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Antibody identification

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792724/a-systematic-understanding-of-signaling-by-erbb2-in-cancer-using-phosphoproteomics
#1
C Sidhanth, P Manasa, S Krishnapriya, S Sneha, S Bindhya, R P Nagare, M Garg, T S Ganesan
ErbB2 is an important receptor tyrosine kinase and a member of the ErbB family. Although it does not have a specific ligand, it transmits signals downstream by heterodimerization with other receptors in the family. It plays a major role in a variety of cellular responses like proliferation, differentiation, and adhesion. ErbB2 is amplified at the DNA level in breast cancer (20%-30%) and gastric cancer (10%-20%), and trastuzumab is effective as a therapeutic antibody. This review is a critical analysis of the currently published data on the signaling pathways of ErbB2 and the interacting proteins...
May 24, 2018: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790189/the-identification-of-a-novel-antibody-for-cd133-using-human-antibody-phage-display
#2
Paige M Glumac, Colleen L Forster, Hong Zhou, Paari Murugan, Shilpa Gupta, Aaron M LeBeau
BACKGROUND: The transmembrane glycoprotein CD133 is believed to be a marker of adult prostate stem cells and cancer stem/initiating cells. Investigating the role of CD133 in the normal biology of the prostate and in cancer is complicated by the lack of a sensitive and accurate antibody for its detection. Here, we describe the characterization of a unique antibody identified using human antibody phage display that can recognize CD133 in both formalin-fixed tissues and cell lines. METHODS: A human single-chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody phage display library possessing a diversity of 8 × 109 was screened against fully glycosylated recombinant CD133...
May 22, 2018: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789991/asymptomatic-histoplasma-pylephlebitis-in-an-orthotopic-liver-transplant-recipient-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#3
REVIEW
Pakpoom Phoompoung, Methee Chayakulkeeree, Popchai Ngamskulrungroj, Ananya Pongpaibul
Histoplasma capsulatum is one of the most common pathogenic dimorphic fungi in Thailand. Its usual clinical syndrome is progressive disseminated histoplasmosis, whereas isolated hepatic histoplasmosis is extremely rare. Here, we report the world's first reported case of hepatic histoplasmosis with pylephlebitis in a 45-year-old Thai male who underwent orthotopic liver transplantation due to hepatitis B cirrhosis. Histopathology of the recipient's liver showed infiltration of fungal organisms in portal vein and hepatic granulomas...
May 22, 2018: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789571/a-novel-extracellular-vesicle-associated-endodeoxyribonuclease-helps-streptococcus-pneumoniae-evade-neutrophil-extracellular-traps-and-is-required-for-full-virulence
#4
Hina Jhelum, Hema Sori, Devinder Sehgal
Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is a major bacterial pathogen that causes pneumonia and septicemia in humans. Pneumococci are cleared from the host primarily by antibody dependent opsonophagocytosis by phagocytes like neutrophils. Neutrophils release neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) on contacting pneumococci. NETs immobilize pneumococci and restrict its dissemination in the host. One of the strategies utilized by pneumococci to evade the host immune response involves use of DNase(s) to degrade NETs...
May 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788965/diagnostic-tools-of-caprine-and-ovine-anaplasmosis-a-direct-comparative-study
#5
I I Shabana, N M Alhadlag, H Zaraket
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of anaplasmosis is rather conflicting with other haemoprotozoans. Hence, the study aimed to compare and evaluate the efficiency of competitive ELISA (cELISA), indirect fluorescence antibody (IFA), and Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for precise diagnosis of Anaplasma spp. and to assess their concordance with microscopic examination (ME). RESULTS: A total of 312 blood samples (189 sheep and 123 goats) were examined for Anaplasma infection during a 1 year period...
May 22, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788743/novel-insights-into-transcriptional-dysregulation-in-colorectal-cancer
#6
Y Feodorova, D Tashkova, I Koev, A Todorov, G Kostov, K Simitchiev, V Belovejdov, R Dimov, V Sarafian
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Although CRC has been comprehensively characterized at the molecular level, the tumor heterogeneity hinders the identification of reliable diagnostic, prognostic and predictive biomarkers. Molecular stratification of CRC is based on prevalent gene mutations and transcription profiles but its significance for clinical practice remains obscure. Indeed, activating mutations in the genes KRAS, NRAS and BRAF are the only predictive biomarkers for anti-EGFR antibody therapy routinely tested the clinic for advanced stages of CRC...
March 14, 2018: Neoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787423/autoimmune-granulomatous-inflammation-of-lacrimal-glands-and-axonal-neuritis-following-treatment-with-ipilimumab-and-radiation-therapy
#7
Ecaterina Ileana Dumbrava, Veronica Smith, Rasha Alfattal, Adel K El-Naggar, Marta Penas-Prado, Apostolia M Tsimberidou
Immune checkpoint inhibitors such as anti-CTLA-4 (cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4), anti PD-1 (programmed cell death protein 1) and PD-L1 (programmed cell death protein-ligand 1) monoclonal antibodies are emerging as standard oncology treatments in various tumor types. The indications will expand as immunotherapies are being investigated in various tumors with promising results. Currently, there is inadequate identification of predictive biomarkers of response or toxicity. Unique response patterns include pseudoprogression and delayed response...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785730/evidence-of-australian-bat-lyssavirus-infection-in-diverse-australian-bat-taxa
#8
Hume Ernest Field
Historically, Australia was considered free of rabies and rabieslike viruses. Thus, the identification of Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) in 1996 in a debilitated bat found by a member of the public precipitated both public health consternation and a revision of lyssavirus taxonomy. Subsequent observational studies sought to elaborate the occurrence and frequency of ABLV infection in Australian bats. This paper describes the taxonomic diversity of bat species showing evidence of ABLV infection to better inform public health considerations...
May 21, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783865/flow-cytometry-based-epitope-binning-using-competitive-binding-profiles-for-the-characterization-of-monoclonal-antibodies-against-cellular-and-soluble-protein-targets
#9
Brian M Chan, Anita Badh, Kelly A Berry, Stephanie A Grauer, Chadwick T King
A key step in the therapeutic antibody drug discovery process is early identification of diverse candidate molecules. Information comparing antibody binding epitopes can be used to classify antibodies within a large panel, guiding rational lead molecule selection. We describe a novel epitope binning method utilizing high-throughput flow cytometry (HTFC) that leverages cellular barcoding or spectrally distinct beads to multiplex samples to characterize antibodies raised against cell membrane receptor or soluble protein targets...
May 1, 2018: SLAS Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781231/the-combination-of-three-autoantibodies-acpa-rf-and-anti-carp-antibodies-is-highly-specific-for-rheumatoid-arthritis-implications-for-very-early-identification-of-individuals-at-risk-to-develop-rheumatoid-arthritis
#10
Marije K Verheul, Stefan Böhringer, Myrthe A M van Delft, Jonathan D Jones, William F C Rigby, Ryan W Gan, V Michael Holers, Jess D Edison, Kevin D Deane, Koen M J Janssen, Johanna Westra, Mikael Brink, Solbritt Rantapää-Dahlqvist, Tom W J Huizinga, Annette H M van der Helm-van Mil, Diane van der Woude, Rene E M Toes, Leendert A Trouw
OBJECTIVE: In rheumatoid arthritis(RA), the autoantibodies anti-citrullinated protein antibodies(ACPA) and rheumatoid factor(RF) are commonly used to aid RA diagnosis. Although these autoantibodies are mainly found in RA, their specificity is not optimal. It is therefore difficult to identify RA patients, especially in very early disease, based on the presence of ACPA and RF alone. Also, anti-carbamylated protein(anti-CarP) antibodies have diagnostic and prognostic value as the presence of anti-CarP antibodies associates with joint damage in RA patients and with future RA development in arthralgia patients...
May 21, 2018: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778186/identification-of-antigenic-epitopes-of-monoclonal-antibodies-against-the-vp2-protein-of-the-25-serotype-of-bluetongue-virus
#11
Shuangyu Xie, Yiming Shi, Ruyue Gong, Wen Cui, Yanping Jiang, Min Liu, Li Wang, Han Zhou, Xinyuan Qiao, Yijing Li, Yigang Xu, Lijie Tang
Serious outbreaks of bluetongue, an arbovirus of domestic and wild ruminants caused by bluetongue virus serotypes (BTV), have occurred around the world. More than 27 distinct serotypes are recognized throughout the world. A new virus, BTV-25 (Toggenburg orbivirus [TOV]), was first detected in Switzerland, and has not yet been found in China. VP2 is an important outer shell protein that defines BTV serotypes and is, therefore, an ideal target antigen for serotype identification. To produce a monoclonal antibody against VP2 of BTV-25, the segment 2 gene was divided into three segments, cloned into pET-28a (+) and pMAL-c5X vectors, and the protein was expressed in E...
June 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777592/early-identification-of-unusually-clustered-mutations-and-a-root-cause-in-therapeutic-antibody-development
#12
Yueming Qian, Zhiqiang Chen, Xin Huang, Xuning Wang, Xuankuo Xu, Stefan Kirov, Richard Ludwig, Nan-Xin Qian, Kandasamy Ravi, Li Tao, Michael C Borys, Zheng Jian Li
This study reports findings of an unusual cluster of mutations spanning 22 base pairs in a monoclonal antibody (mAb) expression vector. It was identified by two orthogonal methods: mass spectrometry on expressed protein and next-generation sequencing (NGS) on the plasmid DNA. While the initial NGS analysis confirmed the designed sequence modification, intact mass analysis detected an additional mass of the antibody molecule expressed in CHO cells. The extra mass was eventually found to be associated with unmatched nucleotides in a distal region by checking full-length sequence alignment plots...
May 19, 2018: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776392/molecular-identification-of-tick-borne-pathogens-in-asymptomatic-individuals-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-hiv-1-infection-a-retrospective-study
#13
Renata Welc-Falęciak, Justyna D Kowalska, Małgorzata Bednarska, Magdalena Szatan, Agnieszka Pawełczyk
BACKGROUND: The studies on the occurrence and diversity of tick-borne infections in HIV-infected individuals have been few, and the subject has been relatively neglected when compared with other common infections associated with HIV. In HIV-positive patients in whom a serological diagnostics is complicated due to reduced positive predictive value, a method where the microorganism is detected directly is of great value. Therefore, we performed a molecular study to ascertain the prevalence and incidence of tick-borne infections in HIV-infected persons in Poland, an endemic area for Ixodes ricinus ticks...
May 18, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775480/titan-cells-formation-in-cryptococcus-neoformans-is-finely-tuned-by-environmental-conditions-and-modulated-by-positive-and-negative-genetic-regulators
#14
Benjamin Hommel, Liliane Mukaremera, Radames J B Cordero, Carolina Coelho, Christopher A Desjardins, Aude Sturny-Leclère, Guilhem Janbon, John R Perfect, James A Fraser, Arturo Casadevall, Christina A Cuomo, Françoise Dromer, Kirsten Nielsen, Alexandre Alanio
The pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans exhibits morphological changes in cell size during lung infection, producing both typical size 5 to 7 μm cells and large titan cells (> 10 μm and up to 100 μm). We found and optimized in vitro conditions that produce titan cells in order to identify the ancestry of titan cells, the environmental determinants, and the key gene regulators of titan cell formation. Titan cells generated in vitro harbor the main characteristics of titan cells produced in vivo including their large cell size (>10 μm), polyploidy with a single nucleus, large vacuole, dense capsule, and thick cell wall...
May 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772551/relevant-effects-of-beta-1-adrenoceptor-autoantibodies-in-chronic-heart-failure
#15
Valerie Boivin-Jahns, Roland Jahns, Fritz Boege
Patients suffering from chronic heart failure (CHF) caused or promoted by autoantibodies against cardiac beta1 -adrenergic receptors (beta1 AR) could benefit from specific therapies aimed at tolerance induction, removal or neutralisation of beta1 AR autoantibodies, provided the patients can be selected for these therapies by reliable detection and quantitation of beta1 AR autoantibodies in their circulation and by a valid assessment of the autoantibodies's putative cardio-pathogenic potential. Here, we discuss the current state of knowledge regarding the effects of CHF-associated (auto)antibodies on beta1 AR function and beta1 AR-mediated signal tranduction and discuss the presumed role of these effects in the development and progression of CHF...
June 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772538/targeting-fibroblast-activation-protein-in-cancer-prospects-and-caveats
#16
Petr Busek, Rosana Mateu, Michal Zubal, Lenka Kotackova, Aleksi Sedo
Fibroblast activation protein (FAP, seprase) is a serine protease with post-proline dipeptidyl peptidase and endopeptidase enzymatic activity. FAP is upregulated in several tumor types, while its expression in healthy adult tissues is scarce. FAP molecule itself and FAP+ stromal cells play an important although probably context-dependent and tumor type-specific pathogenetic role in tumor progression. We provide an overview of FAP expression under both physiological and pathological conditions with focus on human malignancies...
June 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770957/first-in-rat-study-of-human-alzheimer-s-disease-tau-propagation
#17
Tomas Smolek, Santosh Jadhav, Veronika Brezovakova, Veronika Cubinkova, Bernadeta Valachova, Petr Novak, Norbert Zilka
One of the key features of misfolded tau in human neurodegenerative disorders is its propagation from one brain area into many others. In the last decade, in vivo tau spreading has been replicated in several mouse transgenic models expressing mutated human tau as well as in normal non-transgenic mice. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that insoluble tau isolated from human AD brain induces full-blown neurofibrillary pathology in a sporadic rat model of tauopathy expressing non-mutated truncated tau protein...
May 16, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770094/travel-related-zika-virus-cases-in-canada-october-2015-june-2017
#18
J Tataryn, L Vrbova, M Drebot, H Wood, E Payne, S Connors, J Geduld, M German, K Khan, P A Buck
Background: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne disease that can cause severe birth defects if contracted congenitally. Since late 2015, there has been a large increase in the number of travel-related cases of Zika virus infection in Canada. Objective: The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology of travel-related Zika cases in Canada from October 2015 to June 2017 and review them in the context of the international outbreak in the Americas...
January 4, 2018: Canada Communicable Disease Report, Relevé des Maladies Transmissibles Au Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769332/identification-of-plant-virus-receptor-candidates-in-the-stylets-of-their-aphid-vectors
#19
Craig G Webster, Elodie Pichon, Manuella van Munster, Baptiste Monsion, Maëlle Deshoux, Daniel Gargani, Federica Calevro, Jaime Jimenez, Aranzazu Moreno, Björn Krenz, Jeremy R Thompson, Keith L Perry, Alberto Fereres, Stéphane Blanc, Marilyne Uzest
Plant viruses transmitted by insects cause tremendous losses in most important crops around the world. The identification of receptors of plant viruses within their insect vectors is a key challenge to understanding the mechanisms of transmission, and offers an avenue for future alternative control strategies to limit viral spread. We here report the identification of two cuticular proteins within aphid mouthparts, and we provide experimental support for the role of one of them in the transmission of a non-circulative virus...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769329/isolation-of-state-dependent-monoclonal-antibodies-against-the-12-transmembrane-domain-glucose-transporter-4-using-virus-like-particles
#20
David F Tucker, Jonathan T Sullivan, Kimberly-Anne Mattia, Christine R Fisher, Trevor Barnes, Manu N Mabila, Rona Wilf, Chidananda Sulli, Meghan Pitts, Riley J Payne, Moniquetta Hall, Duncan Huston-Paterson, Xiaoxiang Deng, Edgar Davidson, Sharon H Willis, Benjamin J Doranz, Ross Chambers, Joseph B Rucker
The insulin-responsive 12-transmembrane transporter GLUT4 changes conformation between an inward-open state and an outward-open state to actively facilitate cellular glucose uptake. Because of the difficulties of generating conformational mAbs against complex and highly conserved membrane proteins, no reliable tools exist to measure GLUT4 at the cell surface, follow its trafficking, or detect the conformational state of the protein. Here we report the isolation and characterization of conformational mAbs that recognize the extracellular and intracellular domains of GLUT4, including mAbs that are specific for the inward-open and outward-open states of GLUT4...
May 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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