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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109028/enhancing-immunogenicity-of-antigens-through-sustained-intradermal-delivery-using-chitosan-microneedles-with-a-patch-dissolvable-design
#1
Mei-Chin Chen, Kuan-Ying Lai, Ming-Hung Ling, Chun-Wei Lin
Reducing the dosage required for vaccination is highly desirable, particularly in cases of epidemic emergencies. This study evaluated the potential of a chitosan microneedle (MN) system with a patch-dissolvable design for low-dose immunization. This system comprises antigen-loaded chitosan MNs and a hydrophilic polyvinyl alcohol/polyvinyl pyrrolidone supporting array patch, which provides extra strength to achieve complete MN insertion and then quickly dissolves in the skin to reduce patch-induced skin irritation...
November 3, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104236/the-emerging-role-of-the-major-histocompatibility-complex-class-i-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#2
REVIEW
Gabriela Bortolança Chiarotto, Giovanni Nardo, Maria Chiara Trolese, Marcondes Cavalcante França, Caterina Bendotti, Alexandre Leite Rodrigues de Oliveira
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease affecting upper and lower motoneurons (MNs). The etiology of the disease is still unknown for most patients with sporadic ALS, while in 5-10% of the familial cases, several gene mutations have been linked to the disease. Mutations in the gene encoding Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1), reproducing in animal models a pathological scenario similar to that found in ALS patients, have allowed for the identification of mechanisms relevant to the ALS pathogenesis...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097704/potential-for-social-involvement-modulates-activity-within-the-mirror-and-the-mentalizing-systems
#3
Chiara Begliomini, Andrea Cavallo, Valeria Manera, Cristina Becchio, Roberto Stramare, Diego Miotto, Umberto Castiello
Processing biological motion is fundamental for everyday life activities, such as social interaction, motor learning and nonverbal communication. The ability to detect the nature of a motor pattern has been investigated by means of point-light displays (PLD), sets of moving light points reproducing human kinematics, easily recognizable as meaningful once in motion. Although PLD are rudimentary, the human brain can decipher their content including social intentions. Neuroimaging studies suggest that inferring the social meaning conveyed by PLD could rely on both the Mirror Neuron System (MNS) and the Mentalizing System (MS), but their specific role to this endeavor remains uncertain...
November 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074440/microarray-patches-potentially-useful-delivery-systems-for-long-acting-nanosuspensions
#4
REVIEW
Ryan F Donnelly, Eneko Larrañeta
Long-acting drug nanosuspension formulations are coming to the fore as controlled release strategies for several medical conditions and as a preventative measure against HIV infection. However, such delivery systems must, by necessity, be given by hypodermic injection, typically into muscle. This poses problems for patients who are needle-phobic, given that injections have to be administered on a weekly or monthly basis. Needle-stick injuries, inappropriate reuse of needles, and poor disposal practices are major challenges in developing countries...
October 23, 2017: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043827/stability-guidelines-for-dithiothreitol-treated-red-blood-cell-reagents-used-for-antibody-detection-methods-in-patients-treated-with-daratumumab
#5
Wendy L Disbro
Daratumumab (DARA), a drug used to treat patients with multiple myeloma, causes interference in pre-transfusion testing. Samples from patients receiving DARA exhibit panreactivity in antibody detection and identification tests with red blood cells (RBCs). Many hospitals are sending these samples to reference laboratories. Dithiothreitol (DTT), a sulfhydryl chemical treatment of RBCs, negates this reactivity. This study investigated the stability of the antigens on DTT-treated RBCs to determine if large quantities of RBCs could be treated at one time, stored, and used for testing at a later time...
September 2017: Immunohematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033783/the-mechanisms-of-psychedelic-visionary-experiences-hypotheses-from-evolutionary-psychology
#6
Michael J Winkelman
Neuropharmacological effects of psychedelics have profound cognitive, emotional, and social effects that inspired the development of cultures and religions worldwide. Findings that psychedelics objectively and reliably produce mystical experiences press the question of the neuropharmacological mechanisms by which these highly significant experiences are produced by exogenous neurotransmitter analogs. Humans have a long evolutionary relationship with psychedelics, a consequence of psychedelics' selective effects for human cognitive abilities, exemplified in the information rich visionary experiences...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031545/social-modeling-of-eating-mediated-by-mirror-neuron-activity-a-causal-model-moderated-by-frontal-asymmetry-and-bmi
#7
Laura McGeown, Ron Davis
The social modeling of eating effect refers to the consistently demonstrated phenomenon that individuals tend to match their quantity of food intake to their eating companion. The current study sought to explore whether activity within the mirror neuron system (MNS) mediates the social modeling of eating effect as a function of EEG frontal asymmetry and body mass index (BMI). Under the guise of rating empathy, 93 female undergraduates viewed a female video confederate "incidentally" consume either a low or high intake of chips while electroencephalogram (EEG) activity was recorded...
October 12, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027066/white-matter-microstructure-of-the-human-mirror-neuron-system-is-related-to-symptom-severity-in-adults-with-autism
#8
Odette Fründt, Robert Schulz, Daniel Schöttle, Bastian Cheng, Götz Thomalla, Hanna Braaß, Christos Ganos, Nicole David, Ina Peiker, Andreas K Engel, Tobias Bäumer, Alexander Münchau
Mirror neuron system (MNS) dysfunctions might underlie deficits in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Diffusion tensor imaging based probabilistic tractography was conducted in 15 adult ASD patients and 13 matched, healthy controls. Fractional anisotropy (FA) was quantified to assess group differences in tract-related white matter microstructure of both the classical MNS route (mediating "emulation") and the alternative temporo-frontal route (mediating "mimicry"). Multiple linear regression was used to investigate structure-function relationships between MNS connections and ASD symptom severity...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024234/vicariously-touching-products-through-observing-others-hand-actions-increases-purchasing-intention-and-the-effect-of-visual-perspective-in-this-process-an-fmri-study
#9
Yi Liu, Xuelian Zang, Lihan Chen, Leonardo Assumpção, Hong Li
The growth of online shopping increases consumers' dependence on vicarious sensory experiences, such as observing others touching products in commercials. However, empirical evidence on whether observing others' sensory experiences increases purchasing intention is still scarce. In the present study, participants observed others interacting with products in the first- or third-person perspective in video clips, and their neural responses were measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We investigated (1) whether and how vicariously touching certain products affected purchasing intention, and the neural correlates of this process; and (2) how visual perspective interacts with vicarious tactility...
October 11, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973986/magnetically-separable-mos%C3%A2-fe%C3%A2-o%C3%A2-nzvi-nanocomposites-for-the-treatment-of-wastewater-containing-cr-vi-and-4-chlorophenol
#10
Haijiao Lu, Jingkang Wang, Hongxun Hao, Ting Wang
With a large specific surface area, high reactivity, and excellent adsorption properties, nano zerovalent iron (nZVI) can degrade a wide variety of contaminants in wastewater. However, aggregation, oxidation, and separation issues greatly impede its wide application. In this study, MoS₂/Fe₃O₄/nZVI nanocomposites were successfully synthesized by a facile step-by-step approach to overcome these problems. MoS₂ nanosheets (MNs) acted as an efficient support for nZVI and enriched the organic pollutants nearby, leading to an enhanced removal efficiency...
September 30, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958919/3d-reconstruction-and-standardization-of-the-rat-facial-nucleus-for-precise-mapping-of-vibrissal-motor-networks
#11
Jason M Guest, Mythreya M Seetharama, Elizabeth S Wendel, Peter L Strick, Marcel Oberlaender
The rodent facial nucleus (FN) comprises motoneurons (MNs) that control the facial musculature. In the lateral part of the FN, populations of vibrissal motoneurons (vMNs) innervate two groups of muscles that generate movements of the whiskers. Vibrissal MNs thus represent the terminal point of the neuronal networks that generate rhythmic whisking during exploratory behaviors and that modify whisker movements based on sensory-motor feedback during tactile-based perception. Here, we combined retrograde tracer injections into whisker-specific muscles, with large-scale immunohistochemistry and digital reconstructions to generate an average model of the rat FN...
September 27, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949462/peruvian-mental-health-reform-a-framework-for-scaling-up-mental-health-services
#12
Mauricio Toyama, Humberto Castillo, Jerome T Galea, Lena R Brandt, María Mendoza, Vanessa Herrera, Martha Mitrani, Yuri Cutipé, Victoria Cavero, Francisco Diez-Canseco, J Jaime Miranda
BACKGROUND: Mental, neurological, and substance (MNS) use disorders are a leading cause of disability worldwide; specifically in Peru, MNS affect 1 in 5 persons. However, the great majority of people suffering from these disorders do not access care, thereby making necessary the improvement of existing conditions including a major rearranging of current health system structures beyond care delivery strategies. This paper reviews and examines recent developments in mental health policies in Peru, presenting an overview of the initiatives currently being introduced and the main implementation challenges they face...
January 22, 2017: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929542/visuomotor-effects-of-body-part-movements-presented-in-the-first-person-perspective-on-imitative-behavior
#13
Rui Watanabe, Takahiro Higuchi, Yoshiaki Kikuchi, Masato Taira
Imitative stimuli presented from a first-person perspective (FPP) produce stronger visuomotor effects than those presented from a third-person perspective (TPP) due to the relatively greater response of the mirror neuron system (MNS) to FPP stimuli. Some previous studies utilizing TPP stimuli have reported no differences in MNS activity between moving and static bodies' stimuli. However, few studies have compared visuomotor effects of such stimuli when presented in the FPP. To clarify this issue, we measured cortical activation in 17 participants during a functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) imitation task involving three conditions: moving (a lifting finger was presented), static (an "X" appeared on a static finger), and control (an "X" appeared on a button)...
September 20, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906130/human-movement-responses-to-the-rorschach-and-mirroring-activity-an-fmri-study
#14
Luciano Giromini, Donald J Viglione, Jaime A Pineda, Piero Porcelli, David Hubbard, Alessandro Zennaro, Franco Cauda
It has been suggested that the Rorschach human movement (M) response could be associated with an embodied simulation mechanism mediated by the mirror neuron system (MNS). To date, evidence for this hypothesis comes from two electroencephalogram studies and one repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation study. To provide additional data on this topic, the Rorschach was administered during fMRI to a sample of 26 healthy adult volunteers. Activity in MNS-related brain areas temporally associated with M responses was compared with such activity for other, non-M Rorschach responses...
September 1, 2017: Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890691/predicting-intentions-of-a-familiar-significant-other-beyond-the-mirror-neuron-system
#15
Stephanie Cacioppo, Elsa Juan, George Monteleone
Inferring intentions of others is one of the most intriguing issues in interpersonal interaction. Theories of embodied cognition and simulation suggest that this mechanism takes place through a direct and automatic matching process that occurs between an observed action and past actions. This process occurs via the reactivation of past self-related sensorimotor experiences within the inferior frontoparietal network (including the mirror neuron system, MNS). The working model is that the anticipatory representations of others' behaviors require internal predictive models of actions formed from pre-established, shared representations between the observer and the actor...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863534/sers-active-self-assembled-diphenylalanine-micro-nanostructures-a-combined-experimental-and-theoretical-investigation
#16
Sergio Kogikoski, Soma Khanra, Wendel A Alves, Suchismita Guha
Enhancing Raman signatures of molecules by self-assembled metal nanoparticles, nanolithography patterning, or by designing plasmonic nanostructures is widely used for detection of low abundance biological systems. Self-assembled peptide nanostructures provide a natural template for tethering Au and Ag nanoparticles due to its fractal surface. Here, we show the use of L,L-diphenylalanine micro-nanostructures (FF-MNSs) for the organization of Ag and Au nanoparticles (Nps) and its potential as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-active substrates...
August 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854515/intravenous-immunoglobulin-in-the-management-of-a-rare-cause-of-hemolytic-disease-of-the-newborn-anti-sara-antibodies
#17
Rohini Venkataraman, Kamran Yusuf
Hemolytic disease of newborn (HDN) is a condition that develops in a fetus, when the IgG molecules produced by the mother pass through the placenta and attack the fetal red blood cells. HDN can occur due to Rh and ABO incompatibilities between the mother and the fetus as well as due to other allo-immune antibodies belonging to Kell (K and k), Duffy (Fya), Kidd (Jka and Jkb), and MNS (M, N, S, and s) systems. Role of intravenous immunoglobulin in management of HDN is not clear.SARA red blood cell antigen, first discovered in 1990 is a low frequency antigen...
2017: Journal of Neonatal-perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829994/language-for-action-motor-resonance-during-the-processing-of-human-and-robotic-voices
#18
G Di Cesare, A Errante, M Marchi, V Cuccio
In this fMRI study we evaluated whether the auditory processing of action verbs pronounced by a human or a robotic voice in the imperative mood differently modulates the activation of the mirror neuron system (MNs). The study produced three results. First, the activation pattern found during listening to action verbs was very similar in both the robot and human conditions. Second, the processing of action verbs compared to abstract verbs determined the activation of the fronto-parietal circuit classically involved during the action goal understanding...
August 19, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821461/cutaneous-vaccination-with-coated-microneedles-prevents-development-of-airway-allergy
#19
Akhilesh Kumar Shakya, Chang Hyun Lee, Harvinder Singh Gill
Allergy cases are increasing worldwide. Currently allergies are treated after their appearance in patients. However, now there is effort to make a preventive vaccine against allergies. The rationale is to target patient populations that are already sensitized to allergens but have yet to develop severe forms of the allergic disease, or who are susceptible to allergy development but have not yet developed them. Subcutaneous injections and the sublingual route have been used as the primary mode of preventive vaccine delivery...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819449/self-assembly-dna-polyplex-vaccine-inside-dissolving-microneedles-for-high-potency-intradermal-vaccination
#20
Jing-Fong Liao, Jin-Ching Lee, Chun-Kuang Lin, Kuo-Chen Wei, Pin-Yuan Chen, Hung-Wei Yang
The strong immunogenicity induction is the powerful weapon to prevent the virus infections. This study demonstrated that one-step synthesis of DNA polyplex vaccine in microneedle (MN) patches can induce high immunogenicity through intradermal vaccination and increase the vaccine stability for storage outside the cold chain. More negative charged DNA vaccine was entrapped into the needle region of MNs followed by DNA polyplex formation with branched polyethylenimine (bPEI) pre-coated in the cavities of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) molds that can deliver more DNA vaccine to immune-cell rich epidermis with high transfection efficiency...
2017: Theranostics
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