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vascular smooth muscle cell plasticity

Marie-José Goumans, Peter Ten Dijke
Genetic studies in animals and humans indicate that gene mutations that functionally perturb transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling are linked to specific hereditary vascular syndromes, including Osler-Rendu-Weber disease or hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia and Marfan syndrome. Disturbed TGF-β signaling can also cause nonhereditary disorders like atherosclerosis and cardiac fibrosis. Accordingly, cell culture studies using endothelial cells or smooth muscle cells (SMCs), cultured alone or together in two- or three-dimensional cell culture assays, on plastic or embedded in matrix, have shown that TGF-β has a pivotal effect on endothelial and SMC proliferation, differentiation, migration, tube formation, and sprouting...
March 27, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
Paul Hindle, Nusrat Khan, Leela Biant, Bruno Péault
Perivascular stem cells (PSCs) are the natural ancestors of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and are the stem cells responsible for homeostasis and repair in vivo. Prospectively identified and isolated PSCs have demonstrated increased plasticity and osteogenic potential. Cells from the infrapatellar fat pad (IFP) have demonstrated increased chondrogenic potential compared with those from subcutaneous fat. This research assessed the chondrogenic potential of IFP PSCs compared with MSCs from the IFP and bone marrow...
January 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
Nuno Guimarães-Camboa, Paola Cattaneo, Yunfu Sun, Thomas Moore-Morris, Yusu Gu, Nancy D Dalton, Edward Rockenstein, Eliezer Masliah, Kirk L Peterson, William B Stallcup, Ju Chen, Sylvia M Evans
Pericytes are widely believed to function as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), multipotent tissue-resident progenitors with great potential for regenerative medicine. Cultured pericytes isolated from distinct tissues can differentiate into multiple cell types in vitro or following transplantation in vivo. However, the cell fate plasticity of endogenous pericytes in vivo remains unclear. Here, we show that the transcription factor Tbx18 selectively marks pericytes and vascular smooth muscle cells in multiple organs of adult mouse...
March 2, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
Khandaker Ahtesham Ahmed, Tianli Zhang, Katsuhiko Ono, Hiroyasu Tsutsuki, Tomoaki Ida, Soichiro Akashi, Keishi Miyata, Yuichi Oike, Takaaki Akaike, Tomohiro Sawa
Guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP)-dependent protein kinases (PKG) are kinases regulating diverse physiological functions including vascular smooth muscle relaxation, neuronal synaptic plasticity, and platelet activities. Certain PKG inhibitors, such as Rp-diastereomers of derivatives of guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate (Rp-cGMPS), have been designed and used to study PKG-regulated cell signaling. 8-Nitroguanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-nitro-cGMP) is an endogenous cGMP derivative formed as a result of excess production of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide...
March 1, 2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Tomomi Natori, Masachika Fujiyoshi, Masashi Uchida, Natsuki Abe, Tatsuro Kanaki, Yasunori Fukumoto, Itsuko Ishii
The proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) causes restenosis in biomaterial vascular grafts. The purposes of this study were to establish a suspension culture system for SMCs by using a novel substrate, low-acyl gellan gum (GG) and to maintain SMCs in a state of growth inhibition. When SMCs were cultured in suspension with GG, their proliferation was inhibited. Their viability was 70% at day 2, which was maintained at more than 50% until day 5. In contrast, the viability of cells cultured in suspension without GG was 5...
March 2017: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
Ming-Jie Zhang, Yun Liu, Zi-Cheng Hu, Yi Zhou, Yan Pi, Lu Guo, Xu Wang, Xue Chen, Jing-Cheng Li, Li-Li Zhang
The phenotypic modulation of contractile vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) is widely accepted as the pivotal process in the arterial remodeling induced by hypertension. This study aimed to investigate the potential role of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) on regulating VSMC plasticity and intracranial arteriole remodeling in hypertension. Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats and TRPV1(-/-) mice on a C57BL/6J background were used. By microscopic observation of the histopathological sections of vessels from hypertensive SHR and age-matched normotensive WKY control rats, we found that hypertension induced arterial remodeling...
April 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Munehiro Kitada, Yoshio Ogura, Daisuke Koya
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) due to atherosclerosis is the main cause of death in both the elderly and patients with metabolic diseases, including diabetes. Aging processes contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Calorie restriction (CR) is recognized as a dietary intervention for promoting longevity and delaying age-related diseases, including atherosclerosis. Sirt1, an NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase, is considered an anti-aging molecule and is induced during CR. Sirt1 deacetylates target proteins and is linked to cellular metabolism, the redox state and survival pathways...
October 15, 2016: Aging
Joel Chappell, Jennifer L Harman, Vagheesh M Narasimhan, Haixiang Yu, Kirsty Foote, Benjamin D Simons, Martin R Bennett, Helle F Jørgensen
RATIONALE: Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) accumulation is a hallmark of atherosclerosis and vascular injury. However, fundamental aspects of proliferation and the phenotypic changes within individual VSMCs, which underlie vascular disease, remain unresolved. In particular, it is not known whether all VSMCs proliferate and display plasticity or whether individual cells can switch to multiple phenotypes. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether proliferation and plasticity in disease is a general characteristic of VSMCs or a feature of a subset of cells...
December 9, 2016: Circulation Research
Stacey Dineen Rodenbeck, Chad A Zarse, Mikaela L McKenney-Drake, Rebecca S Bruning, Michael Sturek, Neal X Chen, Sharon M Moe
Background: Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) exhibit phenotypic plasticity, promoting vascular calcification and increasing cardiovascular risk. Changes in VSMC intracellular calcium ([Ca 2+ ] i ) are a major determinant of plasticity, but little is known about changes in [Ca 2+ ] i in chronic kidney disease (CKD). We have previously demonstrated such plasticity in aortas from our rat model of CKD and therefore sought to examine changes in [Ca 2+ ] i during CKD progression. Materials and Methods: We examined freshly isolated VSMCs from aortas of normal rats, Cy/+ rats (CKD) with early and advanced CKD, and advanced CKD rats treated without and with 3% calcium gluconate (CKD + Ca 2+ ) to lower parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels...
March 1, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Paul Hindle, Nusrat Khan, Leela Biant, Bruno Péault
: Perivascular stem cells (PSCs) are the natural ancestors of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and are the stem cells responsible for homeostasis and repair in vivo. Prospectively identified and isolated PSCs have demonstrated increased plasticity and osteogenic potential. Cells from the infrapatellar fat pad (IFP) have demonstrated increased chondrogenic potential compared with those from subcutaneous fat. This research assessed the chondrogenic potential of IFP PSCs compared with MSCs from the IFP and bone marrow...
August 5, 2016: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
Sun-Hwa Song, Kyungjong Kim, Eun-Kyung Jo, Young-Wook Kim, Jin-Sook Kwon, Sun Sik Bae, Jong-Hyuk Sung, Sang Gyu Park, Jee Taek Kim, Wonhee Suh
OBJECTIVE: Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) modulate their phenotype between synthetic and contractile states in response to environmental changes; this modulation plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of restenosis and atherosclerosis. Here, we identified fibroblast growth factor 12 (FGF12) as a novel key regulator of the VSMC phenotype switch. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Using murine models and human specimens, we found that FGF12 was highly expressed in contractile VSMCs of normal vessel walls but was downregulated in synthetic VSMCs from injured and atherosclerotic vessels...
September 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Sumaya Dauleh, Ilaria Santeramo, Claire Fielding, Kelly Ward, Anne Herrmann, Patricia Murray, Bettina Wilm
The human omentum has been long regarded as a healing patch, used by surgeons for its ability to immunomodulate, repair and vascularise injured tissues. A major component of the omentum are mesothelial cells, which display some of the characteristics of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells. For instance, lineage tracing studies have shown that mesothelial cells give rise to adipocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells, and human and rat mesothelial cells have been shown to differentiate into osteoblast- and adipocyte-like cells in vitro, indicating that they have considerable plasticity...
2016: PloS One
E Misárková, M Behuliak, M Bencze, J Zicha
Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) display considerable phenotype plasticity which can be studied in vivo on vascular remodeling which occurs during acute or chronic vascular injury. In differentiated cells, which represent contractile phenotype, there are characteristic rapid transient changes of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i), while the resting cytosolic [Ca(2+)]i concentration is low. It is mainly caused by two components of the Ca(2+) signaling pathways: Ca(2+) entry via L-type voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels and dynamic involvement of intracellular stores...
June 20, 2016: Physiological Research
Konstantinos C Tsolis, Eleni Bagli, Katerina Kanaki, Sofia Zografou, Sebastien Carpentier, Ekaterini S Bei, Savvas Christoforidis, Michalis Zervakis, Carol Murphy, Theodore Fotsis, Anastassios Economou
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are promising in regenerative medicine (RM) due to their differentiation plasticity and proliferation potential. However, a major challenge in RM is the generation of a vascular system to support nutrient flow to newly synthesized tissues. Here we refined an existing method to generate tight vessels by differentiating hESCs in CD34(+) vascular progenitor cells using chemically defined media and growth conditions. We selectively purified these cells from CD34(-) outgrowth populations also formed...
June 3, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
N Coll-Bonfill, B de la Cruz-Thea, M V Pisano, M M Musri
Vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC) are a highly specialized cell type that exhibit extraordinary plasticity in adult animals in response to a number of environmental cues. Upon vascular injury, SMC undergo phenotypic switch from a contractile-differentiated to a proliferative/migratory-dedifferentiated phenotype. This process plays a major role in vascular lesion formation and during the development of vascular remodeling. Vascular remodeling comprises the accumulation of dedifferentiated SMC in the intima of arteries and is central to a number of vascular diseases such as arteriosclerosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or pulmonary hypertension...
June 2016: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Amy C Keller, Leslie A Knaub, P Mason McClatchey, Chelsea A Connon, Ron Bouchard, Matthew W Miller, Kate E Geary, Lori A Walker, Dwight J Klemm, Jane E B Reusch
Diabetes affects more than 330 million people worldwide and causes elevated cardiovascular disease risk. Mitochondria are critical for vascular function, generate cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), and are perturbed by diabetes, representing a novel target for therapeutics. We hypothesized that adaptive mitochondrial plasticity in response to nutrient stress would be impaired in diabetes cellular physiology via a nitric oxide synthase- (NOS-) mediated decrease in mitochondrial function. Primary smooth muscle cells (SMCs) from aorta of the nonobese, insulin resistant rat diabetes model Goto-Kakizaki (GK) and the Wistar control rat were exposed to high glucose (25 mM)...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Paul H Ratz
Vascular smooth muscle (VSM; see Table 1 for a list of abbreviations) is a heterogeneous biomaterial comprised of cells and extracellular matrix. By surrounding tubes of endothelial cells, VSM forms a regulated network, the vasculature, through which oxygenated blood supplies specialized organs, permitting the development of large multicellular organisms. VSM cells, the engine of the vasculature, house a set of regulated nanomotors that permit rapid stress-development, sustained stress-maintenance and vessel constriction...
December 15, 2015: Comprehensive Physiology
Ming-Jie Zhang, Yi Zhou, Lei Chen, Yan-Qin Wang, Xu Wang, Yan Pi, Chang-Yue Gao, Jing-Cheng Li, Li-Li Zhang
The fully differentiated medial vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) of mature vessels keep quiescent and contractile. However, VSMC can exhibit the plasticity in phenotype switching from a differentiated and contractile phenotype to a dedifferentiated state in response to alterations in local environmental cues, which is called phenotypic modulation or switching. Distinguishing from its differentiated state expressing more smooth muscle (SM)-specific/selective proteins, the phenotypic modulation in VSMC is characterized by an increased rate of proliferation, migration, synthesis of extracellular matrix proteins and decreased expression of SM contractile proteins...
February 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Roshni Srivastava, Jiasheng Zhang, Gwang-Woong Go, Anand Narayanan, Timothy P Nottoli, Arya Mani
Mutations in Wnt-signaling coreceptor LRP6 have been linked to coronary artery disease (CAD) by unknown mechanisms. Here, we show that reduced LRP6 activity in LRP6(R611C) mice promotes loss of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) differentiation, leading to aortic medial hyperplasia. Carotid injury augmented these effects and led to partial to total vascular obstruction. LRP6(R611C) mice on high-fat diet displayed dramatic obstructive CAD and exhibited an accelerated atherosclerotic burden on LDLR knockout background...
October 27, 2015: Cell Reports
Julien Guihaire, Tobias Deuse, Dong Wang, Elie Fadel, Hermann Reichenspurner, Sonja Schrepfer
BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of pulmonary hypertension (PH) is characterized by a female preponderance, whereas males share higher severity of the disease. OBJECTIVE: To compare the severity of experimental PH between male and female athymic rats. METHODS: PH was induced in 11 male and 11 female athymic rats (resp., SU_M and SU_F groups) using an inhibitor of VEGF-receptors I and II, semaxanib (40 mg/kg). After 28 days, right ventricular (RV) remodeling, systolic function, and hemodynamics were measured using echocardiography and a pressure-volume admittance catheter...
2015: BioMed Research International
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