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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791144/machine-learning-landscapes-and-predictions-for-patient-outcomes
#1
Ritankar Das, David J Wales
The theory and computational tools developed to interpret and explore energy landscapes in molecular science are applied to the landscapes defined by local minima for neural networks. These machine learning landscapes correspond to fits of training data, where the inputs are vital signs and laboratory measurements for a database of patients, and the objective is to predict a clinical outcome. In this contribution, we test the predictions obtained by fitting to single measurements, and then to combinations of between 2 and 10 different patient medical data items...
July 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790487/developing-therapies-for-brain-tumors-the-impact-of-the-johns-hopkins-hunterian-neurosurgical-research-laboratory
#2
Henry Brem, Eric W Sankey, Ann Liu, Antonella Mangraviti, Betty M Tyler
The Johns Hopkins Hunterian Neurosurgical Laboratory at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine was created in 1904 by Harvey Cushing and William Halsted and has had a long history of fostering surgical training, encouraging basis science research, and facilitating translational application. Over the past 30 years, the laboratory has addressed the paucity of brain tumor therapies. Pre-clinical work from the laboratory led to the development of carmustine wafers with initial US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval in 1996...
2017: Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765919/age-at-menopause-and-hormone-replacement-therapy-as-risk-factors-for-head-and-neck-and-oesophageal-cancer%C3%A2-review
#3
Caroline E McCarthy, John K Field, Michael W Marcus
There were ~986,000 cases of head and neck cancer (HNC) and oesophageal cancer diagnosed worldwide in 2012. The incidence of these types of cancer is much higher in males than females, although this disparity decreases in the elderly population, suggesting a role for hormones as a risk factor. This systematic review investigates the potential role of female hormones [age at menopause and use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT)] as risk factors for HNC/oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The electronic databases MEDLINE, Web of Science, EMBASE and Cochrane were searched...
August 1, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765883/-corrigendum-transcriptome-sequencing-of-human-breast-cancer-reveals-aberrant-intronic-transcription-in-amplicons-and-dysregulation-of-alternative-splicing-with-major-therapeutic-implications
#4
(no author information available yet)
After the publication of the article, the authors retrospectively noted that the name of Dr Dawn Jones, a postdoctoral researcher in the laboratory of Professor Christine Gosden, should have been added to the authors' list, whose contribution to the study greatly augmented the exploration of all the RNA products via adoption of the RNASeq (Illumina) methodology. All the existing authors agree to the inclusion of Dr Jones as a co‑author, with the exception of Derek Gardener, who has retired from the Institute and is no longer contactable by e-mail (although we are confident that he would not raise any objection)...
September 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764263/acute-pyelonephritis-correlation-of-clinical-parameter-with-radiological-imaging-abnormalities
#5
Leelavathi Venkatesh, Ramalingiah Karadakere Hanumegowda
INTRODUCTION: Pyelonephritis (PN) is a suppurative infection of the kidney, most commonly due to bacterial infection and may be either acute or chronic. Acute PN (APN) subdivided into uncomplicated and complicated. Severity of PN cannot be assessed by clinical or laboratorial parameters alone, radiological imaging such as Ultrasound (USG) abdomen, Computed Tomography (CT) is required to know the nature, extent and severity of disease and for planning interventions. AIM: The aim of this study was to compare clinical and biochemical parameters with radiological findings (USG/CT) among patients diagnosed to have PN...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745090/if-smbg-accuracy-is-critical-to-patient-safety-why-are-inaccurate-meters-still-on-the-market
#6
Christopher G Parkin
In this issue of Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, Christiansen and colleagues report results from two studies, laboratory and clinical, that assessed the accuracy of a new blood glucose monitoring system, the Contour®Next ONE (Ascensia Diabetes Care, Parsippany, NJ, USA). The new system comprises a blood glucose meter that can link (via Bluetooth®) to the Contour™ Diabetes app, which operates on a smartphone or tablet. Results from both studies showed that the system exceeded the accuracy standards defined by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 15197:2013...
May 2017: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734822/icotinib-versus-whole-brain-irradiation-in-patients-with-egfr-mutant-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-and-multiple-brain-metastases-brain-a-multicentre-phase-3-open-label-parallel-randomised-controlled-trial
#7
Jin-Ji Yang, Caicun Zhou, Yisheng Huang, Jifeng Feng, Sun Lu, Yong Song, Cheng Huang, Gang Wu, Li Zhang, Ying Cheng, Chengping Hu, Gongyan Chen, Li Zhang, Xiaoqing Liu, Hong Hong Yan, Fen Lai Tan, Wenzhao Zhong, Yi-Long Wu
BACKGROUND: For patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and multiple brain metastases, whole-brain irradiation (WBI) is a standard-of-care treatment, but its effects on neurocognition are complex and concerning. We compared the efficacy of an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), icotinib, versus WBI with or without chemotherapy in a phase 3 trial of patients with EGFR-mutant NSCLC and multiple brain metastases. METHODS: We did a multicentre, open-label, parallel randomised controlled trial (BRAIN) at 17 hospitals in China...
July 19, 2017: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724033/ethical-issues-on-the-synthetic-phosphoethanolamine-clinical-trial
#8
Francisco José Roma Paumgartten
Notwithstanding its approval by the National Committee for Ethics in Research (Conep) on April 19, 2016, a trial of the so-called "synthetic" phosphoethanolamine (syn-phospho) pill in cancer patients raises ethical concerns. An analysis by a laboratory contracted by the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation (MCTI) revealed that syn-phospho contained a great amount of impurities and did not meet standards of pharmaceutical quality required for an investigational drug. Cytotoxicity against human tumor cell lines and in vivo rodent xenograft tumor assays consistently failed to demonstrate a potential anticancer activity of syn-phospho...
May 2017: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692011/far-forward-diagnostics-in-toxic-industrial-chemical-and-material-exposure-scenarios-and-biomarker-identification
#9
Charles C Young, Danielle L Ippolito
: This study describes key technical solutions for detecting environmental toxicants and diagnosing adverse health effects in military operational settings as outlined at a symposium cosponsored by the Department of Defense and the Johns Hopkins University-Applied Physics Laboratory (October 27 to 28, 2015). Such technologies are urgently needed in order to provide critical decision-aid tools and prognostic assessment of potential clinical sequelae. This review summarizes the state-of-the-science on (1) prioritization of adverse health effects, (2) existing technologies and diagnostic tools available for use in theater, (3) challenges to advancing diagnostic tools far-forward, and (4) the potential utility of anchoring diagnostic tools to adverse outcome pathways...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691675/incidental-thyroid-carcinomas-a-retrospective-study
#10
A Maturo, L Tromba, L De Anna, G Carbotta, G Livadoti, C Donello, F Falbo, G Galiffa, Antonella Esposito, A Biancucci, S Carbotta
AIM: The aim of the present study is to report our series of incidental thyroid carcinomas in the last 15 years and their follow-up, discussing therapeutics indications and surgical choices. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We have considered 1793 patients operated on Surgical Sciences Department of "Sapienza" University of Rome from January 1, 2001 to December 31, 2015. The study was conducted on 83 totally thyroidectomized patients with a real incidental thyroid carcinoma, by clinical, laboratory and instrumental controls...
March 2017: Il Giornale di Chirurgia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690735/-malaria-serology-test-what-contribution-does-it-make-in-an-endemic-country-such-as-ivory-coast
#11
Amah Patricia Victorine Goran-Kouacou, Gonat Serge Dou, Kalou Dibert Zika, Adjoumanvoulé Honoré Adou, Oppong Richard Yéboah, Rita Ahou Aka, Sansan Hien, Kouabla Liliane Siransy, Koffi N'Guessan, Tariam Agnès Djibangar, Séry Romuald Dassé, Koffi Daho Adoubryn
INTRODUCTION: Malaria serology test seems to have attracted very little interest in endemic countries such as Ivory Coast. However, this examination has been regularly performed in the parasitology laboratory at the Training and Research Unit of Medical Sciences in Abidjan. Our study aimed to highlight the contribution of malaria serology test in our endemic country context. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of malaria serology test using Falciparum-Spot IF (bioMerieux) kit for the detection of IgG antiplasmodial antibodies...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682101/premenstrual-symptoms-and-factors-implicated-in-smoking-cessation-among-woman-smokers
#12
Raina D Pang, Nafeesa Andrabi, Adam M Leventhal
Premenstrual symptoms (PMS) may reduce smoking cessation success. Yet, little is known about the factors that may impact smoking cessation among women with elevated PMS, leaving little data to guide smoking cessation science and practice for this population. This cross-sectional study is a secondary analysis of data from laboratory studies focused on menstrual cycle effects and smoking. Premenopausal woman daily smokers (n = 157) completed self-report measures of tobacco dependence and other cessation-relevant factors (i...
August 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675119/what-do-patients-want-from-otolaryngologists-a-discrete-choice-experiment
#13
Matthew R Naunheim, Vinay K Rathi, Margaret L Naunheim, Blake C Alkire, Allen C Lam, Phillip C Song, Mark G Shrime
Objectives Patient preferences are crucial for the delivery of patient-centered care. Discrete choice experiments (DCEs) are an emerging quantitative methodology used for understanding these preferences. In this study, we employed DCE techniques to understand the preferences of patients presenting for an ear, nose, and throat clinic visit. Study Design DCE. Setting Decision science laboratory. Methods A DCE survey of 5 attributes-wait time, physician experience, physician personality, utilization of visit time, and cost/copayment-was constructed with structured qualitative interviews with patients...
June 1, 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674145/the-strataa-study-protocol-a-programme-to-assess-the-burden-of-enteric-fever-in-bangladesh-malawi-and-nepal-using-prospective-population-census-passive-surveillance-serological-studies-and-healthcare-utilisation-surveys
#14
Thomas C Darton, James E Meiring, Susan Tonks, Md Arifuzzaman Khan, Farhana Khanam, Mila Shakya, Deus Thindwa, Stephen Baker, Buddha Basnyat, John D Clemens, Gordon Dougan, Christiane Dolecek, Sarah J Dunstan, Melita A Gordon, Robert S Heyderman, Kathryn E Holt, Virginia E Pitzer, Firdausi Qadri, K Zaman, Andrew J Pollard
INTRODUCTION: Invasive infections caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and Paratyphi A are estimated to account for 12-27 million febrile illness episodes worldwide annually. Determining the true burden of typhoidal Salmonellae infections is hindered by lack of population-based studies and adequate laboratory diagnostics.The Strategic Typhoid alliance across Africa and Asia study takes a systematic approach to measuring the age-stratified burden of clinical and subclinical disease caused by typhoidal Salmonellae infections at three high-incidence urban sites in Africa and Asia...
July 2, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667044/annals-of-clinical-and-laboratory-science-information-for-authors
#15
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661111/-at-the-crossroads-the-role-of-laboratory-medicine-in-the-patient-care-process
#16
REVIEW
Yuval Geffen, Itzhak Zaidise
In recent decades, the laboratory medicine profession has undergone significant changes due to both technological developments and economic constraints. Technological innovations support automation, provide faster and more accurate equipment, and allow increased efficiency through the use of commercial test kits. These changes, combined with budgetary constraints, have led to mergers and centralization of medical laboratories to optimize work and cut costs. While this centralization may be a business necessity, it leads to a disconnection between the laboratory and the clinical context...
June 2017: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659675/validation-of-different-techniques-in-physical-examination-of-breast
#17
Mahesh Sultania, Kamal Kataria, Anurag Srivastava, Mahesh Chandra Misra, Rajinder Parshad, Anita Dhar, Smriti Hari, Sanjay Thulkar
The majority of patients attending breast clinics are found to be suffering from benign conditions. The detailed investigations of every patient would add to the cost of care and burden the laboratories. A detailed clinical evaluation might limit the use of thorough investigations for suspicious lesions only. This cross sectional study involved the patients with various benign and malignant conditions of breast, who attended outpatient clinic and surgical ward at All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi from June 2009 to May 2011...
June 2017: Indian Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655327/advances-in-the-delivery-of-rna-therapeutics-from-concept-to-clinical-reality
#18
REVIEW
James C Kaczmarek, Piotr S Kowalski, Daniel G Anderson
The rapid expansion of the available genomic data continues to greatly impact biomedical science and medicine. Fulfilling the clinical potential of genetic discoveries requires the development of therapeutics that can specifically modulate the expression of disease-relevant genes. RNA-based drugs, including short interfering RNAs and antisense oligonucleotides, are particularly promising examples of this newer class of biologics. For over two decades, researchers have been trying to overcome major challenges for utilizing such RNAs in a therapeutic context, including intracellular delivery, stability, and immune response activation...
June 27, 2017: Genome Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650135/endodontic-microleakage-studies-a-comprehensive-review-correlation-between-different-methods-clinical-relevance-and-potential-laboratory-errors
#19
Farnaz Jafari, Saeed Rahimi, Shahriar Shahi, Sanaz Jafari
INTRODUCTION: Creation of a tight seal in endodontically treated root canals is of utmost importance. Clinical and laboratory studies have a great role in the assessment of the sealing ability of endodontic materials. The present review was undertaken to evaluate correlation between different techniques used in microleakage studies in endodontics and the potential laboratory errors. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A systematic search was run using Medline, Biosis, Cochrane, Embase, Google Scholar and Web of Science databases...
June 23, 2017: Minerva Stomatologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643915/preface-to-coast-2016-innovators-workshop-on-personalized-and-precision-orthodontic-therapy
#20
J C Nickel, D A Covell, S A Frazier-Bowers, S Kapila, S S Huja, L R Iwasaki
OBJECTIVE: A second focused workshop explored how to transfer novel findings into clinical orthodontic practice. SETTING AND SAMPLE POPULATION: Participants met in West Palm Beach (Florida, USA), on 9-11 September 2016 for the Consortium for Orthodontic Advances in Science and Technology 2016 Innovators' Workshop (COAST). Approximately 65 registered attendees considered and discussed information from 27 to 34 speakers, 8 to 15 poster presenters and four lunch-hour focus group leaders...
June 2017: Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research
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