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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724783/intra-and-intersegmental-influences-among-central-pattern-generating-networks-in-the-walking-system-of-the-stick-insect
#1
Charalampos Mantziaris, Till Bockemühl, Philip Holmes, Anke Borgmann, Silvia Daun, Ansgar Bueschges
In order to efficiently move around, animals need to coordinate their limbs. Proper, context-dependent coupling among the neural networks underlying leg movement is necessary for generating intersegmental coordination. In the slow-walking stick insect local sensory information is very important for shaping coordination. However, central coupling mechanisms among segmental central pattern generators (CPGs) may also contribute to this. Here, we analyzed the interactions between contralateral networks that drive the depressor trochanteris muscle of the legs in both isolated and interconnected deafferented thoracic ganglia of the stick insect upon application of pilocarpine, a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor agonist...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722833/targeted-next-generation-sequencing-using-a-multigene-panel-in-myeloid-neoplasms-implementation-in-clinical-diagnostics
#2
B Maes, J Willemse, A Broekmans, R Smets, B Cruys, N Put, V Madoe, M Janssen, O Soepenberg, G Bries, I Vrelust, R Achten, K Van Pelt, K Buvé, K Theunissen, V Peeters, G Froyen
INTRODUCTION: Detection of mutations in patients with myeloid neoplasms (MNs) has shown great potential for diagnostic and prognostic purposes. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is currently implemented for the diagnostic profiling of the four major MN subgroups. METHODS: First, we validated the targeted NGS approach using the TruSight Myeloid panel. Next, we screened 287 patients with a clinical suspicion of MN and 61 follow-up patients with documented MN. RESULTS: Validation of the NGS workflow resulted in maximal precision, accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity for gene variants with an allele frequency of at least 5% and a minimal read depth of 300...
July 19, 2017: International Journal of Laboratory Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673921/two-social-brains-neural-mechanisms-of-intersubjectivity
#3
REVIEW
Kai Vogeley
It is the aim of this article to present an empirically justified hypothesis about the functional roles of the two social neural systems, namely the so-called 'mirror neuron system' (MNS) and the 'mentalizing system' (MENT, also 'theory of mind network' or 'social neural network'). Both systems are recruited during cognitive processes that are either related to interaction or communication with other conspecifics, thereby constituting intersubjectivity. The hypothesis is developed in the following steps: first, the fundamental distinction that we make between persons and things is introduced; second, communication is presented as the key process that allows us to interact with others; third, the capacity to 'mentalize' or to understand the inner experience of others is emphasized as the fundamental cognitive capacity required to establish successful communication...
August 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661688/solution-synthesis-of-nonequilibrium-zincblende-mns-nanowires
#4
Li Zhang, Su You, Ming Zuo, Qing Yang
Uniform four-coordinate nonequilibrium MnS nanowires mainly in zincblende structure, other than the stable rock-salt phase, are reported for the first time. The MnS nanowires are grown via a solution-solid-solid model from the reaction of a Mn(II) source with dibenzyl disulfide in oleylamine at 180-200 °C catalyzed by Ag2S nanocrystals in a body-centered cubic (bcc) fast-ionic phase transformed from their low-temperature monoclinic form. Investigations show that most of the zincblende MnS nanowires are grown along the ⟨112⟩ zone axis but a small proportion grow along the ⟨111⟩ZB/⟨0001⟩Wur axis with zincblende/defect-section and/or wurtzite/defect-section superlattices connected with the stems along the ⟨112⟩ direction...
July 17, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658782/unusually-detected-anti-m-antibody-presenting-as-cross-match-incompatibility-in-a-female-child-diagnosed-with-small-round-cell-tumour
#5
Sheetal Anand Chandak, Aruna Vishwanath Vanikar
MNS antigen system is one of the human blood group systems. Anti-M antibody is a relatively common, naturally occurring antibody of IgM variety. Clinically significant anti-M antibody is reactive at 37°C in the anti-human globulin phase due to high thermal amplitude of IgM component or presence of IgG component. If anti-M antibody is activated at 37°C or in the anti-human globulin phase, it may cause delayed haemolytic transfusion reactions or haemolytic disease of newborn, which suggest variable clinical significance...
May 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645642/ngs-and-blood-group-systems-state-of-the-art-and-perspectives
#6
Y Fichou, C Férec
Molecular analysis, or genotyping, of genes involved in the expression of blood group antigens has been a standard strategy used in immunohaematology laboratories routinely. For the past ten years, next-generation sequencing (NGS), or second-generation sequencing, has become the reference method in genetics. Extensive study of distinct targets, large genomic regions, and even whole genome is henceforth possible by this approach at minimal cost. Blood group genotyping has thus taken advantage of this technological advent...
June 20, 2017: Transfusion Clinique et Biologique: Journal de la Société Française de Transfusion Sanguine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641519/neural-stem-cells-and-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-to-model-rare-cns-diseases
#7
Lidia De Filippis, Cristina Zalfa, Daniela Ferrari
Despite the great effort spent over the last decades to unravel the pathological mechanisms underpinning the development of central nervous system disorders, most of them remain still unclear. In particular, the study of rare brain diseases is hurdled by the lack of post-mortem samples and of reliable epidemiological studies, thus the setting of in vitro modeling systems appears essential to dissect the puzzle of genetic and environmental alterations affecting neural cells viability and functionality The isolation and expansion in vitro of embryonic (ESC) and fetal neural stem cells (NSC) from human tissue has efficiently allowed to model several neurological diseases "in a dish" and has also provided a novel platform to test potential therapeutic strategies in a pre-clinical setting...
June 15, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622300/the-als-linked-e102q-mutation-in-sigma-receptor-1-leads-to-er-stress-mediated-defects-in-protein-homeostasis-and-dysregulation-of-rna-binding-proteins
#8
Alice Dreser, Jan Tilmann Vollrath, Antonio Sechi, Sonja Johann, Andreas Roos, Alfred Yamoah, Istvan Katona, Saeed Bohlega, Dominik Wiemuth, Yuemin Tian, Axel Schmidt, Jörg Vervoorts, Marc Dohmen, Cordian Beyer, Jasper Anink, Eleonora Aronica, Dirk Troost, Joachim Weis, Anand Goswami
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is characterized by the selective degeneration of motor neurons (MNs) and their target muscles. Misfolded proteins which often form intracellular aggregates are a pathological hallmark of ALS. Disruption of the functional interplay between protein degradation (ubiquitin proteasome system and autophagy) and RNA-binding protein homeostasis has recently been suggested as an integrated model that merges several ALS-associated proteins into a common pathophysiological pathway...
June 16, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604865/investigation-of-zinc-ion-storage-of-transition-metal-oxides-sulfides-and-borides-in-zinc-ion-battery-systems
#9
Wenbao Liu, Jianwu Hao, Chengjun Xu, Jian Mou, Liubing Dong, Fuyi Jiang, Zhuang Kang, Junlin Wu, Baozheng Jiang, Feiyu Kang
Zn-ion batteries have been widely investigated due to their low cost, high safety and eco-friendliness. We comprehensively evaluate the performance of oxides (MoO3, TiO2, and Fe3O4), sulfides (MoS2, WS2, and MnS) and borides (TiB2 and ZrB2) in zinc ion battery systems. It is found that MnS is a good alternative cathode material with a reversible capacity of 221 mA h g(-1), while the other materials show different behaviours.
June 22, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600672/significant-reduction-in-procedure-duration-in-remote-magnetic-guided-catheter-ablation-of-atrial-fibrillation-using-the-third-generation-magnetic-navigation-system
#10
Tilman Maurer, Christian Sohns, Sebastian Deiss, Laura Rottner, Peter Wohlmuth, Bruno Reißmann, Christian H Heeger, Christine Lemes, Johannes Riedl, Francesco Santoro, Shibu Mathew, Andreas Metzner, Feifan Ouyang, Karl-Heinz Kuck, Erik Wissner
PURPOSE: The magnetic navigation system (MNS) has shown to be safe and effective for catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF). However, longer procedure duration as compared to manual catheter ablation may limit its widespread use. This study aimed to assess the impact of the newest generation MNS using an optimized mapping and ablation protocol on the efficacy and safety of remote magnetic catheter (RMC)-guided pulmonary vein isolation (PVI). METHODS: This observational study included 52 patients with symptomatic AF who underwent RMC-guided PVI using the second-generation MNS Niobe II (initial 28 patients, group I) or the third-generation MNS Niobe ES in combination with an optimized mapping and ablation protocol (24 patients, group II)...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Interventional Cardiac Electrophysiology: An International Journal of Arrhythmias and Pacing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560812/threshold-position-control-of-anticipation-in-humans-a-possible-role-of-corticospinal-influences
#11
Lei Zhang, Nicolas A Turpin, Anatol G Feldman
The role of corticospinal (CS) pathways in anticipatory motor actions was evaluated using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the primary motor cortex projecting to motoneurons (MNs) of wrist muscles. Preloaded wrist flexors were suddenly unloaded by the experimenter or by the subject using the other hand (self-unloading). After sudden unloading, the wrist joint involuntarily flexed to a new position. In contrast, during self-unloading the wrist remained almost motionless, implying that an anticipatory postural adjustment occurred...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544329/dissolving-microneedle-arrays-for-transdermal-delivery-of-amphiphilic-vaccines
#12
Myunggi An, Haipeng Liu
Amphiphilic vaccine based on lipid-polymer conjugates is a new type of vaccine capable of self-delivering to the immune system. When injected subcutaneously, amphiphilic vaccines efficiently target antigen presenting cells in the lymph nodes (LNs) via a unique albumin-mediated transport and uptake mechanism and induce potent humoral and cellular immune responses. However, whether this new type of vaccine can be administrated via a safe, convenient microneedle-based transdermal approach remains unstudied. For such skin barrier-disruption systems, a simple application of microneedle arrays (MNs) is desired to disrupt the stratum corneum, and for rapid and pain-free self-administration of vaccines into the skin, the anatomic place permeates with an intricate mesh of lymphatic vessels draining to LNs...
May 19, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530294/electrochemical-nanoimprint-lithography-when-nanoimprint-lithography-meets-metal-assisted-chemical-etching
#13
Jie Zhang, Lin Zhang, Lianhuan Han, Zhao-Wu Tian, Zhong-Qun Tian, Dongping Zhan
The functional three dimensional micro-nanostructures (3D-MNS) play crucial roles in integrated and miniaturized systems because of the excellent physical, mechanical, electric and optical properties. Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) has been versatile in the fabrication of 3D-MNS by pressing thermoplastic and photocuring resists into the imprint mold. However, direct nanoimprint on the semiconductor wafer still remains a great challenge. On the other hand, considered as a competitive fabrication method for erect high-aspect 3D-MNS, metal assisted chemical etching (MacEtch) can remove the semiconductor by spontaneous corrosion reaction at the metal/semiconductor/electrolyte 3-phase interface...
June 8, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464360/structure-selective-cation-exchange-in-the-synthesis-of-zincblende-mns-and-cos-nanocrystals
#14
Julie L Fenton, Raymond E Schaak
The ability to selectively form one crystal structure among several options in a polymorphic system is an important goal in solid-state synthesis. Nanocrystal cation exchange, which proceeds rapidly under mild conditions, can retain key structural features and yield otherwise inaccessible phases, but the extent to which crystal structure can be retained and therefore selectively targeted during such reactions has been limited. Here, we show that nanocrystals of digenite Cu2-x S transform to zincblende MnS and CoS upon cation exchange...
June 1, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461268/formulation-and-characterisation-of-dissolving-microneedles-for-the-transdermal-delivery-of-therapeutic-peptides
#15
Colin Dillon, Helen Hughes, Niall J O'Reilly, Peter McLoughlin
The highly effective barrier properties of the stratum corneum (SC) limit the application of transdermal delivery to relatively small, lipophilic molecules. Microneedles (MNs) however, offer a route to effectively deliver a wide range of pharmaceuticals through the skin, bypassing the SC in a non-invasive and pain-free manner. This study presents a dissolving MN system composed of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and trehalose to encapsulate active pharmaceutical peptides within the MN matrix. Rapid systemic delivery is then achieved once the needles have penetrated the SC and dissolved in the interstitial fluid of the skin...
April 28, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418236/novel-approach-of-using-near-infrared-responsive-pegylated-gold-nanorod-coated-poly-l-lactide-microneedles-to-enhance-the-antitumor-efficiency-of-docetaxel-loaded-mpeg-pdlla-micelles-for-treating-an-a431-tumor
#16
Ying Hao, MingLing Dong, TaoYe Zhang, JinRong Peng, YanPeng Jia, YiPing Cao, ZhiYong Qian
The combination of chemotherapy and photothermal therapy (PTT) plays a significant role in synergistic tumor therapy. However, a high dosage of chemotherapy drugs or photothermal agents may cause series side effects. To overcome these challenges, we designed a near-infrared (NIR) responsive PEGylated gold nanorod (GNR-PEG) coated poly(l-lactide) microneedle (PLLA MN) system (GNR-PEG@MN) to enhance antitumor efficiency of docetaxel-loaded MPEG-PDLLA (MPEG-PDLLA-DTX) micelles for treating an A431 tumor. The as-made GNR-PEG@MNs contained only 31...
April 25, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405354/the-interpretation-of-mu-suppression-as-an-index-of-mirror-neuron-activity-past-present-and-future
#17
REVIEW
Hannah M Hobson, Dorothy V M Bishop
Mu suppression studies have been widely used to infer the activity of the human mirror neuron system (MNS) in a number of processes, ranging from action understanding, language, empathy and the development of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Although mu suppression is enjoying a resurgence of interest, it has a long history. This review aimed to revisit mu's past, and examine its recent use to investigate MNS involvement in language, social processes and ASDs. Mu suppression studies have largely failed to produce robust evidence for the role of the MNS in these domains...
March 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399952/reducing-the-treatment-gap-for-mental-neurological-and-substance-use-disorders-in-africa-lessons-from-the-friendship-bench-in-zimbabwe
#18
D Chibanda
Mental, neurological and substance use disorders (MNS) are a leading cause of disability in Africa. In response to the large treatment gap for MNS, a growing body of evidence-based treatments (EBTs) is emerging from Africa; however, there is a dearth of knowledge on how to scale up EBT. The Friendship Bench intervention is a brief psychological treatment delivered through the primary health care system in Zimbabwe by trained lay health workers. It has contributed significantly towards narrowing the treatment gap for common mental disorders in Zimbabwe where it has been scaled up to over 70 primary health care facilities...
April 12, 2017: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391066/lesion-evidence-for-a-human-mirror-neuron-system
#19
Ellen Binder, Anna Dovern, Maike D Hesse, Markus Ebke, Hans Karbe, Jochen Saliger, Gereon R Fink, Peter H Weiss
More than two decades ago, the mirror neuron system (MNS) was discovered in non-human primates: Single-cell recordings detected visuo-motor neurons that discharged not only when the monkey performed an action, but also when it observed conspecifics performing the same action. It has been proposed that a fronto-parietal circuitry constitutes the human homolog of the MNS. However, the functional role of a human MNS (i.e., whether it is functionally necessary for imitation or action understanding) to date remains controversial...
February 24, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389376/botulinum-neurotoxin-type-a-cleaved-snap25-is-confined-to-primary-motor-neurons-and-localized-on-the-plasma-membrane-following-intramuscular-toxin-injection
#20
Brian B Cai, Joseph Francis, Mitchell F Brin, Ron S Broide
The mechanism of action of botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A) is well characterized, but some published evidence suggests the potential for neuronal retrograde transport and cell-to-cell transfer (transcytosis) under certain experimental conditions. The present study evaluated the potential for these processes using a highly selective antibody for the BoNT/A-cleaved substrate (SNAP25197) combined with 3-dimensional imaging. SNAP25197 was characterized in a rat motor neuron (MN) pathway following toxin intramuscular injections at various doses to determine whether SNAP25197 is confined to MNs or also found in neighboring cells or nerve fibers within spinal cord (SC)...
June 3, 2017: Neuroscience
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