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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920661/parasite-rearing-and-infection-temperatures-jointly-influence-disease-transmission-and-shape-seasonality-of-epidemics
#1
Marta S Shocket, Daniela Vergara, Andrew J Sickbert, Jason M Walsman, Alexander T Strauss, Jessica L Hite, Meghan A Duffy, Carla E Cáceres, Spencer R Hall
Seasonal epidemics erupt commonly in nature and are driven by numerous mechanisms. Here, we suggest a new mechanism that could determine the size and timing of seasonal epidemics: rearing environment changes the performance of parasites. This mechanism arises when the environmental conditions in which a parasite is produced impact its performance-independently from the current environment. To illustrate the potential for 'rearing effects', we show how temperature influences infection risk (transmission rate) in a Daphnia-fungus disease system through both parasite rearing temperature and infection temperature...
June 19, 2018: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914887/multiplexed-division-tracking-dyes-for-proliferation-based-clonal-lineage-tracing
#2
Miles B Horton, Giulio Prevedello, Julia M Marchingo, Jie H S Zhou, Ken R Duffy, Susanne Heinzel, Philip D Hodgkin
The generation of cellular heterogeneity is an essential feature of immune responses. Understanding the heritability and asymmetry of phenotypic changes throughout this process requires determination of clonal-level contributions to fate selection. Evaluating intraclonal and interclonal heterogeneity and the influence of distinct fate determinants in large numbers of cell lineages, however, is usually laborious, requiring familial tracing and fate mapping. In this study, we introduce a novel, accessible, high-throughput method for measuring familial fate changes with accompanying statistical tools for testing hypotheses...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908048/effects-of-nerve-bundle-geometry-on-neurotrauma-evaluation
#3
Ilaria Cinelli, Michel Destrade, Peter McHugh, Maeve Duffy
OBJECTIVE: We confirm that alteration of a neuron structure can induce abnormalities in signal propagation for nervous systems, as observed in brain damage. Here, we investigate the effects of geometrical changes and damage of a neuron structure in two scaled nerve bundle models, made of myelinated nerve fibres or unmyelinated nerve fibres. METHODS: We propose a 3D finite element model of nerve bundles, combining a real-time full electro-mechanical coupling, a modulated threshold for spiking activation and independent alteration of the electrical properties for each fibre...
June 16, 2018: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899883/transfusion-medicine-and-molecular-genetic-methods
#4
REVIEW
Rozieyati Mohamed Saleh, Zulkafli Zefarina, Nor Fazila Che Mat, Geoffrey Keith Chambers, Hisham Atan Edinur
Transfusion procedures are always complicated by potential genetic mismatching between donor and recipient. Compatibility is determined by several major antigens, such as the ABO and Rhesus blood groups. Matching for other blood groups (Kell, Kidd, Duffy, and MNS), human platelet antigens, and human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) also contributes toward the successful transfusion outcomes, especially in multitransfused or highly immunized patients. All these antigens of tissue identity are highly polymorphic and thus present great challenges for finding suitable donors for transfusion patients...
2018: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898782/expression-of-human-cd46-and-trans-complementation-by-murine-adenovirus-1-fails-to-allow-productive-infection-by-a-group-b-oncolytic-adenovirus-in-murine-cancer-cells
#5
Janet Lei, Egon J Jacobus, William K Taverner, Kerry D Fisher, Silvio Hemmi, Katy West, Lorna Slater, Fred Lilley, Alice Brown, Brian Champion, Margaret R Duffy, Len W Seymour
BACKGROUND: Oncolytic viruses are currently experiencing accelerated development in several laboratories worldwide, with some forty-seven clinical trials currently recruiting. Many oncolytic viruses combine targeted cytotoxicity to cancer cells with a proinflammatory cell lysis. Due to their additional potential to express immunomodulatory transgenes, they are also often known as oncolytic viral vaccines. However, several types of oncolytic viruses are human-specific and the lack of suitable immune-competent animal models complicates biologically relevant evaluation of their vaccine potential...
June 13, 2018: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29879116/genetic-ancestry-and-population-differences-in-levels-of-inflammatory-cytokines-in-women-role-for-evolutionary-selection-and-environmental-factors
#6
Song Yao, Chi-Chen Hong, Edward A Ruiz-Narváez, Sharon S Evans, Qianqian Zhu, Beverly A Schaefer, Li Yan, Marie V Coignet, Kathryn L Lunetta, Lara E Sucheston-Campbell, Kelvin Lee, Elisa V Bandera, Melissa A Troester, Lynn Rosenberg, Julie R Palmer, Andrew F Olshan, Christine B Ambrosone
Selection pressure due to exposure to infectious pathogens endemic to Africa may explain distinct genetic variations in immune response genes. However, the impact of those genetic variations on human immunity remains understudied, especially within the context of modern lifestyles and living environments, which are drastically different from early humans in sub Saharan Africa. There are few data on population differences in constitutional immune environment, where genetic ancestry and environment are likely two primary sources of variation...
June 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29875359/precise-temporal-regulation-of-alternative-splicing-during-neural-development
#7
Sebastien M Weyn-Vanhentenryck, Huijuan Feng, Dmytro Ustianenko, Rachel Duffié, Qinghong Yan, Martin Jacko, Jose C Martinez, Marianne Goodwin, Xuegong Zhang, Ulrich Hengst, Stavros Lomvardas, Maurice S Swanson, Chaolin Zhang
Alternative splicing (AS) is one crucial step of gene expression that must be tightly regulated during neurodevelopment. However, the precise timing of developmental splicing switches and the underlying regulatory mechanisms are poorly understood. Here we systematically analyze the temporal regulation of AS in a large number of transcriptome profiles of developing mouse cortices, in vivo purified neuronal subtypes, and neurons differentiated in vitro. Our analysis reveals early-switch and late-switch exons in genes with distinct functions, and these switches accurately define neuronal maturation stages...
June 6, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29868382/development-of-a-wellness-trust-to-improve-population-health-case-study-of-a-united-states-urban-center
#8
Diana Romero, Sandra E Echeverria, Madeline Duffy, Lynn Roberts, Alexis Pozen
Across the United States health systems are recognizing the urgency of addressing the social determinants of health in order to improve population health. Wellness trusts, modeled after financial trusts support primary health prevention in community settings, provide an innovative opportunity for better community-clinical linkages, collaboration, and impact. This study aimed to understand the necessary tenets for a wellness trust in Brooklyn, New York (USA) and examined community interest and political will; administrative, financing, and leadership structures; and metrics and data sources to monitor and assess impact...
June 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29842785/multiplex-lateral-flow-assay-for-rapid-visual-blood-group-genotyping
#9
Julien Gomez-Martinez, Monique Silvy, Jacques Chiaroni, Chantal Fournier-Wirth, Francis Roubinet, Pascal Bailly, Jean-Charles Henri Brès
Conventional blood group phenotyping by hemagglutination assays, carried out pretransfusion, is unsuitable in certain clinical situations. Molecular typing offers an alternative method, allowing the deduction of blood group phenotype from genotype. However, current methods require a long turnaround time and are not performed on-site, limiting their application in emergency situations. Here, we report the development of a novel, rapid multiplex molecular method to identify seven alleles in three clinically relevant blood group systems (Kidd, Duffy and MNS)...
May 29, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793380/diffusion-of-innovation-and-longitudinal-integrated-clerkships-results-of-the-clerkship-directors-in-internal-medicine-annual-survey
#10
Lindsay Mazotti, Jennifer Adams, Bruce Peyser, Katherine Chretien, Briar Duffy, David A Hirsh
PURPOSE: Longitudinal integrated clerkships (LICs) are innovative educational models that emphasize medical student continuity with patients, preceptors, peers, and health systems. We characterize LIC growth in the US and interpret the growth using Rogers' Diffusion of Innovation Theory. METHODS: In 2015, we surveyed 123 US allopathic medical schools affiliated with Clerkship Directors in Internal Medicine (CDIM). The organization's annual survey was supplemented with questions aimed to quantify the number of current and planned LICs and to determine the intended purpose of starting LICs...
May 25, 2018: Medical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783824/-clinical-analysis-of-seven-cases-of-rare-hemolytic-disease-of-the-newborn
#11
S Gu, H X Wang, C Y Yang, X F Yang, Y Lin, Y Zhong, J P He, Y J Wang
Objective: To summarize the clinical features of 7 rare cases of hemolytic disease of newborn (HDN), and to improve the understanding of rare HDN. Methods: Data of clinical information, laboratory findings, treatments and outcomes were collected and analyzed for four cases with HDN due to anti-M, two cases due to anti-Kidd, and one case due to anti-Duffy. All of them were admitted to the Department of Neonatology, Beijing Children's Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medial University from July 2007 to June 2017...
May 2, 2018: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770718/a-systematic-literature-review-comparing-methods-for-the-measurement-of-patient-persistence-and-adherence
#12
Carol A Forbes, Sohan Deshpande, Francesc Sorio-Vilela, Lucie Kutikova, Steven Duffy, Ioanna Gouni-Berthold, Emil Hagström
OBJECTIVES: A systematic literature review was conducted comparing different approaches estimating persistence and adherence in chronic diseases with polypharmacy of oral and subcutaneous treatments. METHODS: This work followed published guidance on performing systematic reviews. Twelve electronic databases and grey literature sources were used to identify studies and guidelines for persistence and adherence of oral and subcutaneous therapies in hypercholesterolemia, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, osteoporosis and rheumatoid arthritis...
May 17, 2018: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715481/mapping-of-neuron-soma-size-as-an-effective-approach-to-delineate-differences-between-neural-populations
#13
Alexander J Lingley, Joshua C Bowdridge, Reza Farivar, Kevin R Duffy
BACKGROUND: A single histological marker applied to a slice of tissue often reveals myriad cytoarchitectonic characteristics that can obscure differences between neuron populations targeted for study. Isolation and measurement of a single feature from the tissue is possible through a variety of approaches, however, visualizing the data numerically or through graphs alone can preclude being able to identify important features and effects that are not obvious from direct observation of the tissue...
April 28, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703704/dosimetric-analysis-of-stereotactic-body-radiation-therapy-for-pancreatic-cancer-using-mr-guided-tri-60-co-unit-mr-guided-linac-and-conventional-linac-based-plans
#14
Stephen James Ramey, Kyle R Padgett, Narottam Lamichhane, Hanmath J Neboori, Deukwoo Kwon, Eric A Mellon, Karen Brown, Melissa Duffy, James Victoria, Nesrin Dogan, Lorraine Portelance
PURPOSE: This study aims to perform a dosimetric comparison of 2 magnetic resonance (MR)-guided radiation therapy systems capable of performing online adaptive radiation therapy versus a conventional radiation therapy system for pancreas stereotactic body radiation therapy. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Ten cases of patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma previously treated in our institution were used for this analysis. MR-guided tri-cobalt 60 therapy (MR-cobalt) and MR-LINAC plans were generated and compared with conventional LINAC (volumetric modulated arc therapy) plans...
March 1, 2018: Practical Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660440/the-long-term-effect-of-maternal-dietary-protein-restriction-on-5-ht-1a-receptor-function-and-behavioral-responses-to-stress-in-adulthood
#15
Wenrui Ye, Michael Duffy Pitlock, Martin A Javors, Brent J Thompson, James D Lechleiter, Julie G Hensler
Maternal nutrition impacts fetal development, and may play a role in determining resilience to stress and vulnerability to stress-precipitated psychiatric disorders, such as anxiety and depression. In this study, we examined the effect of a reduction in maternal dietary protein during pregnancy on the brain neurochemistry and behavior of offspring. We focused specifically on the serotonin system, the 5-HT1A receptor and the responsivity of offspring as adults to stress. Dams were fed either a low protein diet (10% protein by weight) or isocaloric control diet (20% protein by weight)...
September 3, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648638/ovulatory-induction-of-scg2-in-human-nonhuman-primate-and-rodent-granulosa-cells-stimulates-ovarian-angiogenesis
#16
Patrick R Hannon, Diane M Duffy, Katherine L Rosewell, Mats Brännström, James W Akin, Thomas E Curry
The luteinizing hormone (LH) surge is essential for ovulation, but the intrafollicular factors induced by LH that mediate ovulatory processes (e.g., angiogenesis) are poorly understood, especially in women. The role of secretogranin II (SCG2) and its cleaved bioactive peptide, secretoneurin (SN), were investigated as potential mediators of ovulation by testing the hypothesis that SCG2/SN is induced in granulosa cells by human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), via a downstream LH receptor signaling mechanism, and stimulates ovarian angiogenesis...
June 1, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623683/essential-ocean-variables-for-global-sustained-observations-of-biodiversity-and-ecosystem-changes
#17
Patricia Miloslavich, Nicholas J Bax, Samantha E Simmons, Eduardo Klein, Ward Appeltans, Octavio Aburto-Oropeza, Melissa Andersen Garcia, Sonia D Batten, Lisandro Benedetti-Cecchi, David M Checkley, Sanae Chiba, J Emmett Duffy, Daniel C Dunn, Albert Fischer, John Gunn, Raphael Kudela, Francis Marsac, Frank E Muller-Karger, David Obura, Yunne-Jai Shin
Sustained observations of marine biodiversity and ecosystems focused on specific conservation and management problems are needed around the world to effectively mitigate or manage changes resulting from anthropogenic pressures. These observations, while complex and expensive, are required by the international scientific, governance and policy communities to provide baselines against which the effects of human pressures and climate change may be measured and reported, and resources allocated to implement solutions...
April 5, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602204/high-levels-of-fecundity-in-small-and-isolated-populations-of-a-self-compatible-aloe-pollinated-by-opportunistic-birds-and-bees
#18
K L Patrick, S D Johnson, K J Duffy
Plant species that are effective colonisers of transient habitats are expected to have a capacity for uniparental reproduction and show flexibility in pollination systems. Such traits may enable populations to be established from a small number of founding individuals without these populations succumbing to reductions in fecundity arising from pollinator limitation. We tested these predictions for Aloe thraskii (Xanthorrhoeaceae), a succulent treelet that colonises shifting coastal dunes and has both bird and bee pollinators...
March 30, 2018: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570399/temperature-drives-epidemics-in-a-zooplankton-fungus-disease-system-a-trait-driven-approach-points-to-transmission-via-host-foraging
#19
Marta S Shocket, Alexander T Strauss, Jessica L Hite, Maja Šljivar, David J Civitello, Meghan A Duffy, Carla E Cáceres, Spencer R Hall
Climatic warming will likely have idiosyncratic impacts on infectious diseases, causing some to increase while others decrease or shift geographically. A mechanistic framework could better predict these different temperature-disease outcomes. However, such a framework remains challenging to develop, due to the nonlinear and (sometimes) opposing thermal responses of different host and parasite traits and due to the difficulty of validating model predictions with observations and experiments. We address these challenges in a zooplankton-fungus (Daphnia dentifera-Metschnikowia bicuspidata) system...
April 2018: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474451/racial-residential-segregation-socioeconomic-disparities-and-the-white-black-survival-gap
#20
Ioana Popescu, Erin Duffy, Joshua Mendelsohn, José J Escarce
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between racial residential segregation, a prominent manifestation of systemic racism, and the White-Black survival gap in a contemporary cohort of adults, and to assess the extent to which socioeconomic inequality explains this association. DESIGN: This was a cross sectional study of White and Black men and women aged 35-75 living in 102 large US Core Based Statistical Areas. The main outcome was the White-Black survival gap...
2018: PloS One
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