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MNS system

Fernando J Martinez, Gabriel A Pratt, Eric L Van Nostrand, Ranjan Batra, Stephanie C Huelga, Katannya Kapeli, Peter Freese, Seung J Chun, Karen Ling, Chelsea Gelboin-Burkhart, Layla Fijany, Harrison C Wang, Julia K Nussbacher, Sara M Broski, Hong Joo Kim, Rea Lardelli, Balaji Sundararaman, John P Donohue, Ashkan Javaherian, Jens Lykke-Andersen, Steven Finkbeiner, Frank Bennett, Manuel Ares, Christopher B Burge, J Paul Taylor, Frank Rigo, Gene W Yeo
HnRNPA2B1 encodes an RNA binding protein associated with neurodegeneration. However, its function in the nervous system is unclear. Transcriptome-wide crosslinking and immunoprecipitation in mouse spinal cord discover UAGG motifs enriched within ∼2,500 hnRNP A2/B1 binding sites and an unexpected role for hnRNP A2/B1 in alternative polyadenylation. HnRNP A2/B1 loss results in alternative splicing (AS), including skipping of an exon in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-associated D-amino acid oxidase (DAO) that reduces D-serine metabolism...
October 13, 2016: Neuron
Dahan Anat, Reiner Miriam
The extensive use of gestures for human-human communication, independently of culture and language, suggests an underlying universal neural mechanism for gesture recognition. The mirror neuron system (MNS) is known to respond to observed human actions, and overlaps with self-action. The minimal cues needed for activation of the MNS for gesture recognition, facial expressions and bodily dynamics, is not yet defined. Using LED-point representations of gestures, we compared two types of brain activations: 1) in response to human recognizable vs non-recognizable motion and 2) in response to human vs non-human motion...
October 15, 2016: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Julio Plata-Bello, Cristián Modroño, Silvia Acosta-López, Yaiza Pérez-Martín, Francisco Marcano, Víctor García-Marín, José Luis González-Mora
Nearly 20 % of patients who suffer a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) still display cognitive impairment even a year after follow-up. Visuospatial and visuoperceptive domains may be impaired in this cognitive impairment and may not have been fully studied in these patients. Furthermore, these cognitively impaired domains have been associated with activity in the so-called mirror neuron system (MNS). The aim of the study is to analyze the pattern of brain activity with an MNS task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study in SAH patients...
October 12, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Jess E Reynolds, Sophie Kerrigan, Catherine Elliott, Brendan S Lay, Melissa K Licari
It has been hypothesized that deficits in imitation, linked to abnormal functioning of the mirror neuron system (MNS), may contribute to the motor impairments associated with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). The authors aimed to examine imitation of complex novel postures and sequences of gestures in children with and without probable DCD (pDCD), using the postural praxis and sequencing praxis subtests of the Sensory Integration and Praxis Tests (Ayres, 1989 ). Participants were 29 boys with pDCD between 6...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
Ying Jin, Jiaying Xu, Lanfang Wang, Qingyi Lu, Feng Gao
In this study, mixed-metal sulfide Zn1-xMnxS nanorod-assembled hierarchical hollow spheres are successfully synthesized via a template-free solvothermal process base on Ostwald ripening process. In the reaction system the glycerol plays a key role for the formation of ZnxMn1-xS hierarchical hollow structures through a "quasi-microemulsion-template" mechanism. When applied as capacitor electrode material, the hierarchical Zn1-xMnxS hollow spheres display excellent electrochemical performances. Specifically, Zn0...
October 10, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Giovanni Nardo, Maria Chiara Trolese, Giuseppe de Vito, Roberta Cecchi, Nilo Riva, Giorgia Dina, Paul R Heath, Angelo Quattrini, Pamela J Shaw, Vincenzo Piazza, Caterina Bendotti
BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence suggests that the immune system has a beneficial role in the progression of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) although the mechanism remains unclear. Recently, we demonstrated that motor neurons (MNs) of C57SOD1(G93A) mice with slow disease progression activate molecules classically involved in the cross-talk with the immune system. This happens a lot less in 129SvSOD1(G93A) mice which, while expressing the same amount of transgene, had faster disease progression and earlier axonal damage...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Dongping Zhan, Lianhuan Han, Jie Zhang, Kang Shi, Jian-Zhang Zhou, Zhao-Wu Tian, Zhong-Qun Tian
In the past several decades, electrochemical machining (ECM) has enjoyed the reputation of a powerful technique in the manufacturing industry. Conventional ECM methods can be classified as electrolytic machining and electroforming: the former is based on anodic dissolution and the latter is based on cathodic deposition of metallic materials. Strikingly, ECM possesses several advantages over mechanical machining, such as high removal rate, the capability of making complex three-dimensional structures, and the practicability for difficult-to-cut materials...
September 26, 2016: Accounts of Chemical Research
Sharyn L Rossi, Casey J Lumpkin, Ashlee W Harris, Jennifer Holbrook, Cinsley Gentillon, Suzanne M McCahan, Wenlan Wang, Matthew E R Butchbach
Topoisomerase 1 (TOP1) poisons like camptothecin (CPT) are currently used in cancer chemotherapy but these compounds can have damaging, off-target effects on neurons leading to cognitive, sensory and motor deficits. To understand the molecular basis for the enhanced sensitivity of neurons to CPT, we examined the effects of compounds that inhibit TOP1-CPT, actinomycin D (ActD) and β-lapachone (β-Lap)-on primary cultured rat motor (MN) and cortical (CN) neurons as well as fibroblasts. Neuronal cells expressed higher levels of Top1 mRNA than fibroblasts but transcript levels are reduced in all cell types after treatment with CPT...
October 14, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
D Chisholm, M Heslin, S Docrat, S Nanda, R Shidhaye, N Upadhaya, M Jordans, J Abdulmalik, S Olayiwola, O Gureje, D Kizza, J Mugisha, F Kigozi, C Hanlon, M Adugna, R Sanders, C Pretorius, G Thornicroft, C Lund
BACKGROUND: Although financing represents a critical component of health system strengthening and also a defining concern of efforts to move towards universal health coverage, many countries lack the tools and capacity to plan effectively for service scale-up. As part of a multi-country collaborative study (the Emerald project), we set out to develop, test and apply a fully integrated health systems resource planning and health impact tool for mental, neurological and substance use (MNS) disorders...
September 19, 2016: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
Lawrence P Behmer, Lisa R Fournier
Questions regarding the malleability of the mirror neuron system (MNS) continue to be debated. MNS activation has been reported when people observe another person performing biological goal-directed behaviors, such as grasping a cup. These findings support the importance of mapping goal-directed biological behavior onto one's motor repertoire as a means of understanding the actions of others. Still, other evidence supports the Associative Sequence Learning (ASL) model which predicts that the MNS responds to a variety of stimuli after sensorimotor learning, not simply biological behavior...
September 8, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Olivia Hanley, Rediet Zewdu, Lisa J Cohen, Heekyung Jung, Julie Lacombe, Polyxeni Philippidou, David H Lee, Licia Selleri, Jeremy S Dasen
The clustering of neurons sharing similar functional properties and connectivity is a common organizational feature of vertebrate nervous systems. Within motor networks, spinal motor neurons (MNs) segregate into longitudinally arrayed subtypes, establishing a central somatotopic map of peripheral target innervation. MN organization and connectivity relies on Hox transcription factors expressed along the rostrocaudal axis; however, the developmental mechanisms governing the orderly arrangement of MNs are largely unknown...
September 7, 2016: Neuron
Veronica La Padula, Ori Staszewski, Sigrun Nestel, Hauke Busch, Melanie Boerries, Eleni Roussa, Marco Prinz, Kerstin Krieglstein
The human small heat shock proteins (HSPBs) form a family of molecular chaperones comprising ten members (HSPB1-HSPB10), whose functions span from protein quality control to cytoskeletal dynamics and cell death control. Mutations in HSPBs can lead to human disease and particularly point mutations in HSPB1 and HSPB8 are known to lead to peripheral neuropathies. Recently, a missense mutation (R7S) in yet another member of this family, HSPB3, was found to cause an axonal motor neuropathy (distal hereditary motor neuropathy type 2C, dHMN2C)...
August 24, 2016: Experimental Neurology
Joseph Lombardo, Melissa A Harrington
KCNQ/Kv7 channels form a slow non-inactivating K(+) current, also known as the M-current. They activate in the sub-threshold range of membrane potentials and regulate different aspects of excitability in neurons of the central nervous system. In spinal motoneurons (MNs), KCNQ/Kv7 channels have been identified in the somata, axonal initial segment (AIS) and nodes of Ranvier where they generate a slow, non-inactivating, K+ current sensitive to both muscarinic receptor-mediated inhibition and KCNQ/Kv7 channel blockers...
August 10, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Raghu Raj Thakur Singh, Ismaiel Tekko, Kathryn McAvoy, Ryan F Donnelly, Hannah McMillian, David Jones
INTRODUCTION: Anterior and posterior segment eye diseases are highly challenging to treat, due to the barrier properties and relative inaccessibility of the ocular tissues. Topical eye drops and systemically delivered treatments result in low bioavailability. Alternatively, direct injection of medication into the ocular tissues is clinically employed to overcome the barrier properties, but injections cause significant tissue damage and are associated with a number of untoward side effects and poor patient compliance...
August 3, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
Kyung-Nam Koh, Keon Hee Yoo, Ho Joon Im, Ki Woong Sung, Hong Hoe Koo, Hyo Sun Kim, Jung Woo Han, Jong Hyung Yoon, Hyeon Jin Park, Byung-Kiu Park, Hee Jo Baek, Hoon Kook, Jun Ah Lee, Jae Min Lee, Kwang Chul Lee, Soon Ki Kim, Meerim Park, Young-Ho Lee, Chuhl Joo Lyu, Jong Jin Seo
This retrospective study investigated the clinical characteristics and outcomes of second malignant neoplasms (SMNs) in survivors of childhood cancer from multiple institutions in Korea. A total of 102 patients from 11 institutions who developed SMN after childhood cancer treatment between 1998 and 2011 were retrospectively enrolled. The most common primary malignant neoplasms (PMNs) were central nervous system (CNS) tumors (n = 17), followed by acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n = 16), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 13), and osteosarcoma (n = 12)...
August 2016: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Clara Ortega-de San Luis, Alberto Pascual
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is proposed as a therapeutic tool in Parkinson's disease, addiction-related disorders, and neurodegenerative conditions affecting motor neurons (MNs). Despite the high amount of work about GDNF therapeutic application, the neuronal circuits requiring GDNF trophic support in the brain and spinal cord (SC) are poorly characterized. Here, we defined GDNF and GDNF family receptor-α 1 (GFRα1) expression pattern in the brain and SC of newborn and adult mice. We performed systematic and simultaneous detection of EGFP and LacZ expressing alleles in reporter mice and asked whether modifications of this signaling pathway lead to a significant central nervous system (CNS) alteration...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Zhiyong Qi, Bangwei Wu, Xinping Luo, Jun Zhu, Haiming Shi, Bo Jin
BACKGROUND: Magnetic navigation system (MNS) allows calculation of the vessel coordinates in real space within the patient's chest for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, its impact on the procedural parameters and clinical outcomes is still a matter of debate. To derive a more precise estimation of the relationship, a meta-analysis was performed. METHODS AND RESULTS: Studies exploring the advantages of MNS were identified in English-language articles by search of Medline, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library Databases (inception to October 2015)...
July 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Y Fichou, M Mariez, C Le Maréchal, C Férec
BACKGROUND: Patients suffering from haemoglobinopathies may be treated by red blood cell (RBC) transfusion on a regular basis and then exposed to multiple antigens with a recurrent, potential risk of alloimmunization routinely prevented by extended RBC antigen cross-matching. While time-consuming and labour-intensive serological analyses are the gold standard for RBC typing, genotyping by current high-throughput molecular tools, including next-generation sequencing (NGS), appears to offer a potent alternative...
July 21, 2016: Vox Sanguinis
Ling Wei, Genghis H Lopez, Yanli Ji, Jennifer A Condon, Darryl L Irwin, Guangping Luo, Catherine A Hyland, Robert L Flower
The genetic basis for five GP(B-A-B) MNS system hybrid glycophorin blood group antigens results from rearrangement between the homologous GYPA and GYPB genes. Each hybrid glycophorin displays a characteristic profile of antigens. Currently, no commercial serological reagents are currently available to serologically type for these antigens. The aim of this study was to develop a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mapping genotyping technique to allow characterisation of various GYP(B-A-B) hybrid alleles. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) assays were designed to genotype five GYP(B-A-B) hybrid alleles...
October 2016: Molecular Biotechnology
Amir Roshani, Abbas Erfanian
OBJECTIVE: An important issue in restoring motor function through intraspinal microstimulation (ISMS) is the motor control. To provide a physiologically plausible motor control using ISMS, it should be able to control the individual motor unit which is the lowest functional unit of motor control. By focal stimulation only a small group of motor neurons (MNs) within a motor pool can be activated. Different groups of MNs within a motor pool can potentially be activated without involving adjacent motor pools by local stimulation of different parts of a motor pool via microelectrode array implanted into a motor pool...
August 2016: Journal of Neural Engineering
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