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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752714/post-crossing-segment-of-di1-commissural-axons-forms-collateral-branches-to-motor-neurons-in-the-developing-spinal-cord
#1
Takeshi Kaneyama, Ryuichi Shirasaki
The dI1 commissural axons in the developing spinal cord, upon crossing the midline through the floor plate, make a sharp turn to grow rostrally. These post-crossing axons initially just extend adjacent to the floor plate without entering nearby motor columns. However, it remains poorly characterized how these post-crossing dI1 axons behave subsequently to this process. In the present study, to address this issue, we examined in detail the behavior of post-crossing dI1 axons in mice, using the Atoh1 enhancer-based conditional expression system that enables selective and sparse labeling of individual dI1 axons, together with Hb9 and ChAT immunohistochemistry for precise identification of spinal motor neurons (MNs)...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748539/sirt1-activation-with-neuroheal-is-neuroprotective-but-sirt2-inhibition-with-ak7-is-detrimental-for-disconnected-motoneurons
#2
David Romeo-Guitart, Tatiana Leiva-Rodríguez, María Espinosa-Alcantud, Núria Sima, Alejandro Vaquero, Helena Domínguez-Martín, Diego Ruano, Caty Casas
Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) activity is neuroprotective, and we have recently demonstrated its role in the retrograde degenerative process in motoneurons (MNs) in the spinal cord of rats after peripheral nerve root avulsion (RA) injury. SIRT2 has been suggested to exert effects opposite those of SIRT1; however, its roles in neurodegeneration and neuron response after nerve injury remain unclear. Here we compared the neuroprotective potentials of SIRT1 activation and SIRT2 inhibition in a mouse model of hypoglossal nerve axotomy...
May 10, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722857/procedural-and-long-term-outcome-after-catheter-ablation-of-idiopathic-outflow-tract-ventricular-arrhythmias-comparing-manual-contact-force-and-magnetic-navigated-ablation
#3
Lennart J de Vries, Astrid A Hendriks, Sing C Yap, Dominic A M J Theuns, Ron T van Domburg, Tamas Szili-Torok
Aims: Currently, comparative data on procedural and long-term clinical outcome of outflow tract (OT) idiopathic ventricular arrhythmia (IVA) ablation with manual (MAN), contact force (CF), and magnetic navigation system (MNS) ablation are lacking. The aim of this study was to compare the procedural and long-term clinical outcome of MAN, CF, and MNS ablation of OT IVAs. Methods and results: Seventy-three patients (31 MAN, 17 CF, and 25 MNS patients; consecutive per group) with OT IVA, who underwent catheter ablation in our centre were analysed...
May 1, 2018: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722090/controlled-delivery-of-insulin-using-rapidly-separating-microneedles-fabricated-from-genipin-crosslinked-gelatin
#4
Bo Zhi Chen, Mohammad Ashfaq, Dan Dan Zhu, Xiao Peng Zhang, Xin Dong Guo
Rapidly separating genepin-crosslinked gelatin (RS-GC) microneedles (MNs) mounted on the polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-coated polylactic acid (PLA) MNs (RS-PGC-MNs) are fabricated, in which GC-MNs deliver insulin within the skin and the PLA supporting array is easily separated by the dissolution of the PVA layer. The release of insulin is controlled by utilizing the virtue of genipin as a crosslinking agent for producing biocompatible GC-MNs. The degree of crosslinking enhances the mechanical strength as well as humidity resistance...
May 2, 2018: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707783/high-immunogenicity-of-red-blood-cell-antigens-restricted-to-the-population-of-african-descent-in-a-cohort-of-sickle-cell-disease-patients
#5
Aline Floch, Dominique Gien, Christophe Tournamille, Btissam Chami, Anoosha Habibi, Frédéric Galactéros, Philippe Bierling, Rachid Djoudi, Corinne Pondarré, Thierry Peyrard, France Pirenne
BACKGROUND: Sickle cell disease (SCD) patients undergo multiple red blood cell (RBC) transfusions and are regularly exposed to low-prevalence (LP) antigens specific to individuals of African descent. This study evaluated the prevalence of antibodies against LP antigens in SCD patients and the need to identify these antibodies in everyday practice. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Plasma from 211 SCD patients was tested with RBCs expressing the following LP antigens: RH10 (V), RH20 (VS), RH23 (DW ), RH30 (Goa ), KEL6 (Jsa ), and MNS6 (He)...
April 29, 2018: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649136/perineuronal-nets-in-spinal-motoneurones-chondroitin-sulphate-proteoglycan-around-alpha-motoneurones
#6
Sian F Irvine, Jessica C F Kwok
Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are extracellular matrix structures surrounding neuronal sub-populations throughout the central nervous system, regulating plasticity. Enzymatically removing PNNs successfully enhances plasticity and thus functional recovery, particularly in spinal cord injury models. While PNNs within various brain regions are well studied, much of the composition and associated populations in the spinal cord is yet unknown. We aim to investigate the populations of PNN neurones involved in this functional motor recovery...
April 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604374/insulin-delivery-systems-combined-with-microneedle-technology
#7
Xuan Jin, Dan Dan Zhu, Bo Zhi Chen, Mohammad Ashfaq, Xin Dong Guo
Diabetes, a metabolic disorder of glucose, is a serious chronic disease and an important public health problem. Insulin is one of the hormones for modulating blood glucose level and the products of which is indispensable for most diabetes patients. Introducing microneedles (MNs) to insulin delivery is promising to pave the way for modulating glucose level noninvasively of diabetes patients, as which born to be painless, easy to handle and no need of any power supply. In this work, we review the process of insulin delivery systems (IDSs) based on MN technology in terms of two categories: drug free MNs and drug loaded MNs...
March 28, 2018: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556211/deficits-in-visuo-motor-temporal-integration-impacts-manual-dexterity-in-probable-developmental-coordination-disorder
#8
Satoshi Nobusako, Ayami Sakai, Taeko Tsujimoto, Takashi Shuto, Yuki Nishi, Daiki Asano, Emi Furukawa, Takuro Zama, Michihiro Osumi, Sotaro Shimada, Shu Morioka, Akio Nakai
The neurological basis of developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is thought to be deficits in the internal model and mirror-neuron system (MNS) in the parietal lobe and cerebellum. However, it is not clear if the visuo-motor temporal integration in the internal model and automatic-imitation function in the MNS differs between children with DCD and those with typical development (TD). The current study aimed to investigate these differences. Using the manual dexterity test of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (second edition), the participants were either assigned to the probable DCD (pDCD) group or TD group...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556185/feasibility-of-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-fnirs-to-investigate-the-mirror-neuron-system-an-experimental-study-in-a-real-life-situation
#9
Pei-Pei Sun, Fu-Lun Tan, Zong Zhang, Yi-Han Jiang, Yang Zhao, Chao-Zhe Zhu
The mirror neuron system (MNS), mainly including the premotor cortex (PMC), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), superior parietal lobule (SPL), and rostral inferior parietal lobule (IPL), has attracted extensive attention as a possible neural mechanism of social interaction. Owing to high ecological validity, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) has become an ideal approach for exploring the MNS. Unfortunately, for the feasibility of fNIRS to detect the MNS, none of the four dominant regions were found in previous studies, implying a very limited capacity of fNIRS to investigate the MNS...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551301/dissecting-the-functional-consequences-of-de-novo-dna-methylation-dynamics-in-human-motor-neuron-differentiation-and-physiology
#10
Michael J Ziller, Juan A Ortega, Katharina A Quinlan, David P Santos, Hongcang Gu, Eric J Martin, Christina Galonska, Ramona Pop, Susanne Maidl, Alba Di Pardo, Mei Huang, Herbert Y Meltzer, Andreas Gnirke, C J Heckman, Alexander Meissner, Evangelos Kiskinis
The somatic DNA methylation (DNAme) landscape is established early in development but remains highly dynamic within focal regions that overlap with gene regulatory elements. The significance of these dynamic changes, particularly in the central nervous system, remains unresolved. Here, we utilize a powerful human embryonic stem cell differentiation model for the generation of motor neurons (MNs) in combination with genetic mutations in the de novo DNAme machinery. We quantitatively dissect the role of DNAme in directing somatic cell fate with high-resolution genome-wide bisulfite-, bulk-, and single-cell-RNA sequencing...
March 14, 2018: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538375/recurrent-excitation-between-motoneurones-propagates-across-segments-and-is-purely-glutamatergic
#11
Gardave S Bhumbra, Marco Beato
Spinal motoneurones (Mns) constitute the final output for the execution of motor tasks. In addition to innervating muscles, Mns project excitatory collateral connections to Renshaw cells (RCs) and other Mns, but the latter have received little attention. We show that Mns receive strong synaptic input from other Mns throughout development and into maturity, with fast-type Mns systematically receiving greater recurrent excitation than slow-type Mns. Optical recordings show that activation of Mns in one spinal segment can propagate to adjacent segments even in the presence of intact recurrent inhibition...
March 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524845/eeg-beta-desynchronization-during-hand-goal-directed-action-observation-in-newborn-monkeys-and-its-relation-to-the-emergence-of-hand-motor-skills
#12
Fabrizia Festante, Ross E Vanderwert, Valentina Sclafani, Annika Paukner, Elizabeth A Simpson, Stephen J Suomi, Nathan A Fox, Pier Francesco Ferrari
Previous developmental research suggests that motor experience supports the development of action perception across the lifespan. However, it is still unknown when the neural mechanisms underlying action-perception coupling emerge in infancy. The goal of this study was to examine the neural correlates of action perception during the emergence of grasping abilities in newborn rhesus macaques. Neural activity, recorded via electroencephalogram (EEG), while monkeys observed grasping actions, mimed actions and means-end movements during the first (W1) and second week (W2) of life was measured...
March 1, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29493217/au-nanocage-strengthened-dissolving-microneedles-for-chemo-photothermal-combined-therapy-of-superficial-skin-tumors
#13
Liyun Dong, Yuce Li, Zhao Li, Nan Xu, Pei Liu, Hongyao Du, Yamin Zhang, Yuqiong Huang, Jinjin Zhu, Guichao Ren, Jun Xie, Ke Wang, Yajie Zhou, Chen Shen, Jintao Zhu, Juan Tao
For superficial skin tumors (SST) with high incidence, surgery and systemic therapy are relatively invasive and possible to cause severe side effect, respectively. Yet, topical therapy is confronted with the limited transdermal capacity because of the stratum corneum barrier layer of skin. Therefore, it is crucial to develop a highly effective and minimally invasive alternative transdermal approach for treating SST. Here, we developed gold nanocage (AuNC)- and chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded hyaluronic acid dissolving microneedle (MN) arrays...
March 21, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473876/temporospatial-analysis-and-new-players-in-the-immunology-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#14
REVIEW
Abhirami K Iyer, Kathryn J Jones, Virginia M Sanders, Chandler L Walker
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive loss of lower and upper motor neurons (MN) leading to muscle weakness, paralysis and eventually death. Although a highly varied etiology results in ALS, it broadly manifests itself as sporadic and familial forms that have evident similarities in clinical symptoms and disease progression. There is a tremendous amount of knowledge on molecular mechanisms leading to loss of MNs and neuromuscular junctions (NMJ) as major determinants of disease onset, severity and progression in ALS...
February 23, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467691/neural-correlates-of-facial-mimicry-simultaneous-measurements-of-emg-and-bold-responses-during-perception-of-dynamic-compared-to-static-facial-expressions
#15
Krystyna Rymarczyk, Łukasz Żurawski, Kamila Jankowiak-Siuda, Iwona Szatkowska
Facial mimicry (FM) is an automatic response to imitate the facial expressions of others. However, neural correlates of the phenomenon are as yet not well established. We investigated this issue using simultaneously recorded EMG and BOLD signals during perception of dynamic and static emotional facial expressions of happiness and anger. During display presentations, BOLD signals and zygomaticus major (ZM), corrugator supercilii (CS) and orbicularis oculi (OO) EMG responses were recorded simultaneously from 46 healthy individuals...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451071/childhood-emotional-invalidation-and-right-hemispheric-mu-suppression-during-a-pain-empathy-task-an-eeg-study
#16
Kirsten Arnett, Alexandra Roach, Meredith Elzy, Laura Jelsone-Swain
Empathy is a critical aspect of social behavior, and impairment in empathic processing is linked to hindered social interactions and several disorders. Despite much interest in this topic, our understanding of the developmental and neural involvement for empathic processing is limited. Recent evidence suggests the Mirror Neuron System (MNS) may play a role in this behavior, and that mu rhythm suppression found over the sensorimotor cortices may be a proxy for the MNS. Therefore, we aimed to measure mu rhythm oscillations in response to empathic processing during observation of painful action-based situations using electroencephalogram (EEG)...
March 4, 2018: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449089/characterization-of-the-lncrna-transcriptome-in-mesc-derived-motor-neurons-implications-for-fus-als
#17
Silvia Biscarini, Davide Capauto, Giovanna Peruzzi, Lei Lu, Alessio Colantoni, Tiziana Santini, Neil A Shneider, Elisa Caffarelli, Pietro Laneve, Irene Bozzoni
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are currently recognized as crucial players in nervous system development, function and pathology. In Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), identification of causative mutations in FUS and TDP-43 or hexanucleotide repeat expansion in C9ORF72 point to the essential role of aberrant RNA metabolism in neurodegeneration. In this study, by taking advantage of an in vitro differentiation system generating mouse motor neurons (MNs) from embryonic stem cells, we identified and characterized the long non-coding transcriptome of MNs...
March 2018: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417320/bridging-the-gap-towards-awareness-detection-in-disorders-of-consciousness-an-experimental-study-on-the-mirror-neuron-system
#18
Antonino Naro, Rocco Salvatore Calabrò, Antonino Leo, Margherita Russo, Demetrio Milardi, Antonino Cannavò, Alfredo Manuli, Antonio Buda, Carmela Casella, Placido Bramanti, Alberto Cacciola, Alessia Bramanti
Advanced functional neuroimaging approaches dealing with motor imagery have disclosed covert cognitive processes in patients with disorders of consciousness (DoC). However, motor impairment and cognitive-motor dissociation can bias such approaches. Fourteen patients with post-traumatic DoC and ten healthy controls (HC) were provided with three motor tasks related to mirror neuron system (MNS) activation (movement observation, movement execution, and passive motor imagery of a movement) while recording electroencephalographic (EEG) metrics [EEG power and Granger Casualty Index (GCI)] to detect residual signs of conscious awareness...
February 7, 2018: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412647/magnetic-metal-organic-framework-composite-by-fast-and-facile-mechanochemical-process
#19
M Bellusci, P Guglielmi, A Masi, F Padella, G Singh, N Yaacoub, D Peddis, D Secci
Magnetic porous metal-organic framework nanocomposite was obtained by an easy, efficient, and environmentally friendly fabrication method. The material consists in magnetic spinel iron oxide nanoparticles incorporated in an iron(III) carboxylate framework. The magnetic composite was fabricated by a multistep mechanochemical approach. In the first step, iron oxide nanoparticles were obtained via ball milling inducing mechanochemical reaction between iron chlorides and NaOH using NaCl as dispersing agent. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNs) were functionalized by neat grinding with benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylic acid (1, 3, 5 BTC) and were then subjected to liquid assisted milling using hydrated FeCl3 , water, and ethanol to obtain a magnetic framework composite (MFC) consisting of iron oxide nanoparticles encapsulated in a MOF matrix...
February 19, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408182/polymeric-microneedles-for-transdermal-protein-delivery
#20
Yanqi Ye, Jicheng Yu, Di Wen, Anna R Kahkoska, Zhen Gu
The intrinsic properties of therapeutic proteins generally present a major impediment for transdermal delivery, including their relatively large molecule size and susceptibility to degradation. One solution is to utilize microneedles (MNs), which are capable of painlessly traversing the stratum corneum and directly translocating protein drugs into the systematic circulation. MNs can be designed to incorporate appropriate structural materials as well as therapeutics or formulations with tailored physicochemical properties...
January 31, 2018: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
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