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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544329/dissolving-microneedle-arrays-for-transdermal-delivery-of-amphiphilic-vaccines
#1
Myunggi An, Haipeng Liu
Amphiphilic vaccine based on lipid-polymer conjugates is a new type of vaccine capable of self-delivering to the immune system. When injected subcutaneously, amphiphilic vaccines efficiently target antigen presenting cells in the lymph nodes (LNs) via a unique albumin-mediated transport and uptake mechanism and induce potent humoral and cellular immune responses. However, whether this new type of vaccine can be administrated via a safe, convenient microneedle-based transdermal approach remains unstudied. For such skin barrier-disruption systems, a simple application of microneedle arrays (MNs) is desired to disrupt the stratum corneum, and for rapid and pain-free self-administration of vaccines into the skin, the anatomic place permeates with an intricate mesh of lymphatic vessels draining to LNs...
May 19, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530294/electrochemical-nanoimprint-lithography-when-nanoimprint-lithography-meets-metal-assisted-chemical-etching
#2
Jie Zhang, Lin Zhang, Lianhuan Han, Zhao-Wu Tian, Zhong-Qun Tian, Dongping Zhan
The functional three dimensional micro-nanostructures (3D-MNS) play crucial roles in integrated and miniaturized systems because of the excellent physical, mechanical, electric and optical properties. Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) has been versatile in the fabrication of 3D-MNS by pressing thermoplastic and photocuring resists into the imprint mold. However, direct nanoimprint on the semiconductor wafer still remains a great challenge. On the other hand, considered as a competitive fabrication method for erect high-aspect 3D-MNS, metal assisted chemical etching (MacEtch) can remove the semiconductor by spontaneous corrosion reaction at the metal/semiconductor/electrolyte 3-phase interface...
May 22, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464360/structure-selective-cation-exchange-in-the-synthesis-of-zincblende-mns-and-cos-nanocrystals
#3
Julie L Fenton, Raymond E Schaak
The ability to selectively form one crystal structure among several options in a polymorphic system is an important goal in solid-state synthesis. Nanocrystal cation exchange, which proceeds rapidly under mild conditions, can retain key structural features and yield otherwise inaccessible phases, but the extent to which crystal structure can be retained and therefore selectively targeted during such reactions has been limited. Here, we show that nanocrystals of digenite Cu2-x S transform to zincblende MnS and CoS upon cation exchange...
June 1, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461268/formulation-and-characterisation-of-dissolving-microneedles-for-the-transdermal-delivery-of-therapeutic-peptides
#4
Colin Dillon, Helen Hughes, Niall J O'Reilly, Peter McLoughlin
The highly effective barrier properties of the stratum corneum (SC) limit the application of transdermal delivery to relatively small, lipophilic molecules. Microneedles (MNs) however, offer a route to effectively deliver a wide range of pharmaceuticals through the skin, bypassing the SC in a non-invasive and pain-free manner. This study presents a dissolving MN system composed of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and trehalose to encapsulate active pharmaceutical peptides within the MN matrix. Rapid systemic delivery is then achieved once the needles have penetrated the SC and dissolved in the interstitial fluid of the skin...
April 28, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418236/novel-approach-of-using-near-infrared-responsive-pegylated-gold-nanorod-coated-poly-l-lactide-microneedles-to-enhance-the-antitumor-efficiency-of-docetaxel-loaded-mpeg-pdlla-micelles-for-treating-an-a431-tumor
#5
Ying Hao, MingLing Dong, TaoYe Zhang, JinRong Peng, YanPeng Jia, YiPing Cao, ZhiYong Qian
The combination of chemotherapy and photothermal therapy (PTT) plays a significant role in synergistic tumor therapy. However, a high dosage of chemotherapy drugs or photothermal agents may cause series side effects. To overcome these challenges, we designed a near-infrared (NIR) responsive PEGylated gold nanorod (GNR-PEG) coated poly(l-lactide) microneedle (PLLA MN) system (GNR-PEG@MN) to enhance antitumor efficiency of docetaxel-loaded MPEG-PDLLA (MPEG-PDLLA-DTX) micelles for treating an A431 tumor. The as-made GNR-PEG@MNs contained only 31...
April 25, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405354/the-interpretation-of-mu-suppression-as-an-index-of-mirror-neuron-activity-past-present-and-future
#6
REVIEW
Hannah M Hobson, Dorothy V M Bishop
Mu suppression studies have been widely used to infer the activity of the human mirror neuron system (MNS) in a number of processes, ranging from action understanding, language, empathy and the development of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Although mu suppression is enjoying a resurgence of interest, it has a long history. This review aimed to revisit mu's past, and examine its recent use to investigate MNS involvement in language, social processes and ASDs. Mu suppression studies have largely failed to produce robust evidence for the role of the MNS in these domains...
March 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399952/reducing-the-treatment-gap-for-mental-neurological-and-substance-use-disorders-in-africa-lessons-from-the-friendship-bench-in-zimbabwe
#7
D Chibanda
Mental, neurological and substance use disorders (MNS) are a leading cause of disability in Africa. In response to the large treatment gap for MNS, a growing body of evidence-based treatments (EBTs) is emerging from Africa; however, there is a dearth of knowledge on how to scale up EBT. The Friendship Bench intervention is a brief psychological treatment delivered through the primary health care system in Zimbabwe by trained lay health workers. It has contributed significantly towards narrowing the treatment gap for common mental disorders in Zimbabwe where it has been scaled up to over 70 primary health care facilities...
April 12, 2017: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391066/lesion-evidence-for-a-human-mirror-neuron-system
#8
Ellen Binder, Anna Dovern, Maike D Hesse, Markus Ebke, Hans Karbe, Jochen Saliger, Gereon R Fink, Peter H Weiss
More than two decades ago, the mirror neuron system (MNS) was discovered in non-human primates: Single-cell recordings detected visuo-motor neurons that discharged not only when the monkey performed an action, but also when it observed conspecifics performing the same action. It has been proposed that a fronto-parietal circuitry constitutes the human homolog of the MNS. However, the functional role of a human MNS (i.e., whether it is functionally necessary for imitation or action understanding) to date remains controversial...
February 24, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389376/botulinum-neurotoxin-type-a-cleaved-snap25-is-confined-to-primary-motor-neurons-and-localized-on-the-plasma-membrane-following-intramuscular-toxin-injection
#9
Brian B Cai, Joseph Francis, Mitchell F Brin, Ron S Broide
The mechanism of action of botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A) is well characterized, but some published evidence suggests the potential for neuronal retrograde transport and cell-to-cell transfer (transcytosis) under certain experimental conditions. The present study evaluated the potential for these processes using a highly selective antibody for the BoNT/A-cleaved substrate (SNAP25197) combined with 3-dimensional imaging. SNAP25197 was characterized in a rat motor neuron (MN) pathway following toxin intramuscular injections at various doses to determine whether SNAP25197 is confined to MNs or also found in neighboring cells or nerve fibers within spinal cord (SC)...
June 3, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338218/evaluation-of-targeted-exome-sequencing-for-28-protein-based-blood-group-systems-including-the-homologous-gene-systems-for-blood-group-genotyping
#10
Elizna M Schoeman, Genghis H Lopez, Eunike C McGowan, Glenda M Millard, Helen O'Brien, Eileen V Roulis, Yew-Wah Liew, Jacqueline R Martin, Kelli A McGrath, Tanya Powley, Robert L Flower, Catherine A Hyland
BACKGROUND: Blood group single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping probes for a limited range of polymorphisms. This study investigated whether massively parallel sequencing (also known as next-generation sequencing), with a targeted exome strategy, provides an extended blood group genotype and the extent to which massively parallel sequencing correctly genotypes in homologous gene systems, such as RH and MNS. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Donor samples (n = 28) that were extensively phenotyped and genotyped using single nucleotide polymorphism typing, were analyzed using the TruSight One Sequencing Panel and MiSeq platform...
March 24, 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318819/slow-pathway-radiofrequency-ablation-using-magnetic-navigation-a-description-of-technique-and-retrospective-case-analysis
#11
Abhishek Bhaskaran, Maha Albarri, Neil Ross, Sara Al Raisi, Rahul Samantha, Leonette Roode, Fazlur Nadri, Jeanette Ng, Stuart Thomas, Aravinda Thiagalingam, Pramesh Kovoor
BACKGROUND: The Magnetic Navigation System (MNS) catheter was shown to be stable in the presence of significant cardiac wall motion and delivered more effective lesions compared to manual control. This stability could potentially make AV junctional reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT) ablation safer. The aim of this study is to describe the method of mapping and ablation of AVNRT with MNS and 3-D electro-anatomical mapping system (CARTO, Biosense Webster, Diamond bar, CA, USA) anatomical mapping, with a view to improve the safety of ablation...
February 21, 2017: Heart, Lung & Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315038/the-mirror-neuron-system-in-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis-patients-with-low-disability
#12
Julio Plata-Bello, Yaiza Pérez-Martín, Abril Castañón-Pérez, Cristián Modroño, Helga Fariña, Estefanía Hernández-Martín, Montserrat González-Platas, Francisco Marcano, José Luis González-Mora
To study the visuospatial/visuoperceptive function using a mirror neuron system (MNS) based approach in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and a healthy control group. Two task-based fMRIs (an execution task and an observation task) and one resting-fMRI were performed in a group of MS patients (n = 24) and a group of healthy controls (n = 15). The execution and observation tasks consisted of the performance or observation of the index-thumb opposition task. Statistical parametric mapping approaches were used to identify differences in the brain activity and functional connectivity (FC) of the MNS between MS patients and healthy controls...
March 17, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286864/in-vivo-expansion-of-melanoma-specific-t-cells-using-microneedle-arrays-coated-with-immune-polyelectrolyte-multilayers
#13
Qin Zeng, Joshua M Gammon, Lisa H Tostanoski, Yu-Chieh Chiu, Christopher M Jewell
Microneedles (MNs) are micron-scale polymeric or metallic structures that offer distinct advantages for vaccines by efficiently targeting skin-resident immune cells, eliminating injection-associated pain, and improving patient compliance. These advantages, along with recent studies showing therapeutic benefits achieved using traditional intradermal injections in human cancer patients, suggest MN delivery might enhance cancer vaccines and immunotherapies. We recently developed a new class of polyelectrolyte multilayers based on the self-assembly of model peptide antigens and molecular toll-like receptor agonists (TLRa) into ultrathin, conformal coatings...
February 13, 2017: ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285946/development-of-rostral-inferior-parietal-lobule-area-functional-connectivity-from-late-childhood-to-early-adulthood
#14
Mengxing Wang, Jilei Zhang, Guangheng Dong, Hui Zhang, Haifeng Lu, Xiaoxia Du
Although the mirror neuron system (MNS) has been extensively studied in monkeys and adult humans, very little is known about its development. Previous studies suggest that the MNS is present by infancy and that the brain and MNS-related cognitive abilities (such as language, empathy, and imitation learning) continue to develop after childhood. In humans, the PFt area of the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) seems to particularly correlate with the functional properties of the PF area in primates, which contains mirror neurons...
March 7, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265630/dual-emissions-from-mns-clusters-confined-in-the-sodalite-nanocage-of-a-chalcogenide-based-semiconductor-zeolite
#15
Dandan Hu, Yingying Zhang, Jian Lin, Yike Hou, Dongsheng Li, Tao Wu
A new host-guest hybrid system with MnS clusters confined in a chalcogenide-based semiconductor zeolite was for the first time constructed and its photoluminescence (PL) properties were also investigated. The existence of MnS clusters in the nanopores of the semiconductor zeolite was revealed by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, steady-state fluorescence analysis, Raman as well as Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The aggregation state of the entrapped MnS clusters at different measurement temperatures was probed by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy...
March 21, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196470/proteasome-impairment-in-neural-cells-derived-from-hmsn-p-patient-ipscs
#16
Nagahisa Murakami, Keiko Imamura, Yuishin Izumi, Naohiro Egawa, Kayoko Tsukita, Takako Enami, Takuya Yamamoto, Toshitaka Kawarai, Ryuji Kaji, Haruhisa Inoue
Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with proximal dominant involvement (HMSN-P) is caused by a heterozygous mutation (P285L) in Tropomyosin-receptor kinase Fused Gene (TFG), histopathologically characterized by progressive spinal motor neuron loss with TFG cytosolic aggregates. Although the TFG protein, found as a type of fusion oncoprotein, is known to facilitate vesicle transport from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to Golgi apparatus at ER exit site, it is unclear how mutant TFG causes motor neuron degeneration...
February 15, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184159/a-combined-approach-of-hollow-microneedles-and-nanocarriers-for-skin-immunization-with-plasmid-dna-encoding-ovalbumin
#17
Boonnada Pamornpathomkul, Adisak Wongkajornsilp, Wanida Laiwattanapaisal, Theerasak Rojanarata, Praneet Opanasopit, Tanasait Ngawhirunpat
The aim of this study was to investigate the use of different types of microneedles (MNs) and nanocarriers for in vitro skin permeation and in vivo immunization of plasmid DNA encoding ovalbumin (pOVA). In vitro skin permeation studies indicated that hollow MNs had a superior enhancing effect on skin permeation compared with solid MN patches, electroporation (EP) patches, the combination of MN and EP patches, and untreated skin. Upon using hollow MNs combined with nanocarriers for pOVA delivery, the skin permeation was higher than for the delivery of naked pOVA, as evidenced by the increased amount of pOVA in Franz diffusion cells and immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody responses...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168253/electrochemical-micro-nano-machining-principles-and-practices
#18
REVIEW
Dongping Zhan, Lianhuan Han, Jie Zhang, Quanfeng He, Zhao-Wu Tian, Zhong-Qun Tian
Micro/nano-machining (MNM) is becoming the cutting-edge of high-tech manufacturing because of the increasing industrial demand for supersmooth surfaces and functional three-dimensional micro/nano-structures (3D-MNS) in ultra-large scale integrated circuits, microelectromechanical systems, miniaturized total analysis systems, precision optics, and so on. Taking advantage of no tool wear, no surface stress, environmental friendliness, simple operation, and low cost, electrochemical micro/nano-machining (EC-MNM) has an irreplaceable role in MNM...
February 7, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137724/mirroring-in-the-human-brain-deciphering-the-spatial-temporal-patterns-of-the-human-mirror-neuron-system
#19
Anat Perry, Jennifer Stiso, Edward F Chang, Jack J Lin, Josef Parvizi, Robert T Knight
Embodied theories of cognition emphasize the central role of sensorimotor transformations in the representation of others' actions. Support for these theories is derived from the discovery of the mirror neuron system (MNS) in primates, from noninvasive techniques in humans, and from a limited number of intracranial studies. To understand the neural dynamics of the human MNS, more studies with precise spatial and temporal resolutions are essential. We used electrocorticography to define activation patterns in sensorimotor, parietal and/or frontal neuronal populations, during a viewing and grasping task...
January 30, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119055/altered-mu-rhythm-suppression-in-borderline-personality-disorder
#20
Franziska Martin, Vera Flasbeck, Elliot C Brown, Martin Brüne
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized, among other symptoms, by interpersonal dysfunction and difficulties in empathizing. According to Simulation Theory empathy is linked to the activity of the mirror neuron system (MNS). Mu-rhythm desynchronization, as reflected in a suppression of electroencephalographic alpha-frequency bands (8-13Hz) provides a non-invasive electrophysiological window into MNS function. Here, we analyzed mu-desynchronization in twenty-two patients with BPD and twenty-three matched healthy controls in a reward and punishment-sensitive action observation task...
January 21, 2017: Brain Research
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