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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164662/laboratory-tests-for-identification-or-exclusion-of-heparin-induced-thrombocytopenia-hit-or-miss
#1
Emmanuel J Favaloro
Heparin induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a potentially fatal condition that arises subsequent to formation of antibodies against complexes containing heparin, usually platelet-factor 4-heparin ('anti-PF4-heparin'). Assessment for HIT involves both clinical evaluation and, if indicated, laboratory testing for confirmation or exclusion, typically using an initial immunological assay ('screening'), and only if positive, a secondary functional assay for confirmation. Many different immunological and functional assays have been developed...
November 22, 2017: American Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164393/bordetella-pertussis-virulence-factors-in-the-continuing-evolution-of-whooping-cough-vaccines-for-improved-performance
#2
REVIEW
Dorji Dorji, Frits Mooi, Osvaldo Yantorno, Rajendar Deora, Ross M Graham, Trilochan K Mukkur
Despite high vaccine coverage, whooping cough caused by Bordetella pertussis remains one of the most common vaccine-preventable diseases worldwide. Introduction of whole-cell pertussis (wP) vaccines in the 1940s and acellular pertussis (aP) vaccines in 1990s reduced the mortality due to pertussis. Despite induction of both antibody and cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses by aP and wP vaccines, there has been resurgence of pertussis in many countries in recent years. Possible reasons hypothesised for resurgence have ranged from incompliance with the recommended vaccination programmes with the currently used aP vaccine to infection with a resurged clinical isolates characterised by mutations in the virulence factors, resulting in antigenic divergence with vaccine strain, and increased production of pertussis toxin, resulting in dampening of immune responses...
November 21, 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161766/identification-of-alpha-gal-sensitivity-in-patients-with-a-diagnosis-of-idiopathic-anaphylaxis
#3
Melody C Carter, Karina N Ruiz-Esteves, Lisa Workman, Philip Lieberman, Thomas A E Platts-Mills, Dean D Metcalfe
IgE antibodies (Ab) specific to galactose-α-1,3-galactose (alpha-gal) are responsible for a delayed form of anaphylaxis that occurs 3 to 6 hours after red meat ingestion. In a unique prospective study of seventy participants referred with a diagnosis of idiopathic anaphylaxis (IA), six (9%) were found to have IgE to alpha-gal. Upon institution of a diet free of red meat, all patients had no further episodes of anaphylaxis. Two of these individuals had indolent systemic mastocytosis (ISM). Those with ISM had more severe clinical reactions but lower specific IgE to alpha-gal and higher serum tryptase levels, reflective of the mast cell burden...
November 21, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160798/selectivity-specificity-improvement-strategies-in-surface-enhanced-raman-spectroscopy-analysis
#4
REVIEW
Feng Wang, Shiyu Cao, Ruxia Yan, Zewei Wang, Dan Wang, Haifeng Yang
Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is a powerful technique for the discrimination, identification, and potential quantification of certain compounds/organisms. However, its real application is challenging due to the multiple interference from the complicated detection matrix. Therefore, selective/specific detection is crucial for the real application of SERS technique. We summarize in this review five selective/specific detection techniques (chemical reaction, antibody, aptamer, molecularly imprinted polymers and microfluidics), which can be applied for the rapid and reliable selective/specific detection when coupled with SERS technique...
November 21, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159804/antibodies-against-human-papillomaviruses-as-diagnostic-and-prognostic-biomarker-in-patients-with-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma-from-unknown-primary
#5
Lea Schroeder, Gunnar Wichmann, Maria Willner, Angelika Michel, Manuel Wiesenfarth, Christa Flechtenmacher, Tanja Gradistanac, Michael Pawlita, Andreas Dietz, Tim Waterboer, Dana Holzinger
Treatment of patients with neck lymph node metastasis of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) from unknown primary tumor (NSCCUP) is challenging due to the risk of missing occult tumors or inducing toxicity to unaffected sites. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a promising biomarker given its causal link to oropharyngeal SCC and superior survival of patients with HPV-driven oropharyngeal SCC and NSCCUP. Identification of HPV-driven NSCCUP could focus diagnostic work-up and treatment on the oropharynx. For the first time, we assessed HPV antibodies and their prognostic value in NSCCUP patients...
November 21, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159696/reflex-testing-of-speckled-cytoplasmic-patterns-observed-in-routine-ana-hep-2-indirect-immunofluorescence-with-a-multiplex-anti-synthetase-dot-blot-assay-a-multicentric-pilot-study
#6
Maria Infantino, Boaz Palterer, Roberta Biagiotti, Fabio Almerigogna, Maurizio Benucci, Arianna Damiani, Valentina Grossi, Annalisa Azzurri, Patrizia Casprini, Giovanni Bacci, Maria Grazia Giudizi, Mariangela Manfredi
Immunofluorescence on HEp2-cells is the standard diagnostic assay for the detection of anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA). Cytoplasmic speckled patterns are a common finding, and are associated with various antibodies, including anti-synthetase antibodies. However, classic ENA testing generally identifies only anti-Jo-1. Moreover, anti-synthetase syndrome is increasingly recognized as a pleomorphic entity, possibly presenting as isolated arthritis or interstitial lung disease. Sera referred for routine ANA testing were selected on the basis of the presence of a fine dense speckled cytoplasmic pattern (254 samples) and compared to control sera with negative cytoplasm (239 samples)...
November 21, 2017: Immunologic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157147/a-case-of-aseptic-meningitis-in-a-cetuximab-experienced-patient-with-metastatic-colon-cancer
#7
Chelsea L Rohrer, Zunilda Grullon, Sarah K George, Raul Castillo, Kelli Karasiewicz
Cetuximab is a monoclonal antibody against epidermal growth factor receptor and is used in the treatment of head and neck cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, and colorectal cancer. This case report describes a rare (<1% incidence) side effect of cetuximab administration: aseptic meningitis. We report a case which is, to our knowledge, the only case at the time of submission of this manuscript of aseptic meningitis in a patient being treated for metastatic colon cancer who was not cetuximab-naïve. This case report may help inform clinicians about the identification and outcome of this adverse event...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155817/analysis-of-the-interactome-of-schistosoma-mansoni-histone-deacetylase-8
#8
Stéphanie Caby, Lucile Pagliazzo, Julien Lancelot, Jean-Michel Saliou, Nicolas Bertheaume, Raymond J Pierce, Emmanuel Roger
BACKGROUND: Histone deacetylase 8 from Schistosoma mansoni (SmHDAC8) is essential to parasite growth and development within the mammalian host and is under investigation as a target for the development of selective inhibitors as novel schistosomicidal drugs. Although some protein substrates and protein partners of human HDAC8 have been characterized, notably indicating a role in the function of the cohesin complex, nothing is known of the partners and biological function of SmHDAC8. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We therefore employed two strategies to characterize the SmHDAC8 interactome...
November 20, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155430/engineering-peptide-ligase-specificity-by-proteomic-identification-of-ligation-sites
#9
Amy M Weeks, James A Wells
Enzyme-catalyzed peptide ligation is a powerful tool for site-specific protein bioconjugation, but stringent enzyme-substrate specificity limits its utility. We developed an approach for comprehensively characterizing peptide ligase specificity for N termini using proteome-derived peptide libraries. We used this strategy to characterize the ligation efficiency for >25,000 enzyme-substrate pairs in the context of the engineered peptide ligase subtiligase and identified a family of 72 mutant subtiligases with activity toward N-terminal sequences that were previously recalcitrant to modification...
November 20, 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153948/rh-blood-phenotyping-d-e-e-c-c-microarrays-using-multichannel-surface-plasmon-resonance-imaging
#10
Chinnawut Pipatpanukul, Sasaki Takeya, Akira Baba, Ratthasart Amarit, Armote Somboonkaew, Boonsong Sutapun, Pimpun Kitpoka, Mongkol Kunakorn, Toemsak Srikhirin
The application of Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging (SPRi) for the detection of transmembrane antigen of the Rhesus (Rh) blood group system is demonstrated. Clinically significant Rh blood group system antigens, including D, C, E, c, and e, can be simultaneously identified via solid phase immobilization assay, which offers significant time savings and assay simplification. Red blood cells (RBCs) flowed through the micro-channel, where a suitable condition for Rh blood group detection was an RBC dilution of 1:10 with a stop-flow condition...
November 2, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153946/effect-of-brownian-motion-on-reduced-agglomeration-of-nanostructured-metal-oxide-towards-development-of-efficient-cancer-biosensor
#11
Suveen Kumar, Ashish, Saurabh Kumar, Shine Augustine, Santosh Yadav, Birendra Kumar Yadav, Rishi Pal Chauhan, Ajay Kumar Dewan, Bansi Dhar Malhotra
We report results of the studies relating to fabrication of nanostructured metal oxide (NMO) based cancer biosensor. With the help of 2D electroactive reduced graphene oxide (RGO), we successfully inhibited the Brownian motion of NMO that led to reduced agglomeration of NMO. The nanostructured hafnium oxide (nHfO2) was used as a model NMO. The reduced agglomeration of nHfO2 was achieved through controlled hydrothermal synthesis and investigated via nanoparticles tracking analysis (NTA). X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) techniques were used for phase identification as well as morphological analysis of the synthesized nanohybrid (nHfO2@RGO) material...
November 10, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153067/-detection-of-influenza-virus-infections-by-molecular-and-immunofluorescence-methods
#12
Deniz Yıldırım, Deniz Özdoğru Sağdıç, Buket Şeflek, Mehmet Çimentepe, İbrahim Bayram, Fügen Yarkın
Influenza virus infections are extremely important for human health due to the occurence of seasonal epidemics and pandemics worldwide. Influenza is associated with high morbidity and may result in serious complications such as life threatening viral or bacterial pneumonia. Especially, young children, older adults, patients with chronic diseases such as heart, lung, kidney, and diabetes and immunosuppressed people are at higher risk for complications and death from influenza virus infections. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of influenza type A and B virus infections and influenza A virus subtypes in hospitalized patients with respiratory tract infections by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, Sacace, Italy), conventional RT-PCR and direct immunofluorescence antibody (DFA, Argene SA, France) tests...
October 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152306/evaluation-of-two-high-throughput-proteomic-technologies-for-plasma-biomarker-discovery-in-immunotherapy-treated-melanoma-patients
#13
Su Yin Lim, Jenny H Lee, Sarah J Welsh, Seong Beom Ahn, Edmond Breen, Alamgir Khan, Matteo S Carlino, Alexander M Menzies, Richard F Kefford, Richard A Scolyer, Georgina V Long, Helen Rizos
Background: Selective kinase and immune checkpoint inhibitors, and their combinations, have significantly improved the survival of patients with advanced metastatic melanoma. Not all patients will respond to treatment however, and some patients will present with significant toxicities. Hence, the identification of biomarkers is critical for the selection and management of patients receiving treatment. Biomarker discovery often involves proteomic techniques that simultaneously profile multiple proteins but few studies have compared these platforms...
2017: Biomarker Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152066/identification-and-validation-of-fgfr2-peptide-for-detection-of-early-barrett-s-neoplasia
#14
Juan Zhou, Lei He, Zhijun Pang, Henry D Appelman, Rork Kuick, David G Beer, Meng Li, Thomas D Wang
The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is rising rapidly, and early detection within the precursor state of Barrett's esophagus (BE) is challenged by flat premalignant lesions that are difficult detect with conventional endoscopic surveillance. Overexpression of cell surface fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) is an early event in progression of BE to EAC, and is a promising imaging target. We used phage display to identify the peptide SRRPASFRTARE that binds specifically to the extracellular domain of FGFR2...
October 20, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151074/interferon-lambda-2-promotes-mammary-tumor-metastasis-via-angiogenesis-extension-and-stimulation-of-cancer-cell-migration
#15
R Pingwara, K Witt-Jurkowska, K Ulewicz, J Mucha, K Tonecka, Z Pilch, B Taciak, K Zabielska-Koczywas, M Mori, S Berardozzi, B Botta, T P Rygiel, M Krol
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) support tumor development by stimulation of angiogenesis and immune response inhibition. In our previous study, we showed that interferon lambda 2 (IFN-λ2), secreted by MDSCs, enhances production of pro-angiogenic factors by cancer cells via phosphorylation of STAT3 and therefore promotes blood vessels formation. In the present study IFN-λ2 level was evaluated by ELISA in serum of tumor-bearing mice, whereas its expression in MDSCs isolated from the lungs with metastatic tumors and normal lungs was assessed by qPCR...
August 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150912/sustaining-an-efficient-and-effective-cho-cell-line-development-platform-by-incorporation-of-24-deep-well-plate-screening-and-multivariate-analysis
#16
Alessandro Mora, Sheng Sam Zhang, Gerald Carson, Bernard Nabiswa, Patrick Hossler, Seongkyu Yoon
Efficient and effective cell line screening is paramount towards a successful biomanufacturing program. Here we describe the implementation of 24-deep well plate screening of CHO lines as part of the cell line development platform at AbbVie. Incorporation of this approach accelerated the identification of the best candidate lines for process development. In an effort to quantify and predict process performance comparability, we compared cell culture performance in 24-deep well plates (24-DWP) and in shake flasks, for a panel of Chinese Hamster Ovary cell lines expressing a monoclonal antibody...
November 18, 2017: Biotechnology Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150558/branched-pectic-galactan-in-phloem-sieve-element-cell-walls-implications-for-cell-mechanics
#17
Thomas A Torode, Rachel E O'Neill, Susan E Marcus, Valerie Cornuault, Sara Pose-Albacete, Rebecca P Lauder, Stjepan Kresimir Kracun, Maja Gro Rydahl, Mathias C F Andersen, William George Tycho Willats, Siobhan Ariel Braybrook, Belinda J Townsend, Mads H Clausen, J Paul Knox
A major question in plant biology concerns the specification and functional differentiation of cell types. This is in the context of constraints imposed by networks of cell walls that both adhere cells and contribute to the form and function of developing organs. Here, we report the identification of a glycan epitope that is specific to phloem sieve element cell walls in several systems. A monoclonal antibody, designated LM26, binds to the cell wall of phloem sieve elements in stems of Arabidopsis thaliana, Miscanthus x giganteus and notably sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) roots where phloem identification is an important factor for the study of phloem unloading of sucrose...
November 17, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150241/targeting-interleukin-1%C3%AE-protects-from-aortic-aneurysms-induced-by-disrupted-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-signaling
#18
Francesco Da Ros, Raimondo Carnevale, Giuseppe Cifelli, Dario Bizzotto, Manuel Casaburo, Marialuisa Perrotta, Lorenzo Carnevale, Iolanda Vinciguerra, Stefania Fardella, Roberta Iacobucci, Giorgio M Bressan, Paola Braghetta, Giuseppe Lembo, Daniela Carnevale
Aortic aneurysms are life-threatening conditions with effective treatments mainly limited to emergency surgery or trans-arterial endovascular stent grafts, thus calling for the identification of specific molecular targets. Genetic studies have highlighted controversial roles of transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling in aneurysm development. Here, we report on aneurysms developing in adult mice after smooth muscle cell (SMC)-specific inactivation of Smad4, an intracellular transducer of TGF-β. The results revealed that Smad4 inhibition activated interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in SMCs...
November 21, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150106/reactions-related-to-asparaginase-infusion-in-a-10-year-retrospective-cohort
#19
Amanda Cabral Dos Santos, Marcelo Gerardin Poirot Land, Nathalia Peroni da Silva, Kelly Oliveira Santos, Elisangela da Costa Lima-Dellamora
INTRODUCTION: Although it is an essential component of the treatment of acute lymphoid leukemia in children, asparaginase causes adverse reactions that sometimes make it impossible to use it fully. Hypersensitivity reactions are the most frequent and may lead to early discontinuation of treatment. The present study aimed to investigate suspicions of adverse reactions during the infusion of asparaginase in a pediatric cohort. METHODS: A retrospective observational study was carried out at a university pediatric institute in the state of Rio de Janeiro...
October 2017: Revista Brasileira de Hematologia e Hemoterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148884/epidemiology-of-schmallenberg-virus-in-european-bison-bison-bonasus-in-poland
#20
Julia Kęsik-Maliszewska, Michał K Krzysiak, Maria Grochowska, Lech Lechowski, Christopher Chase, Magdalena Larska
Schmallenberg virus (SBV), an emerging arbovirus in Europe, is an important pathogen in domestic ruminants; however, its impact on free-ranging wild ruminants is not well studied. Three hundred and forty-seven serum samples collected between 2011 and 2016 from 302 European bison (Bison bonasus) from 12 different sites in Poland were tested for the presence of SBV antibodies. In addition, 86 sera were collected between 2013 and 2016 from three species of cervids for testing for SBV antibodies. After the first detection of the virus in Poland in October 2012, the proportion of SBV-seropositive European bison reached 81% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 77...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
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