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Jan Hattendorf, Kevin Louis Bardosh, Jakob Zinsstag
Surveillance of zoonotic disease requires special attention because the animal and human health sectors are involved. A proliferation of scholarly literature and technical guidelines exist for early detection of exotic and re-emerging diseases and to demonstrate freedom from disease as part of international trade agreements. In contrast, literature focussing on surveillance of endemic zoonotic diseases is relatively rare. In this article, we describe and discuss the main aspects to consider when planning a surveillance system for endemic zoonotic diseases in a resource-limited country...
October 18, 2016: Acta Tropica
Karidia Diallo, Surbhi Modi, Mackenzie Hurlston, Rachel Suzanne Beard, John N Nkengasong
Early diagnosis of HIV infection in infants and children remains a challenge in resource-limited settings, with approximately half of all HIV-exposed infants receiving virological testing for HIV by the recommended age of two months in 2015. In order to reduce morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected children and to close the treatment gap for HIV-infected children, there is an urgent need to evaluate existing programmatic and laboratory practices for early infant diagnosis and introduce strategies to improve identification of HIV-exposed infants and ensure access to systematic, early HIV testing with early linkage to treatment for HIV-infected infants...
October 19, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Patricia C Henwood, David C Mackenzie, Joshua S Rempell, Emily Douglass, Damas Dukundane, Andrew S Liteplo, Megan M Leo, Alice F Murray, Samuel Vaillancourt, Anthony J Dean, Resa E Lewiss, Stephen Rulisa, Elizabeth Krebs, A K Raja Rao, Emmanuel Rudakemwa, Vincent Rusanganwa, Patrick Kyanmanywa, Vicki E Noble
OBJECTIVE: We delivered a point-of-care ultrasound training programme in a resource-limited setting in Rwanda, and sought to determine participants' knowledge and skill retention. We also measured trainees' assessment of the usefulness of ultrasound in clinical practice. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study of 17 Rwandan physicians participating in a point-of-care ultrasound training programme. The follow-up period was 1 year. Participants completed a 10-day ultrasound course, with follow-up training delivered over the subsequent 12 months...
October 19, 2016: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Martin Kuete, HongFang Yuan, Aude Laure Tchoua Kemayou, Emmanuel Ancel Songo, Fan Yang, XiuLan Ma, ChengLiang Xiong, HuiPing Zhang
BACKGROUND: Integration of family planning services (FPS) into human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care for HIV-infected women is an important aspect of the global prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) strategy. We assessed the integration of FPS into routine care of HIV-infected mothers by evaluating the uptake and barriers of contraception and PMTCT services. METHODS: We conducted an interventional study using the interrupted time series approach in the health care facilities located in Yaounde, Cameroon...
2016: Patient Preference and Adherence
Henry Zakumumpa, Modupe Oladunni Taiwo, Alex Muganzi, Freddie Ssengooba
BACKGROUND: Human resources for health (HRH) constraints are a major barrier to the sustainability of antiretroviral therapy (ART) scale-up programs in Sub-Saharan Africa. Many prior approaches to HRH constraints have taken a top-down trend of generalized global strategies and policy guidelines. The objective of the study was to examine the human resources for health strategies adopted by front-line providers in Uganda to sustain ART delivery beyond the initial ART scale-up phase between 2004 and 2009...
October 19, 2016: Human Resources for Health
Henry Zakumumpa, Sara Bennett, Freddie Ssengooba
BACKGROUND: Uganda implemented a national ART scale-up program at public and private health facilities between 2004 and 2009. Little is known about how and why some health facilities have sustained ART programs and why others have not sustained these interventions. The objective of the study was to identify facilitators and barriers to the long-term sustainability of ART programs at six health facilities in Uganda which received donor support to commence ART between 2004 and 2009. METHODS: A case-study approach was adopted...
October 18, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
Mahamud-Ur Rashid, Zillur Rahman, Vanessa Burrowes, Jamie Perin, Munshi Mustafiz, Shirajum Monira, K M Saif-Ur-Rahman, Sazzadul Islam Bhuyian, Md Toslim Mahmud, R Bradley Sack, David Sack, Munirul Alam, Christine Marie George
OBJECTIVE: In urban Dhaka, Bangladesh, 30% of source water samples collected from the households of cholera patients had detectable Vibrio cholerae. These findings indicate an urgent need for a public health intervention for this population. The Crystal VC(®) dipstick test is a rapid method for detecting V.cholerae in stool and water. However, to date no study has investigated the use of the rapid dipstick test for household surveillance of stored drinking water. METHODS: The efficacy of the Crystal VC(®) dipstick test for detecting V...
October 18, 2016: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Kitsada Wudhikarn, Udomsak Bunworasate, Jakrawadee Julamanee, Arnuparp Lekhakula, Suporn Chuncharunee, Pimjai Niparuck, Supachai Ekwattanakit, Archrob Khuhapinant, Lalita Norasetthada, Weerasak Nawarawong, Nisa Makruasi, Nonglak Kanitsap, Chittima Sirijerachai, Kanchana Chansung, Peerapon Wong, Tontanai Numbenjapon, Kannadit Prayongratana, Tawatchai Suwanban, Somchai Wongkhantee, Pannee Praditsuktavorn, Tanin Intragumtornchai
Secondary central nervous system (CNS) relapse is a serious and fatal complication of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Data on secondary CNS (SCNS) relapse were mostly obtained from western countries with limited data from developing countries. We analyzed the data of 2034 newly diagnosed DLBCL patients enrolled into the multi-center registry under Thai Lymphoma Study Group from setting. The incidence, September 2006 to December 2013 to represent outcome from a resource limited pattern, management, and outcome of SCNS relapse were described...
October 18, 2016: Annals of Hematology
M Thiart, A Ikram, R P Lamberts
INTRODUCTION: Although fragment specific fixation has proved to be an effective treatment regime, it has not been established how successfully this treatment could be performed using fluoroscopy and what the added value of arthroscopy could be. Establish gap and step-off distances after in intra-articular distal radius fractures that have been treated with fragment specific fixation while using fluoroscopy. MATERIAL: Forty-four patients with an intra-articular distal radius fracture were treated with fragment specific fixation while using fluoroscopy...
October 14, 2016: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
Mona Saraiya, Florence K L Tangka, Samira Asma, Lisa C Richardson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 14, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology
Claude T Tagny, Pauline N Balôgôg, Francoise Boehlen, Dora Mbanya
In Cameroon, the Yaoundé Hemophilia Treatment Center (HTC) has so far recorded 121 cases of hemophilia and only 10 cases of von Willebrand disease (VWD). We report the case of a 16-year-old girl, living in the north of Cameroon. She presented with severe meno-metrorrhagia, which had increased drastically within the past 3 months, associated more recently by gum bleeding and epistaxis. The coagulation screen showed a prolonged bleeding time. The clinical profile of this young girl and the findings of less than 5% for von Willebrand factor (VWF):Ag and 10% for VWF Ristocetin cofactor suggests a type 3 VWD...
October 2016: Blood Coagulation & Fibrinolysis: An International Journal in Haemostasis and Thrombosis
Mitch M Matoga, Mina C Hosseinipour, Evgenia Aga, Heather J Ribaudo, Nagalingeswaran Kumarasamy, John Bartlett, Michael D Hughes
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is an emerging concern for HIV-infected patients. Hyperlipidemia is a risk factor for CVD and a complication of protease-inhibitor-based antiretroviral therapy, but little is known about its incidence and risk factors in treated patients in resource-limited settings (RLS). METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of ACTG A5230 trial in which HIV-infected adults from India, Malawi, Tanzania, Thailand and South Africa, with virologic relapse on first line therapy were initiated on lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) monotherapy...
October 14, 2016: Antiviral Therapy
Apurv Soni, Allison Earon, Anna Handorf, Nisha Fahey, Kandarp Talati, John Bostrom, Ki Chon, Craig Napolitano, Michael Chin, John Sullivan, Shyamsundar Raithatha, Robert Goldberg, Somashekhar Nimbalkar, Jeroan Allison, Sunil Thanvi, David McManus
BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation, the world's most common arrhythmia, is a leading risk factor for stroke, a disease striking nearly 1.6 million Indians annually. Early detection and management of atrial fibrillation is a promising opportunity to prevent stroke but widespread screening programs in limited resource settings using conventional methods is difficult and costly. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to screen people for atrial fibrillation in rural western India using a US Food and Drug Administration-approved single-lead electrocardiography device, Alivecor...
October 13, 2016: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Shaun K Morris, Lisa G Pell, Mohammed Ziaur Rahman, Michelle C Dimitris, Abdullah Mahmud, M Munirul Islam, Tahmeed Ahmed, Eleanor Pullenayegum, Tahmid Kashem, Shaila S Shanta, Jonathan Gubbay, Eszter Papp, Michelle Science, Stanley Zlotkin, Daniel E Roth
BACKGROUND: Early infancy is a high-risk period for severe acute respiratory infection (ARI), particularly in low-income countries with resource-limited health systems. Lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) is commonly preceded by upper respiratory infection (URTI), and often caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza and other common community-acquired viral pathogens. Vitamin D status is a candidate modifiable early-life determinant of the host antiviral immune response and thus may influence the risk of ARI-associated morbidity in high-risk populations...
October 13, 2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
David Lidwell, Colin A Meghoo
Skeletal traction is a useful technique for managing proximal femur fractures in austere environments where fracture stabilization for this injury is difficult. We present a technique and a construct appropriate for field use that facilitates patient evacuation, and we provide guidelines for the use of this technique by an advanced medical provider managing these injuries. The objectives of this article are to enable to reader to (1) recognize the role of skeletal traction in managing proximal femur fractures in an austere environment, (2) identify the key steps in placing transfemoral skeletal traction pins, and (3) identify options and requirements for building a traction construct in resource-limited environments...
2016: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
Kimberly Plevniak, Matthew Campbell, Timothy Myers, Abby Hodges, Mei He
Clinical diagnosis requiring central facilities and site visits can be burdensome for patients in resource-limited or rural areas. Therefore, development of a low-cost test that utilizes smartphone data collection and transmission would beneficially enable disease self-management and point-of-care (POC) diagnosis. In this paper, we introduce a low-cost iPOC(3D) diagnostic strategy which integrates 3D design and printing of microfluidic POC device with smartphone-based disease diagnosis in one process as a stand-alone system, offering strong adaptability for establishing diagnostic capacity in resource-limited areas and low-income countries...
September 2016: Biomicrofluidics
Tianmu Chen, Haogao Gu, Ross Ka-Kit Leung, Ruchun Liu, Qiuping Chen, Ying Wu, Yaman Li
BACKGROUND: In resource-limited settings where laboratory capacity is limited and response strategy is non-specific, delayed or inappropriate intervention against outbreaks of Norovirus (NoV) are common. Here we report interventions of two norovirus outbreaks, which highlight the importance of evidence-based modeling and assessment to identify infection sources and formulate effective response strategies. METHODS: Spatiotemporal scanning, mathematical and random walk modeling predicted the modes of transmission in the two incidents, which were supported by laboratory results and intervention outcomes...
October 12, 2016: BMC Public Health
İbrahim Ömer Barlas, Orhan Sezgin, Collet Dandara, Gözde Türköz, Emre Yengel, Zinhle Cindi, Handan Ankaralı, Semra Şardaş
Pharmacogenomics harnesses the utility of a patient's genome (n = 1) in decisions on which therapeutic drugs and in what amounts should be administered. Often, patients with shared ancestry present with comparable genetic profiles that predict drug response. However, populations are not static, thus, often, population mobility through migration, especially enmasse as is seen for refugees, changes the pharmacogenetic profiles of resultant populations and therefore observed responses to commonly used therapeutic drugs...
October 2016: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
Aschalew Tamiru, Bethlehem Tigabu, Sisay Yifru, Ermias Diro, Asrat Hailu
BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a protozoan disease that is invariably fatal if left untreated. The disease is found in 70 countries with incidence of 0.2 - 0.4 million cases. The mainstay of treatment in resource limited countries like Ethiopia is antimonials, while use of liposomal amphotericin B is reserved for treatment of complicated VL cases. The aim of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of liposomal amphotericin B in HIV negative VL patients diagnosed with complications...
October 10, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Chong Hu, Sheng Lin, Wanbo Li, Han Sun, Yangfan Chen, Chiu-Wing Chan, Chung-Hang Leung, Dik-Lung Ma, Hongkai Wu, Kangning Ren
An ultra-fast, extremely cost-effective, and environmentally friendly method was developed for fabricating flexible microfluidic chips with plastic membranes. With this method, we could fabricate plastic microfluidic chips rapidly (within 12 seconds per piece) at an extremely low cost (less than $0.02 per piece). We used a heated perfluoropolymer perfluoroalkoxy (often called Teflon PFA) solid stamp to press a pile of two pieces of plastic membranes, low density polyethylene (LDPE) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) coated with an ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA)...
October 5, 2016: Lab on a Chip
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