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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27018933/review-of-the-ongoing-story-of-appetite-suppressants-serotonin-pathway-and-pulmonary-vascular-disease
#1
REVIEW
Isabel S Bazan, Wassim H Fares
Obesity is pandemic in the Western Hemisphere, especially in the United States (US) and is associated with morbidity and mortality. Recent data show that a large proportion of the US population is at least overweight and almost 2 in 5 Americans are obese. This ongoing trend of increasing obesity rates has led to a thriving market for anorexigens. Despite the health benefits of weight loss, several anorexigens had devastating side effects including pulmonary vascular disease which manifests as the clinical syndrome of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH)...
May 15, 2016: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26699388/choline-diet-and-its-gut-microbe-derived-metabolite-trimethylamine-n-oxide-exacerbate-pressure-overload-induced-heart-failure
#2
Chelsea L Organ, Hiroyuki Otsuka, Shashi Bhushan, Zeneng Wang, Jessica Bradley, Rishi Trivedi, David J Polhemus, W H Wilson Tang, Yuping Wu, Stanley L Hazen, David J Lefer
BACKGROUND: Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a gut microbe-dependent metabolite of dietary choline and other trimethylamine-containing nutrients, is both elevated in the circulation of patients having heart failure and heralds worse overall prognosis. In animal studies, dietary choline or TMAO significantly accelerates atherosclerotic lesion development in ApoE-deficient mice, and reduction in TMAO levels inhibits atherosclerosis development in the low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout mouse...
January 2016: Circulation. Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26465792/choline-supplementation-with-a-structured-lipid-in-children-with-cystic-fibrosis-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#3
Joan I Schall, Maria R Mascarenhas, Asim Maqbool, Kelly A Dougherty, Okan Elci, Dah-Jyuu Wang, Talissa A Altes, Kevin A Hommel, Walter Shaw, Jeff Moore, Virginia A Stallings
BACKGROUND: Choline depletion is seen in cystic fibrosis (CF) and pancreatic insufficiency in spite of enzyme treatment and may result in liver, fatty acid, and muscle abnormalities. This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of an easily absorbed choline-rich structured lipid (LYM-X-SORB™ [LXS]) to improve choline status. METHODS: Children with CF and pancreatic insufficiency were randomized to LXS or placebo in a 12-month double blind trial. Dietary choline intake, plasma cholines, plasma and fecal phospholipids, coefficient of fat absorption, pulmonary function, growth status, body composition, and safety measures were assessed...
April 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26334388/protective-effect-of-polyphenols-in-an-inflammatory-process-associated-with-experimental-pulmonary-fibrosis-in-mice
#4
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Daniela Impellizzeri, Elena Talero, Rosalba Siracusa, Antonio Alcaide, Marika Cordaro, Jose Maria Zubelia, Giuseppe Bruschetta, Rosalia Crupi, Emanuela Esposito, Salvatore Cuzzocrea, Virginia Motilva
Polyphenols have been described to have a wide range of biological activities, and many reports, published during recent years, have highlighted the beneficial effects of phenolic compounds, illustrating their promising role as therapeutic tools in several acute and chronic disorders. The purpose of study was to evaluate, in an already-assessed model of lung injury caused by bleomycin (BLM) administration, the role of resveratrol and quercetin, as well as to explore the potential beneficial properties of a mango leaf extract, rich in mangiferin, and a grape leaf extract, rich in dihydroquercetin (DHQ), on the same model...
September 28, 2015: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26138643/dha-suppresses-chronic-apoptosis-in-the-lung-caused-by-perinatal-inflammation
#5
Mehboob Ali, Kathryn M Heyob, Markus Velten, Trent E Tipple, Lynette K Rogers
We have previously shown that an adverse perinatal environment significantly alters lung growth and development and results in persistently altered cardiopulmonary physiology in adulthood. Our model of maternal LPS treatment followed by 14 days of neonatal hyperoxia exposure causes severe pulmonary disease characterized by permanent decreases in alveolarization and diffuse interstitial fibrosis. The current investigations tested the hypothesis that dysregulation of Notch signaling pathways contributes to the permanently altered lung phenotype in our model and that the improvements we have observed previously with maternal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation are mediated through normalization of Notch-related protein expression...
September 1, 2015: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25772050/vitamin-d-deficiency-in-pediatric-patients-with-cystic-fibrosis-associated-risk-factors-in-the-northern-united-states
#6
Amy Hughes Lansing, Catherine McDonald, Raza A Patel, Suzanne Meihls, Kody Crowell, Barbara Chatfield, John F Pohl
OBJECTIVES: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is associated with vitamin D deficiency, which can lead to adverse effects including recurrent pulmonary infections and osteoporosis. We longitudinally investigated calcifediol or 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels for our pediatric patients with CF based on the time of year as well as vitamin D supplementation dosing ranges for these patients at our CF center. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated vitamin D deficiency in our pediatric CF center for 2 years (baseline and annually) while evaluating 25(OH)D serum changes based on vitamin D supplementation, seasonality, patient age, and other factors associated with CF...
March 2015: Southern Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25688177/supplementation-with-red-palm-oil-increases-%C3%AE-carotene-and-vitamin-a-blood-levels-in-patients-with-cystic-fibrosis
#7
Olaf Sommerburg, Silke De Spirt, Annett Mattern, Cornelia Joachim, Claus-Dieter Langhans, Kalanithi Nesaretnam, Werner Siems, Wilhelm Stahl, Marcus A Mall
Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) show decreased plasma concentrations of antioxidants due to malabsorption of lipid soluble vitamins and consumption by chronic pulmonary inflammation. β-Carotene is a major source of retinol and therefore is of particular significance in CF. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of daily intake of red palm oil (RPO) containing high amounts of β-carotene on the antioxidant levels in CF patients. Sixteen subjects were recruited and instructed to enrich their food with 2 to 3 tablespoons of RPO (~1...
2015: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25564047/impact-of-fish-oils-on-the-outcomes-of-a-mouse-model-of-acute-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-pulmonary-infection
#8
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Emilie Caron, Jean-Luc Desseyn, Luce Sergent, Nana Bartke, Marie-Odile Husson, Alain Duhamel, Frédéric Gottrand
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic Gram-negative bacterium that causes pneumonia in immunocompromised humans and severe pulmonary damage in patients with cystic fibrosis. Imbalanced fatty acid incorporation in membranes, including increased arachidonic acid and decreased DHA concentrations, is known to play a critical role in chronic inflammation associated with bacterial infection. Other lipids, such as EPA and alkylglycerols, are also known to play a role in inflammation, particularly by stimulating the immune system, decreasing inflammation and inhibiting bacterial growth...
January 28, 2015: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24911844/effect-of-supplementary-zinc-on-body-mass-index-pulmonary-function-and-hospitalization-in-children-with-cystic-fibrosis
#9
Pedram Ataee, Mehri Najafi, Mohammad Gharagozlou, Majid Aflatounian, Maryam Mahmoudi, Ahmad Khodadad, Fatemeh Farahmand, Farzaneh Motamed, Glolam Hossein Fallahi, Najmoddin Kalantari, Habib Soheili, Vajiheh Modarresi, Mozhgan Sabbaghian Modarresi, Nima Rezaei
Zinc deficiency, which is common in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), can lead to several complications that may increase the number of hospital admissions in this group of patients. As supplementary zinc can prevent such complications, this study was performed to evaluate the effect of supplementary zinc on body mass index (BMI), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and number of hospitalizations in CF patients. In this study, 30 children with CF, who were referred to the Digestive Diseases Clinic of the Children's Medical Center in Tehran, were enrolled...
March 2014: Turkish Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24453131/maternal-dietary-docosahexaenoic-acid-supplementation-attenuates-fetal-growth-restriction-and-enhances-pulmonary-function-in-a-newborn-mouse-model-of-perinatal-inflammation
#10
Markus Velten, Rodney D Britt, Kathryn M Heyob, Trent E Tipple, Lynette K Rogers
The preterm infant is often exposed to maternal and neonatal inflammatory stimuli and is born with immature lungs, resulting in a need for oxygen therapy. Nutritional intervention with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 6.3 g/kg of diet) has been shown to attenuate inflammation in various human diseases. Previous studies demonstrated that maternal DHA supplementation during late gestation and lactation attenuated hyperoxic lung injury in newborn mouse pups. In the present studies, we tested the hypothesis that DHA supplementation to the dam would reduce hyperoxic lung injury and growth deficits in a more severe model of systemic maternal inflammation, including lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and neonatal hyperoxia exposure...
March 2014: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24445504/vitamin-b-12-status-in-children-with-cystic-fibrosis-and-pancreatic-insufficiency
#11
Asim Maqbool, Joan I Schall, Maria R Mascarenhas, Kelly A Dougherty, Virginia A Stallings
OBJECTIVES: Unexpectedly high serum B12 concentrations were noted in most study subjects with cystic fibrosis (CF) and pancreatic insufficiency (PI) participating in a nutrition intervention at the baseline evaluation. The objectives of this study were to determine dietary, supplement-based, and enzyme-based B12 intake, serum B12 concentrations, and predictors of vitamin B12 status in children with CF and PI. STUDY DESIGN: Serum B12 status was assessed in subjects (5-18 years) and categorized as elevated (serum B12 above reference range for age and sex [Hi-B12]) or within reference range (serum B12 within reference range for age and sex) for age and sex...
June 2014: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23669183/tocopherol-supplementation-reduces-no-production-and-pulmonary-inflammatory-response-to-bleomycin
#12
Jin Dong Shi, Thea Golden, Chang-Jiang Guo, Shui Ping Tu, Pamela Scott, Mao-Jung Lee, Chung S Yang, Andrew J Gow
Bleomycin causes acute lung injury through production of reactive species and initiation of inflammation. Previous work has shown alteration to the production of reactive oxygen species results in attenuation of injury. Vitamin E, in particular, γ-tocopherol, isoform, has the potential to scavenge reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. This study examines the utility of dietary supplementation with tocopherols in reducing bleomycin-mediated acute lung injury. Male C57BL6/J mice were intratracheally instilled with PBS or 2 units/kg bleomycin...
November 1, 2013: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23590892/docosahexaenoic-acid-dha-ameliorates-paraquat-induced-pulmonary-fibrosis-in-rats-possibly-through-up-regulation-of-smad-7-and-snon
#13
Jingjing Chen, Tao Zeng, Xiangzhong Zhao, Keqin Xiea, Ye Bi, Zhixia Zhong, Xiulan Zhao
Paraquat (PQ) poisoning has caused a large number of human fatalities due to the progressive and irreversible pulmonary fibrosis. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is well-recognized as important modulators of multiple biological pathways that affect health and disease. A line of studies have shown that DHA supplementation is associated with the alleviation of some tissue fibrosis. In the current study, pulmonary fibrosis of rats was produced by a single oral dose of 50 mg/kg bw PQ treatment. Daily 500 mg/kg bw DHA supplementation was provided 7 days before PQ treatment and lasted for consecutive 35 days...
July 2013: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23557217/radiation-mitigating-properties-of-the-lignan-component-in-flaxseed
#14
Ralph Pietrofesa, Jason Turowski, Sonia Tyagi, Floyd Dukes, Evguenia Arguiri, Theresa M Busch, Shannon M Gallagher-Colombo, Charalambos C Solomides, Keith A Cengel, Melpo Christofidou-Solomidou
BACKGROUND: Wholegrain flaxseed (FS), and its lignan component (FLC) consisting mainly of secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG), have potent lung radioprotective properties while not abrogating the efficacy of radiotherapy. However, while the whole grain was recently shown to also have potent mitigating properties in a thoracic radiation pneumonopathy model, the bioactive component in the grain responsible for the mitigation of lung damage was never identified. Lungs may be exposed to radiation therapeutically for thoracic malignancies or incidentally following detonation of a radiological dispersion device...
2013: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23223377/a-survey-of-nutrition-practices-for-patients-with-cystic-fibrosis
#15
Catherine E O'Brien, Heather Harden, Gulnur Com
BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis (CF) affects approximately 30,000 people in the United States and is characterized by pulmonary disease and poor nutrition. Optimal nutrition is associated with better pulmonary function, and aggressive nutrition interventions have played a major role in increased survival. Even though the CF Foundation (CFF) has published treatment guidelines for certain areas of nutrition care, there may still be variability in other areas. Thus, the purpose of this study was to survey current practices among CF dietitians...
April 2013: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23132788/modulatory-effects-of-curcumin-and-green-tea-extract-against-experimentally-induced-pulmonary-fibrosis-a-comparison-with-n-acetyl-cysteine
#16
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Mohammed Ahmed Hamdy, Shohda A El-Maraghy, Mona Abd El Aziz Kortam
The study was aimed to investigate the protective effect of green tea extract (GTE), curcumin, and N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) on experimentally induced pulmonary fibrosis. Curcumin (200 mg/kg b.w), GTE (150 mg/kg b.w), and NAC (490 mg/kg b.w) were administered orally for 14 days with concomitant administration of cyclophosphamide (CP). Lung fibrosis was assessed by measuring hydroxyproline and elastin levels and confirmed by histopathological examination. Oxidative stress was also observed in the CP group. Lung myeloperoxidase activity was significantly decreased in animals of the CP group...
November 2012: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22013884/mitigation-of-lung-injury-after-accidental-exposure-to-radiation
#17
J Mahmood, S Jelveh, V Calveley, A Zaidi, S R Doctrow, R P Hill
There is a serious need to develop effective mitigators against accidental radiation exposures. In radiation accidents, many people may receive nonuniform whole-body or partial-body irradiation. The lung is one of the more radiosensitive organs, demonstrating pneumonitis and fibrosis that are believed to develop at least partially because of radiation-induced chronic inflammation. Here we addressed the crucial questions of how damage to the lung can be mitigated and whether the response is affected by irradiation to the rest of the body...
December 2011: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21702963/dietary-flaxseed-administered-post-thoracic-radiation-treatment-improves-survival-and-mitigates-radiation-induced-pneumonopathy-in-mice
#18
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Melpo Christofidou-Solomidou, Sonia Tyagi, Kay-See Tan, Sarah Hagan, Ralph Pietrofesa, Floyd Dukes, Evguenia Arguiri, Daniel F Heitjan, Charalambos C Solomides, Keith A Cengel
BACKGROUND: Flaxseed (FS) is a dietary supplement known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Radiation exposure of lung tissues occurs either when given therapeutically to treat intrathoracic malignancies or incidentally, such as in the case of exposure from inhaled radioisotopes released after the detonation of a radiological dispersion devise (RDD). Such exposure is associated with pulmonary inflammation, oxidative tissue damage and irreversible lung fibrosis. We previously reported that dietary FS prevents pneumonopathy in a rodent model of thoracic X-ray radiation therapy (XRT)...
2011: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21525256/-n-3-long-chain-pufa-differentially-affect-resistance-to-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-infection-of-male-and-female-cftr-mice
#19
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Hélène Tiesset, Henry Bernard, Nana Bartke, Christopher Beermann, Elisabeth Flachaire, Jean-Luc Desseyn, Frédéric Gottrand, Marie-Odile Husson
The aim of this study was to determine whether oral supplementation with EPA/DHA (10.5 and 5.1% of fat, respectively) could improve the outcome of pulmonary P. aeruginosa infection in cftr(-/-) mice compared with wild-type (Wt) mice similarly treated. Because gender could influence the susceptibility of cftr-deficient mice, results were analyzed by gender. Wt and (-/-) mice were randomized for 6 wk to consume a control or EPA/DHA diet, infected with endotracheal injection of 5 × 10(7) CFU/mouse of P. aeruginosa, and killed 24 h later...
June 2011: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20961818/effect-of-an-antioxidant-rich-multivitamin-supplement-in-cystic-fibrosis
#20
Scott D Sagel, Marci K Sontag, Meg M Anthony, Peggy Emmett, Konstantinos A Papas
BACKGROUND: Despite supplementation with standard multivitamins and pancreatic enzymes, deficiencies of vitamins D and K and antioxidants are common in cystic fibrosis (CF). METHODS: In this non-randomized, open-label study, AquADEKs® softgels were given daily over 12 weeks to 14 CF subjects (mean age 15 years, range 10-23) without a preceding wash-out period. Both pancreatic sufficient and insufficient subjects were enrolled. Plasma vitamin and antioxidant levels, urine 8-isoprostane levels, anthropometric measures, and pulmonary function were determined at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks...
January 2011: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
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