidable challenge in the pharmaceutical and biomedical applications of NPs. Herein we combined flash nanoprecipitation (FNP) and spray-drying as a nanofabrication platform for NP formulation and recovery without compromising the dissolution kinetics of the active ingredient...
May 25, 2018: ACS Appl Nano Mater
Saad S Alzahrani, Yoon Soo Park, Ara Tekian
PURPOSE: Study habits of medical students contribute to better understanding learner achievement and success. This study examines the relationship between study habits, including gender and nonacademic factors that affect learning, to investigate their relationship with performance outcomes. METHODS: This study was conducted in March 2015 at the College of Medicine and Applied Medical Science at Taif University. A survey was administered, measuring study habits such as study time, study partners, source of study, breaks, study interruptions, difficulty concentrating, study activity, and delayed study...
June 16, 2018: Medical Teacher
Zahra Alavi, Giovanni Zocchi
Pursuing a materials science approach to understanding the deformability of enzymes, we introduce measurements of the phase of the mechanical response function within the nanorheology paradigm. Driven conformational motion of the enzyme is dissipative as characterized by the phase measurements. The dissipation originates both from the surface hydration layer and the interior of the molecule, probed by examining the effect of point mutations on the mechanics. We also document changes in the mechanics of the enzyme examined, guanylate kinase, upon binding its four substrates...
May 2018: Physical Review. E
Lasse Makkonen, Juha Kurkela
Interfacial energy γ1,2 of a liquid-liquid or solid-liquid system is of paramount importance in colloid and interface science and its applications. To assess the dependence of γ1,2 on the surface energies γ1 and γ2 of two materials in contact, Girifalco and Good proposed their venerable equation involving the interfacial interaction parameter ϕ. Subsequently, values of ϕ have been experimentally determined for various material pairs. Here, we show that, the data of ϕ closely follow a unique relationship ϕ = (1 - γ1,2 /γ1 )½ for all pairs where the other material is non-polar...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
F A Spitznagel, J Boldt, P C Gierthmuehlen
Advances in computer-aided design (CAD) / computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) technologies and their ease of application enabled the development of novel treatment concepts for modern prosthodontics. This recent paradigm shift in fixed prosthodontics from traditional to minimally invasive treatment approaches is evidenced by the clinical long-term success of bonded CAD/CAM glass-ceramic restorations. Today, defect-oriented restorations, such as inlays, onlays, and posterior crowns, are predominately fabricated from glass-ceramics in monolithic application...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Dental Research
Amparo Fernández, Marta Ruiz-Bermejo, José L de la Fuente
The kinetics of the reaction of the synthesis of HCN polymers in aqueous medium at high temperatures have been analysed to ascertain a suitable model for this material, for which it was recently demonstrated that prebiotic chemistry may now be adapted in the development of a new generation of high performance coatings and adhesives with biomedical applications. These experimental conditions were chosen for the simplicity of the reagents, being particularly convenient in regard to potential industrial scale-up of coating technology, where these polymers have revealed an interesting field of application...
June 15, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Matthew Li, Jun Lu, Zhongwei Chen, Khalil Amine
Over the past 30 years, significant commercial and academic progress has been made on Li-based battery technologies. From the early Li-metal anode iterations to the current commercial Li-ion batteries (LIBs), the story of the Li-based battery is full of breakthroughs and back tracing steps. This review will discuss the main roles of material science in the development of LIBs. As LIB research progresses and the materials of interest change, different emphases on the different subdisciplines of material science are placed...
June 14, 2018: Advanced Materials
Beth Beason-Abmayr, Jennifer Shade Wilson
Although abundant evidence in STEM education literature emphasizes the incorporation of both primary literature analysis and communication of science into the undergraduate classroom, biology educators are rarely given the necessary support to teach students how to present scientific data from primary literature. Consequently, students often receive limited training in this valuable skill. We report on a collaboration between a biosciences instructor and communication center director who together designed a workshop to teach undergraduate students in a laboratory course to present material from primary literature sources...
2018: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
Katie Todd, Gretchen Haupt, Elizabeth Kunz Kollmann, Sarah Pfeifle
Public engagement with science (PES) is an emerging outreach method that builds trust between scientists and public audiences by encouraging two-way conversations and mutual learning about science content and societal values. Building with Biology, a PES initiative focused on synthetic biology, distributed 182 kits with two types of products to informal science education institutions across the United States: 1) hands-on activities for public events, and 2) materials to run public dialogue programs, called forums...
2018: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
Elsa A Healy, Bonnie N Kaiser, Eve S Puffer
INTRODUCTION: Youth in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are at increased risk for poor mental health due to economic and social disadvantage. Interventions that strengthen families may equip children and adolescents with the supports and resources to fulfill their potential and buffer them from future stressors and adversity. Due to human resource constraints, task-sharing-delivery of interventions by nonspecialists-may be an effective strategy to facilitate the dissemination of mental health interventions in low resource contexts...
June 2018: Families, Systems & Health: the Journal of Collaborative Family Healthcare
Yu Wang, Kezhi Zheng, Shuyan Song, Dianyuan Fan, Hongjie Zhang, Xiaogang Liu
The precise control over the luminescence profile of lanthanide-doped upconversion nanomaterials is of fundamental importance for their applications in wide-ranging fields of research. Conventional chemical approaches can lead to color-tunable emissions, but they generally require stringent modification either on dopant composition or doping concentration. In this Tutorial Review, we highlight a number of complementary methods that offer remote dynamic modulation of upconversion luminescence across the visible spectrum...
June 14, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Hanna J Wagner, Raphael Engesser, Kathrin Ermes, Christian Geraths, Jens Timmer, Wilfried Weber
The translation of engineering designs to materials sciences by means of synthetic biological tools represents a novel concept for the development of information-processing materials systems. Here, we provide data on the mathematical model-guided implementation of a biomaterials-based positive feedback loop for the detection of proteolytic activities. Furthermore, we present data on an extended system design for the detection of the antibiotic novobiocin. This work is related to the research article "Synthetic biology-inspired design of signal-amplifying materials systems" (Wagner et al...
August 2018: Data in Brief
Temitope M John, Joke A Badejo, Segun I Popoola, David O Omole, Jonathan A Odukoya, Priscilla O Ajayi, Mary Aboyade, Aderemi A Atayero
This data article presents data of academic performances of undergraduate students in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) disciplines in Covenant University, Nigeria. The data shows academic performances of Male and Female students who graduated from 2010 to 2014. The total population of samples in the observation is 3046 undergraduates mined from Biochemistry (BCH), Building technology (BLD), Computer Engineering (CEN), Chemical Engineering (CHE), Industrial Chemistry (CHM), Computer Science (CIS), Civil Engineering (CVE), Electrical and Electronics Engineering (EEE), Information and Communication Engineering (ICE), Mathematics (MAT), Microbiology (MCB), Mechanical Engineering (MCE), Management and Information System (MIS), Petroleum Engineering (PET), Industrial Physics-Electronics and IT Applications (PHYE), Industrial Physics-Applied Geophysics (PHYG) and Industrial Physics-Renewable Energy (PHYR)...
June 2018: Data in Brief
Max Kasparek
Trachusa pubescens (Morawitz, 1872) s. l. has a distribution extending from south-eastern Europe over Anatolia and the Caucasus to Iran and Turkmenistan, and was formerly regarded as a species with high intraspecific variation. By means of an examination of 208 specimens from all parts of the distribution area, covering structural features of the head (mandibles, clypeus), the apical terga and the genitalia, the colouration pattern as well as a morphometric analysis of 26 body measurements with multivariate statistical methods (Principal Component Analysis, Discriminant Analysis), it was possible to assign the material to five species of which two are new to science ( Trachusa balcanica sp...
2018: ZooKeys
Rafaella de Souza Leão, Juliana Raposo Souto Maior, Cleidiel Aparecido de Araújo Lemos, Belmiro Cavalcanti do Egito Vasconcelos, Marcos Antônio Japiassú Resende Montes, Eduardo Piza Pellizzer, Sandra Lúcia Dantas Moraes
Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) has been considered a suitable material for cranioplasty. However, no consensus has been reached concerning the best material for cranioplasty with regard to minimizing complications. Thus, this systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to compare the complication rates of PMMA with those of autologous bone and titanium mesh. This review was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42016042725). Systematic searches were conducted on PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, and Web of Science. The focus question was, "Do PMMA prostheses used in cranioplasty have complications rates similar to those of autologous bone and titanium mesh?" A meta-analysis of complication rates was performed on the basis of dichotomous outcomes assessed by risk ratio (RR) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI)...
June 7, 2018: Brazilian Oral Research
Sjören Schweizerhof, Dan Eugen Demco, Ahmed Mourran, Radu Fechete, Martin Moeller
Understanding the diffusion of gold nanorods (AuNRs) and their composites in dispersion is important at fundamental level and in fields as diverse as material science, nanobiotechnology to drug delivery. The translational and rotational diffusion of AuNRs decorated with thermoresponsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAm) brushes having hydrophilic and hydrophobic end groups was investigated in the dilute regime by dynamic light scattering (DLS). The same series of functionalized AuNRs were studied in the isotropic concentrated dispersions by high-resolution NMR diffusometry...
June 13, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Xiaohong Yuan, Kun Luo, Nan Liu, Xueqiang Ji, Chao Liu, Julong He, Guangjun Tian, Yuanchun Zhao, Dongli Yu
Understanding the intermolecular interactions in the context of crystal packing is of fundamental significance in molecular materials science. Infrared (IR) spectroscopy can provide complementary structural information; however, it still remains a great challenge to accurately predict the molecular IR vibrations in the crystalline phase. Here we report a cluster-model approach to simulate the IR spectra of triazine-based molecular crystals via density functional theory (DFT) calculations. In the properly designed cluster models, the molecular IR vibrations are expressed by a representative unit, while the nearest-neighbouring molecules are treated as a "frozen shell" to mimic the surrounding crystallographic environments...
June 13, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Carlijn V C Bouten, Anthal I P M Smits, Frank P T Baaijens
In situ heart valve tissue engineering using cell-free synthetic, biodegradable scaffolds is under development as a clinically attractive approach to create living valves right inside the heart of a patient. In this approach, a valve-shaped porous scaffold "implant" is rapidly populated by endogenous cells that initiate neo-tissue formation in pace with scaffold degradation. While this may constitute a cost-effective procedure, compatible with regulatory and clinical standards worldwide, the new technology heavily relies on the development of advanced biomaterials, the processing thereof into (minimally invasive deliverable) scaffolds, and the interaction of such materials with endogenous cells and neo-tissue under hemodynamic conditions...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
Mojisola D Kupolati, Una E MacIntyre, Gerda J Gericke
Background: A theory-based contextual nutrition education manual (NEM) may enhance effective teaching of nutrition in schools. School nutrition education should lead to the realization of such benefits as improved health, scholarly achievement leading to manpower development and consequently the nation's development. The purpose of the study was to develop a contextual NEM for teachers of Grade 5 and 6 learners in the Bronkhorstspruit district, South Africa, and to assess teachers' perception on the use of the manual for teaching nutrition...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Pingguang Xu, Stefanus Harjo, Mayumi Ojima, Hiroshi Suzuki, Takayoshi Ito, Wu Gong, Sven C Vogel, Junya Inoue, Yo Tomota, Kazuya Aizawa, Koichi Akita
Neutron diffraction texture measurements provide bulk averaged textures with excellent grain orientation statistics, even for large-grained materials, owing to the probed volume being of the order of 1 cm3 . Furthermore, crystallographic parameters and other valuable microstructure information such as phase fraction, coherent crystallite size, root-mean-square microstrain, macroscopic or intergranular strain and stress, etc. can be derived from neutron diffractograms. A procedure for combined high stereographic resolution texture and residual stress evaluation was established on the pulsed-neutron-source-based engineering materials diffractometer TAKUMI at the Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Center, through division of the neutron detector panel regions...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Applied Crystallography
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