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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526143/uterotonic-medications-oxytocin-methylergonovine-carboprost-misoprostol
#1
REVIEW
Cristianna Vallera, Lynn O Choi, Catherine M Cha, Richard W Hong
Uterine atony is a common cause of primary postpartum hemorrhage, which remains a major cause of pregnancy-related mortality for women worldwide. Oxytocin, methylergonovine, carboprost, and misoprostol are commonly used to restore uterine tone. Oxytocin is the first-line agent. Methylergonovine and carboprost are both highly effective second-line agents with severe potential side effects. Recent studies have called into question the effectiveness of misoprostol as an adjunct to other uterotonic agents, but it remains a useful therapeutic in resource-limited practice environments...
June 2017: Anesthesiology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525851/a-fully-integrated-distance-readout-elisa-chip-for-point-of-care-testing-with-sample-in-answer-out-capability
#2
Dan Liu, Xingrui Li, Junkai Zhou, Shibo Liu, Tian Tian, Yanling Song, Zhi Zhu, Leiji Zhou, Tianhai Ji, Chaoyong Yang
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is a popular laboratory technique for detection of disease-specific protein biomarkers with high specificity and sensitivity. However, ELISA requires labor-intensive and time-consuming procedures with skilled operators and spectroscopic instrumentation. Simplification of the procedures and miniaturization of the devices are crucial for ELISA-based point-of-care (POC) testing in resource-limited settings. Here, we present a fully integrated, instrument-free, low-cost and portable POC platform which integrates the process of ELISA and the distance readout into a single microfluidic chip...
May 4, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523086/a-14-year-review-of-craniomaxillofacial-gunshot-wounds-in-a-resource-limited-setting
#3
Olushola Amole, Otasowie Osunde, Benjamin Akhiwu, Akinwale Efunkoya, Kelvin Omeje, Taiwo Amole, Zubairu Iliyasu
This study analyzed the prevalence, clinical characteristics, and management of civilian-type craniomaxillofacial gunshot wounds (CGSWs) seen over a 14-year period in a Northern Nigerian teaching hospital. A retrospective study of all hospital records relating to CGSWs from January 2000 to December 2013 was conducted to determine the prevalence of CGSWs. Information retrieved included site of injury, type of projectile, management protocol, as well as duration of hospitalization. A total of 46 admissions for CGSWs were recorded during the period under review from a total of 2,228 maxillofacial admissions...
June 2017: Craniomaxillofacial Trauma & Reconstruction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522808/plasmonics-enhanced-smartphone-fluorescence-microscopy
#4
Qingshan Wei, Guillermo Acuna, Seungkyeum Kim, Carolin Vietz, Derek Tseng, Jongjae Chae, Daniel Shir, Wei Luo, Philip Tinnefeld, Aydogan Ozcan
Smartphone fluorescence microscopy has various applications in point-of-care (POC) testing and diagnostics, ranging from e.g., quantification of immunoassays, detection of microorganisms, to sensing of viruses. An important need in smartphone-based microscopy and sensing techniques is to improve the detection sensitivity to enable quantification of extremely low concentrations of target molecules. Here, we demonstrate a general strategy to enhance the detection sensitivity of a smartphone-based fluorescence microscope by using surface-enhanced fluorescence (SEF) created by a thin metal-film...
May 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522337/maternal-influenza-immunisation-to-reduce-influenza-infections-and-low-birthweight-in-infants-in-resource-limited-countries
#5
Paul Loubet, Odile Launay
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 15, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520616/pediatric-cancer-burden-and-treatment-resources-within-the-pediatric-iedea-consortium
#6
Steven A Brown, Salma Abbas, Mary-Ann Davies, Torsak Bunupuradah, Annette H Sohn, Karl-Günter Technau, Lorna Renner, Valériane Leroy, Andrew Edmonds, Marcel Yotebieng, Catherine C McGowan, Stephany N Duda, Lynne Mofenson, Beverly Musick, Kara Wools-Kaloustian
INTRODUCTION: The incidence and treatment of cancer in HIV-infected children from resource-limited settings has not been extensively studied. OBJECTIVES: Develop and implement a cross-sectional survey to evaluate pediatric cancer burden, diagnostic modalities in use, and treatment availability as perceived by HIV clinic staff at regional International Epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) sites. METHODS: IeDEA regional investigators developed a cross-sectional clinical site survey which included questions on the numbers and types of pediatric cancers observed, modalities used to treat identified cancers and treatment options available at individual sites in the Asia-Pacific, Latin America, Central Africa, East Africa, West Africa, and Southern Africa regions...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514959/prevention-of-postpartum-haemorrhage-by-community-based-auxiliary-midwives-in-hard-to-reach-areas-of-myanmar-a-qualitative-inquiry-into-acceptability-and-feasibility-of-task-shifting
#7
Kyu Kyu Than, Yasmin Mohamed, Victoria Oliver, Theingi Myint, Thazin La, James G Beeson, Stanley Luchters
BACKGROUND: In Myanmar, postpartum haemorrhage is the leading cause of maternal mortality and contributes to around 30% of all maternal deaths. The World Health Organization recommends training and supporting auxiliary midwives to administer oral misoprostol for prevention of postpartum haemorrhage in resource-limited settings. However, use of misoprostol by auxiliary midwives has not formally been approved in Myanmar. Our study aimed to explore community and provider perspectives on the roles of auxiliary midwives and community-level provision of oral misoprostol by auxiliary midwives...
May 17, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514671/evaluation-of-improved-is6110-lamp-assay-for-diagnosis-of-pulmonary-and-extra-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#8
Deepali Joon, Manoj Nimesh, Mandira Varma-Basil, Daman Saluja
In the present study, IS6110 loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was modified using dUTP-UNG (uracil-DNA N-glycosylase) strategy to prevent carryover contamination, and was evaluated using clinical specimens. The clinical specimens were collected from 236 suspected patients of pulmonary tuberculosis and 315 specimens of suspected patients of extra pulmonary tuberculosis. DNA was extracted from specimens and used as template for nucleic acid amplification. The results were evaluated with culture method as gold standard...
May 14, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506630/cost-effective-hiv-1-virological-monitoring-in-resource-limited-settings-using-a-modified-commercially-available-qpcr-rna-assay
#9
Jayaseelan Boobalan, Andrea Torti, Thongadi Ramesh Dinesha, Sunil Suhas Solomon, Pachamuthu Balakrishnan, Shanmugam Saravanan
Virological monitoring through plasma viral load (PVL) quantification is essential for clinical management of HIV patients undergoing antiretroviral treatment (ART), and for detecting treatment failure. Quantitative PCR (qPCR)-based tests are the gold standard for measuring PVL. Largely because of their high cost, however, implementation of these tests in low- and middle-income countries fails to cover the testing demand. In this study, we aimed at reducing the running cost of the commercially available Abbott RealTime™ HIV-1 assay by minimizing the reagent consumption...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501165/a-portable-somatic-cell-counter-based-on-a-multi-functional-counting-chamber-and-a-miniaturized-fluorescence-microscope
#10
Byeongyeon Kim, Yu Jin Lee, Jong Gwan Park, Dongwon Yoo, Young Ki Hahn, Sungyoung Choi
A somatic cell count is the concentration or density of somatic cells in milk, and is an important indicator for monitoring mastitis incidence and milk quality in the dairy industry. Managing and controlling mastitis based on somatic cell counts can help ensure high milk quality and yield. A major challenge when translating existing cell counting methods to such application is that they require off-chip sample preparation and complicated sample and reagent delivery steps that cannot be easily performed in resource-limited settings such as dairy farms...
August 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499407/early-neurosyphilis-presenting-with-facial-palsy-and-an-oral-ulcer-in-a-patient-who-is-human-immunodeficiency-virus-positive-a-case-report
#11
Evangeline Njiru, Jamil Abdulkadir, Zipporah Kamuren, Gabriel Kigen
BACKGROUND: Neurosyphilis is the tertiary stage of Treponema pallidum infection that involves the central nervous system, which occurs within days or weeks after an initial syphilis infection, especially in immunocompromised patients. The diagnosis of neurosyphilis is quite challenging as it is uncommon and often presents with obscure symptoms since any organ system may be involved. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe a case of a 40-year-old African man who is human immunodeficiency virus positive with early neurosyphilis who presented with a stiff neck, headache, confusion, restlessness, and a left-sided chest pain; he did not respond to an empiric treatment of ceftriaxone and fluconazole for meningitis, and tramadol for headache...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499308/outcome-of-neonates-with-meconium-aspiration-syndrome-at-the-university-hospital-of-the-west-indies-jamaica-a-resource-limited-setting
#12
L Panton, H Trotman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 12, 2017: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499195/using-the-rubik-s-cube-to-directly-produce-paper-analytical-devices-for-quantitative-point-of-care-aptamer-based-assays
#13
Haiyan Fu, Juanhua Yang, Lin Guo, Jinfang Nie, Qiaobo Yin, Lang Zhang, Yun Zhang
In this article, we describe a facile method named as Rubik's Cube stamping (RCS) for equipment-free fabrication of microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs). RCS is inspired by the worldwide ubiquitous RC toy and requires no specialized electric equipment other than a classical six-faced RC that is assembled with home-made small iron components. It can pattern various rosin microstructures in paper simply by either using different functional faces of the modified RC or applying its internal pivot mechanism to adjust the components' patterning forms on one functional face...
May 6, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498188/the-impact-of-structured-mentor-mother-programs-on-presentation-for-early-infant-diagnosis-testing-in-rural-north-central-nigeria-a-prospective-paired-cohort-study
#14
Nadia A Sam-Agudu, Habib O Ramadhani, Christopher Isah, Salome Erekaha, Chinenye Fan-Osuala, Udochisom Anaba, Ebunoluwa A Adejuyigbe, Manhattan Charurat
BACKGROUND: Early infant diagnosis (EID) by 2 months of age is an important prevention of mother-to-child cascade step that serves as an early postpartum indicator of program success. Uptake and timely presentation for infant HIV diagnosis are significant challenges in resource-limited settings. Few studies on maternal peer support (PS) have demonstrated impact on EID. The MoMent study evaluated the impact of structured PS on timely presentation for EID testing in rural North-Central Nigeria...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498062/telemedicine-is-helping-the-parents-of-children-with-neurodevelopmental-disorders-living-in-remote-and-deprived-areas
#15
Ruth Stuckey, Sophie Domingues-Montanari
Telecommunication technologies are advancing rapidly with huge investment to improve infrastructure in rural areas. Telemedicine brings the benefits of telecommunication to healthcare, especially in resource-limited and remote communities. The recent literature on telemedicine in paediatrics will be reviewed, with particular focus on its application to help children with neurodevelopmental disorders and their families living in remote regions and/or low-income countries, and gaps identified for future research...
May 12, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496530/assessment-of-the-relation-between-snp-in-mxa-gene-and-the-responsiveness-of-egyptian-hcv-genotype-4-patients-to-pegylated-interferon-and-ribavirin-treatment
#16
Mohamed Hassany, Amany Gamal, Nashwa Zaki, Basem Eysa
BACKGROUND: Pegylated interferon (PegIFN) is used in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients especially in resource limited countries. Treatment with PegIFN stimulates the expression of a number of host genes encoding enzymes with antiviral activities, including myxovirus resistance gene-A (MxA gene). MxA gene was found to have a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at position -88 in the promoter region that affects the expression of MxA gene protein and was suggested to affect the treatment outcome...
April 2017: Gastroenterology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493871/ileus-in-children-presenting-with-diarrhea-and-severe-acute-malnutrition-a-chart-review
#17
Mohammod Jobayer Chisti, Abu Smsb Shahid, K M Shahunja, Pradip Kumar Bardhan, Abu Syeed Golam Faruque, Lubaba Shahrin, Sumon Kumar Das, Dipesh Kumar Barua, Md Iqbal Hossain, Tahmeed Ahmed
BACKGROUND: Severely malnourished children aged under five years requiring hospital admission for diarrheal illness frequently develop ileus during hospitalization with often fatal outcomes. However, there is no data on risk factors and outcome of ileus in such children. We intended to evaluate predictive factors for ileus during hospitalization and their outcomes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This was a retrospective chart review that enrolled severely malnourished children under five years old with diarrhea, admitted to the Dhaka Hospital of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh between April 2011 and August 2012...
May 11, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492122/critical-care-admission-of-south-african-sa-surgical-patients-results-of-the-sa-surgical-outcomes-study
#18
David Lee Skinner, Kim De Vasconcellos, Robert Wise, Tonya Marianne Esterhuizen, Cate Fourie, Akhter Goolam Mahomed, P Dean Gopalan, Ivan Joubert, Hyla-Louise Kluyts, L Rudo Mathivha, Busisiwe Mrara, Jan P Pretorius, Guy Richards, Ollie Smith, Maryke Geertruida Louise Spruyt, Rupert M Pearse, Thandinkosi E Madiba, Bruce M Biccard, On Behalf Of The South African Surgical Outcomes Study Sasos Investigators
BACKGROUND: Appropriate critical care admissions are an important component of surgical care. However, there are few data describing postoperative critical care admission in resource-limited low- and middle-income countries. OBJECTIVE: To describe the demographics, organ failures, organ support and outcomes of non-cardiac surgical patients admitted to critical care units in South Africa (SA). METHODS: The SA Surgical Outcomes Study (SASOS) was a 7-day national, multicentre, prospective, observational cohort study of all patients ≥16 years of age undergoing inpatient non-cardiac surgery between 19 and 26 May 2014 at 50 government-funded hospitals...
April 25, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491923/risk-factors-for-death-in-bangladeshi-children-under-5-years-of-age-hospitalized-for-diarrhea-and-severe-respiratory-distress-in-an-urban-critical-care-ward
#19
Tahmina Alam, Tahmeed Ahmed, Monira Sarmin, Lubaba Shahrin, Farzana Afroze, Sharifuzzaman, Shamima Akhter, K M Shahunja, Abu Sadat Mohammad Sayeem Bin Shahid, Pradip Kumar Bardhan, Mohammod Jobayer Chisti
Children with diarrhea hospitalized for respiratory distress often have fatal outcome in resource-limited settings, although data are lacking on risk factors for death in such children. We sought to evaluate clinical predictors for death in such children. In this prospective cohort study, we enrolled under-5 children with diarrhea admitted with severe respiratory distress to the intensive care unit of Dhaka Hospital of International Centre for Diarhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, from September 2014 through September 2015...
2017: Global Pediatric Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490246/evaluation-of-xpert-mtb-rif-assay-in-children-with-presumed-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-papua-new-guinea
#20
Sharon Kasa Tom, Henry Welch, Cornelia Kilalang, Nakapi Tefuarani, John Vince, Evelyn Lavu, Karen Johnson, Ruth Magaye, Trevor Duke
BACKGROUND: The Gene Xpert MTB/ RIF assay (Xpert) is used for rapid, simultaneous detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and rifampicin resistance. This study examined the accuracy of Xpert in children with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). METHODS: Children admitted to Port Moresby General Hospital with suspected PTB were prospectively enrolled between September 2014 and March 2015. They were classified into probable, possible and TB-unlikely groups...
May 11, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
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