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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747146/age-dependent-subchondral-bone-remodeling-and-cartilage-repair-in-a-minipig-defect-model
#1
Christian G Pfeifer, Matthew B Fisher, Vishal Saxena, Minwook Kim, Elizabeth A Henning, David R Steinberg, George R Dodge, Robert Leon Mauck
Following cartilage injury and repair, the subchondral bone plate remodels. Skeletal maturity likely impacts both bone remodeling and inherent cartilage repair capacity. The objective of this study was to evaluate subchondral bone remodeling as a function of injury type, repair scenario and skeletal maturity in a Yucatan minipig model. Cartilage defects (4mm) were created bilaterally in the trochlear groove. Treatment conditions included a full thickness chondral defect (FCD, n=3adult/3juvenile), a partial thickness (~50%) chondral defect (PCD, n=3/3), and FCD treated with microfracture (MFX, n=3/3)...
July 26, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745925/clinical-care-of-children-with-primary-ciliary-dyskinesia
#2
Jane S Lucas, Mikkel Christian Alanin, Samuel Collins, Amanda Harris, Helle Krogh Johansen, Kim G Nielsen, Jean Francois Papon, Phil Robinson, Woolf T Walker
Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare heterogeneous disorder, usually inherited as an autosomal recessive condition but X-linked inheritance is also described. Abnormal ciliary function in childhood leads to neonatal respiratory distress in term infants, persistent wet cough, bronchiectasis, chronic rhinosinusitis, and hearing impairment; approximately 50% of patients have situs inversus. There is a paucity of evidence for treating PCD, hence consensus guidelines are predominantly influenced by knowledge from cystic fibrosis (CF)...
July 26, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741642/fabricating-chiroptical-starfruit-like-au-nanoparticles-via-interface-modulation-of-chiral-thiols
#3
Jiao Yan, Yuandong Chen, Shuai Hou, Jiaqi Chen, Dejing Meng, Hui Zhang, Huizhen Fan, Yinglu Ji, Xiaochun Wu
The surface/interface matters as the size of materials enters the nanoscale. Control of surface/interface, therefore, plays an important role in creating novel nanostructures with unusual properties and in obtaining devices with high performance. Herein, we demonstrate unique interface regulation in fabricating nanostructures with strong plasmonic circular dichroism (PCD). With chiral cysteine (Cys) as surface-modulating molecules, starfruit-like Au nanoparticles (NPs) with high PCD responses are obtained via Au overgrowth on Au nanorods (AuNRs)...
July 25, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738521/ginkgo-biloba-exocarp-extracts-induces-autophagy-in-lewis-lung-cancer-cells-involving-ampk-mtor-p70s6k-signaling-pathway
#4
Chenjie Cao, Dongdong Han, Ya Su, Yu Ge, Huasheng Chen, Aihua Xu
OBJECTIVES: Ginkgo biloba L. is called a living fossil plant, and could be used for the treatment of cancer thousands of years ago in China. The extracts prepared from the Ginkgo biloba exocarp (Ginkgo biloba exocarp extracts, GBEE) has a significant anti-cancer effect. Autophagy plays an important role in the occurrence and development of cancer as programmed cell death (PCD) type II. Thus it would be interesting to study the effects and mechanisms of GBEE inducing autophagy in Lewis lung cancer (LLC) cells...
July 19, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736574/elucidating-the-role-of-highly-homologous-nicotiana-benthamiana-ubiquitin-e2-gene-family-members-in-plant-immunity-through-an-improved-virus-induced-gene-silencing-approach
#5
Bangjun Zhou, Lirong Zeng
BACKGROUND: Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) has been used in many plant species as an attractive post transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) method for studying gene function either individually or at large-scale in a high-throughput manner. However, the specificity and efficiency for knocking down members of a highly homologous gene family have remained to date a significant challenge in VIGS due to silencing of off-targets. RESULTS: Here we present an improved method for the selection and evaluation of gene fragments used for VIGS to specifically and efficiently knock down members of a highly homologous gene family...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733192/pharmacological-evaluation-of-phytochemicals-from-south-indian-black-turmeric-curcuma-caesia-roxb-to-target-cancer-apoptosis
#6
K S Mukunthan, R S Satyan, T N Patel
Curcuma caesia Roxb. (Black turmeric), a perennial herb of the family Zingiberaceae is indigenous to India. C. caesia is used as a spice, food preservative and coloring agent commonly in the Indian subcontinent. Functional parametric pharmacological evaluations like drug ability and toxicity profile of this endangered species is poorly documented. In our present study, among all the extracts of dried C. caesia rhizome viz- hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water tested for free radical scavenging capacity by total antioxidant activity (TAO) method, Hexane Rhizome Extract (HRE) wzs found to possess remarkable activity (1200mg ascorbic acid equivalent/100g)...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732897/preparation-and-characterization-of-novel-chitosan-and-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-polymer-sponges-for-wound-dressing-applications
#7
Claudia Flores, Marco Lopez, Nicolas Tabary, Christel Neut, Feng Chai, Didier Betbeder, Clément Herkt, Frederic Cazaux, Valerie Gaucher, Bernard Martel, Nicolas Blanchemain
Chitosan (CS) presents antibacterial, mucoadhesive and hemostatic properties and is an ideal candidate for wound dressing applications. This work reports the development of sponge-like materials obtained from physical hydrogels after the interaction between CS and a β-cyclodextrin polymer (PCD) in acidic conditions to provoke immediate gelation. Characterization consisted of zeta potential (ZP) measurements, rheology analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)...
October 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721850/amphotericin-b-induces-apoptosis-like-programmed-cell-death-in-naegleria-fowleri-and-naegleria-gruberi
#8
Roberto Cárdenas-Zúñiga, Angélica Silva-Olivares, José D' Artagnan Villalba-Magdaleno, Virginia Sánchez-Monroy, Jesús Serrano-Luna, Mineko Shibayama
Naegleria fowleri and Naegleria gruberi belong to the free-living amoebae group. It is widely known that the non-pathogenic species N. gruberi is usually employed as a model to describe molecular pathways in this genus, mainly because its genome has been recently described. However, N. fowleri is an aetiological agent of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis, an acute and fatal disease. Currently, the most widely used drug for its treatment is amphotericin B (AmB). It was previously reported that AmB has an amoebicidal effect in both N...
July 18, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721520/seed-development-of-jatropha-curcas-l-euphorbiaceae-integrating-anatomical-ultrastructural-and-molecular-studies
#9
Emanoella L Soares, Magda L B Lima, José R S Nascimento, Arlete A Soares, Ítalo A C Coutinho, Francisco A P Campos
This work provides a detailed histological analysis of the development of Jatropha curcas seeds, together with an assessment of the role of programmed cell death in this process. Seeds of Jatropha curcas are a potential source of raw material for the production of biodiesel, but very little is known about how the architecture of the seeds is shaped by the coordinated development of the embryo, endosperm and maternal tissues, namely integuments and nucellus. This study used standard anatomical and ultrastructural techniques to evaluate seed development and programmed cell death (PCD) in the inner integument was monitored by qPCR...
July 18, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719220/egfr-targeted-cationic-polymeric-mixed-micelles-for-co-delivery-of-gemcitabine-and-mir-205-for-treating-advanced-pancreatic-cancer
#10
Goutam Mondal, Saud Almawash, Amit Kumar Chaudhary, Ram I Mahato
Gemcitabine (GEM), a first-line chemotherapy for pancreatic cancer undergoes rapid metabolism and develops chemoresistance after repeated administration. We previously demonstrated that the combination of GEM and miR-205 provides an effective therapeutic strategy to sensitize GEM-resistant pancreatic cancer cells. Since epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is overexpressed in pancreatic cancer cells, in this study, we aimed to deliver mixed micelles containing GEM and miR-205 decorated with EGFR-targeting cetuximab (C225) monoclonal antibody for targeted therapy...
July 18, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716433/unmyelinated-peripheral-nerves-can-be-stimulated-in%C3%A2-vitro-using-pulsed-ultrasound
#11
Christopher J Wright, Seyyed R Haqshenas, John Rothwell, Nader Saffari
Appreciation for the medical and research potential of ultrasound neuromodulation is growing rapidly, with potential applications in non-invasive treatment of neurodegenerative disease and functional brain mapping spurring recent progress. However, little progress has been made in our understanding of the ultrasound-tissue interaction. The current study tackles this issue by measuring compound action potentials (CAPs) from an ex vivo crab walking leg nerve bundle and analysing the acoustic nature of successful stimuli using a passive cavitation detector (PCD)...
July 14, 2017: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715415/characterizing-the-malaria-rural-to-urban-transmission-interface-the-importance-of-reactive-case-detection
#12
Karen Molina Gómez, M Alejandra Caicedo, Alexandra Gaitán, Manuela Herrera-Varela, María Isabel Arce, Andrés F Vallejo, Julio Padilla, Pablo Chaparro, M Andreína Pacheco, Ananias A Escalante, Myriam Arevalo-Herrera, Sócrates Herrera Valencia
BACKGROUND: Reported urban malaria cases are increasing in Latin America, however, evidence of such trend remains insufficient. Here, we propose an integrated approach that allows characterizing malaria transmission at the rural-to-urban interface by combining epidemiological, entomological, and parasite genotyping methods. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A descriptive study that combines active (ACD), passive (PCD), and reactive (RCD) case detection was performed in urban and peri-urban neighborhoods of Quibdó, Colombia...
July 17, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710511/cerebellar-degeneration-related-proteins-2-and-2-like-are-present-in-ovarian-cancer-in-patients-with-and-without-yo-antibodies
#13
Margrethe Raspotnig, Mette Haugen, Maria Thorsteinsdottir, Ingunn Stefansson, Helga B Salvesen, Anette Storstein, Christian A Vedeler
BACKGROUND: Cerebellar degeneration-related protein 2 (CDR2) has been presumed to be the main antigen for the onconeural antibody Yo, which is strongly associated with ovarian cancer and paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration (PCD). Recent data show that Yo antibodies also target the CDR2-like protein (CDR2L). We, therefore, examined the expression of CDR2 and CDR2L in ovarian cancer tissue from patients with and without Yo antibodies and from various other cancerous and normal human tissues...
July 14, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710351/combination-therapy-for-tuberculosis-treatment-pulmonary-administration-of-ethionamide-and-booster-co-loaded-nanoparticles
#14
Joana Costa-Gouveia, Elisabetta Pancani, Samuel Jouny, Arnaud Machelart, Vincent Delorme, Giuseppina Salzano, Raffaella Iantomasi, Catherine Piveteau, Christophe J Queval, Ok-Ryul Song, Marion Flipo, Benoit Deprez, Jean-Paul Saint-André, José Hureaux, Laleh Majlessi, Nicolas Willand, Alain Baulard, Priscille Brodin, Ruxandra Gref
Tuberculosis (TB) is a leading infectious cause of death worldwide. The use of ethionamide (ETH), a main second line anti-TB drug, is hampered by its severe side effects. Recently discovered "booster" molecules strongly increase the ETH efficacy, opening new perspectives to improve the current clinical outcome of drug-resistant TB. To investigate the simultaneous delivery of ETH and its booster BDM41906 in the lungs, we co-encapsulated these compounds in biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles (NPs), overcoming the bottlenecks inherent to the strong tendency of ETH to crystallize and the limited water solubility of this Booster...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704666/tio2-supported-on-reed-straw-biochar-as-an-adsorptive-and-photocatalytic-composite-for-the-efficient-degradation-of-sulfamethoxazole-in-aqueous-matrices
#15
Hanyu Zhang, Zhaowei Wang, Ruining Li, Jialei Guo, Yan Li, Junmin Zhu, Xiaoyun Xie
Heterogeneous photocatalysis namely titanium dioxide supported on reed straw biochar (acid pre-treated) (TiO2/pBC) was synthesized by sol-gel method. The morphology, surface area and structure of TiO2/pBC were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Low calcination condition maintained the structure of biochar completely and prevented the agglomeration of TiO2 particles. Due to the combination of adsorption and photocatalysis, TiO2/pBC performed higher removal efficiency of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) than pure TiO2 powder under UV light irradiation...
July 7, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700755/the-dead-seed-coat-functions-as-a-long-term-storage-for-active-hydrolytic-enzymes
#16
Buzi Raviv, Lusine Aghajanyan, Gila Granot, Vardit Makover, Omer Frenkel, Yitzchak Gutterman, Gideon Grafi
Seed development culminates in programmed cell death (PCD) and hardening of organs enclosing the embryo (e.g., pericarp, seed coat) providing essentially a physical shield for protection during storage in the soil. We examined the proposal that dead organs enclosing embryos are unique entities that store and release upon hydration active proteins that might increase seed persistence in soil, germination and seedling establishment. Proteome analyses of dead seed coats of Brassicaceae species revealed hundreds of proteins being stored in the seed coat and released upon hydration, many are stress-associated proteins such as nucleases, proteases and chitinases...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699668/poems-syndrome-2017-update-on-diagnosis-risk-stratification-and-management
#17
Angela Dispenzieri
DISEASE OVERVIEW: POEMS syndrome is a paraneoplastic syndrome due to an underlying plasma cell neoplasm. The major criteria for the syndrome are polyradiculoneuropathy, clonal plasma cell disorder (PCD), sclerotic bone lesions, elevated vascular endothelial growth factor, and the presence of Castleman disease. Minor features include organomegaly, endocrinopathy, characteristic skin changes, papilledema, extravascular volume overload, and thrombocytosis. Diagnoses are often delayed because the syndrome is rare and can be mistaken for other neurologic disorders, most commonly chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy...
August 2017: American Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683124/hybrid-spectral-ct-reconstruction
#18
Darin P Clark, Cristian T Badea
Current photon counting x-ray detector (PCD) technology faces limitations associated with spectral fidelity and photon starvation. One strategy for addressing these limitations is to supplement PCD data with high-resolution, low-noise data acquired with an energy-integrating detector (EID). In this work, we propose an iterative, hybrid reconstruction technique which combines the spectral properties of PCD data with the resolution and signal-to-noise characteristics of EID data. Our hybrid reconstruction technique is based on an algebraic model of data fidelity which substitutes the EID data into the data fidelity term associated with the PCD reconstruction, resulting in a joint reconstruction problem...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683084/an-essential-role-for-the-vast-domain-of-the-arabidopsis-vad1-protein-in-the-regulation-of-defense-and-cell-death-in-response-to-pathogens
#19
Mehdi Khafif, Claudine Balagué, Carine Huard-Chauveau, Dominique Roby
Several regulators of programmed cell death (PCD) have been identified in plants which encode proteins with putative lipid-binding domains. Among them, VAD1 (Vascular Associated Death) contains a novel protein domain called VASt (VAD1 analog StAR-related lipid transfer) still uncharacterized. The Arabidopsis mutant vad1-1 has been shown to exhibit a lesion mimic phenotype with light-conditional appearance of propagative hypersensitive response-like lesions along the vascular system, associated with defense gene expression and increased resistance to Pseudomonas strains...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678643/a-novel-photocatalytic-purification-system-for-fish-culture
#20
Basilio Randazzo, Giulia Chemello, Ivan Tortarolo, Gian Luca Chiarello, Maciej Zalas, Alessandra Santini, Margaret Liberatore, Marco Liberatore, Elena Selli, Ike Olivotto
The accumulation of nitrogen compounds represents a pivotal problem in the management of fish culture. Several methods were investigated in the last decades for treatment of waste waters, and the use of photocatalytic materials has received increasing attention. The photocatalytic degradation (PCD) process with titanium dioxide (TiO2) represents the most promising single-step method to promote the removal of nitrogen compounds from water. The present study compares for the first time the effects on fish culture of a classical mechanical, biological, and ultraviolet purification system to a TiO2-PCD one, with particular emphasis on water chemistry and on physiological responses in zebrafish...
July 5, 2017: Zebrafish
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