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Clinical Laboratory Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911989/u-47700-a-clinical-review-of-the-literature
#1
Kerry Anne Rambaran, Steven W Fleming, Jie An, Samantha Burkhart, Jakub Furmaga, Kurt C Kleinschmidt, A Michael Spiekerman, Saeed K Alzghari
BACKGROUND: U-47700 is a synthetic opioid developed by The Upjohn Company in the 1970s, which has recently appeared in the news and medical literature due to its toxicity. Currently, there are no clinical trial data assessing the safety of U-47700. OBJECTIVE: To describe the signs and symptoms of ingestion, laboratory testing, and treatment modalities for U-47700 intoxication. DISCUSSION: We searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and EBSCO for articles using the term "U-47700" and "47700...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898878/development-of-laboratory-investigations-in-disorders-of-sex-development
#2
Laura Audí, Núria Camats, Mónica Fernández-Cancio, María L Granada
Scientific knowledge to understand the biological basis of sex development was prompted by the observation of variants different from the 2 most frequent body types, and this became one of the fields first studied by modern pediatric endocrinology. The clinical observation was supported by professionals working in different areas of laboratory sciences which led to the description of adrenal and gonadal steroidogenesis, the enzymes involved, and the different deficiencies. Steroid hormone measurements evolved from colorimetry to radioimmunoassay (RIA) and automated immunoassays, although gas and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry are now the gold standard techniques for steroid measurements...
September 13, 2017: Sexual Development: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution, Endocrinology, Embryology, and Pathology of Sex Determination and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894528/notification-of-international-normalized-ratio-test-in-atrial-fibrillation-patients-treated-with-warfarin-via-short-message-service-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
Reza Sheibani, Mehdi Sheibani, Yamin Hejazi, Saeid Eslami
BACKGROUND: Atrial Fibrillation (AF) is the most common abnormal heart rhythm. AF patients usually use warfarin therapy. Safety and efficacy of warfarin are dependent on maintaining the International Normalized Ratio (INR) within the therapeutic range. OBJECTIVE: We will use a Short Message Service (SMS) to evaluate the effect of a reminder on carrying out the INR laboratory test in a timely manner. METHODS: This study (a Randomized Controlled Trial) will be done in Loghman hospital Tehran, Iran...
July 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885938/hidden-hearing-injury-the-emerging-science-and-military-relevance-of-cochlear-synaptopathy
#4
Victoria Tepe, Christopher Smalt, Jeremy Nelson, Thomas Quatieri, Kenneth Pitts
INTRODUCTION: The phenomenon recently described as "hidden hearing loss" was the subject of a meeting co-hosted by the Department of Defense Hearing Center of Excellence and MIT Lincoln Laboratory to consider the potential relevance of noise-related synaptopathic injury to military settings and performance, service-related injury scenarios, and military medical priorities. Participants included approximately 50 researchers and subject matter experts from academic, federal, and military laboratories...
September 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874650/comparison-of-proinflammatory-cytokine-levels-in-gingival-crevicular-fluid-around-dental-implants-with-ceramic-and-titanium-abutments
#5
Ramin Negahdari, Mahdi Rahbar, Vahid Fakhrzadeh, Hosein Eslami, Taleb Akbari, Sepideh Bohluli
BACKGROUND: Considering the high success rate of osseoin-tegration, there is ever-increasing use of dental implants. The mechanisms and biologic response of peri-implant tissues are different depending on the biocompatibility of the implant material. The aim of this study was to compare the proinflammatory cytokine levels in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) around dental implants with ceramic and titanium abutments. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All the patients with dental implants referring to two private offices of two prosthodontists from June to August 2016 were examined in relation to implant health, and eligible subjects, based on inclusion criteria, were included in this study with a slit-mouth design...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873014/impact-of-preanalytical-variations-in-blood-derived-biospecimens-on-omics-studies-toward-precision-biobanking
#6
Jae-Eun Lee, Young-Youl Kim
Research data and outcomes do vary across populations and persons, but this is not always due to experimental or true biological variation. Preanalytical components of experiments, be they biospecimen acquisition, preparation, storage, or transportation to the laboratory, may all contribute to apparent variability in research data, outcomes, and interpretation. The present review article and biobanking innovation analysis offer new insights with a summary of such preanalytical variables, for example, the type of blood collection tube, centrifugation conditions, long-term sample storage temperature, and duration, on output of omics analyses of blood-derived biospecimens: whole blood, serum, plasma, buffy coat, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells...
September 5, 2017: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869846/a-statistical-framework-for-applying-rna-profiling-to-chemical-hazard-detection
#7
REVIEW
Mitchell S Kostich
Use of 'omics technologies in environmental science is expanding. However, application is mostly restricted to characterizing molecular steps leading from toxicant interaction with molecular receptors to apical endpoints in laboratory species. Use in environmental decision-making is limited, due to difficulty in elucidating mechanisms in sufficient detail to make quantitative outcome predictions in any single species or in extending predictions to aquatic communities. Here we introduce a mechanism-agnostic statistical approach, supplementing mechanistic investigation by allowing probabilistic outcome prediction even when understanding of molecular pathways is limited, and facilitating extrapolation from results in laboratory test species to predictions about aquatic communities...
August 28, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860936/stem-cells-in-regenerative-medicine-from-laboratory-to-clinical-application-the-eye
#8
REVIEW
Anna M Dąbrowska, Piotr Skopiński
Stem cells are currently one of the most researched and explored subject in science. They consstitue a very promising part of regenerative medicine and have many potential clinical applications. Harnessing their ability to replicate and differentiate into many cell types can enable successful treatment of diseases that were incurable until now. There are numerous types of stem cells (e.g. ESCs, FSCs, ASCs, iPSCs) and many different methods of deriving and cultivating them in order to obtain viable material...
2017: Central-European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851229/the-california-hiv-aids-research-program-history-impact-and-hiv-cure-initiative
#9
Lisa Loeb Stanga, Laura Packel, Tyler Martz, George Lemp
This Special Issue of AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses features results from the HIV Cure Initiative, funded by the California HIV/AIDS Research Program (CHRP). As a publicly-funded grant maker, CHRP has served for more than three decades as a unique resource for innovative researchers in California whose work seeks to address all aspects of the HIV epidemic and the communities affected by it. Early initiatives at CHRP pioneered what would become enduring cornerstones of HIV science: isolation of the virus; efficacy and toxicities of the first HIV treatments; the emergence of drug resistance; the first biospecimen banks for HIV-related research; the first community-based laboratory service for HIV diagnostic serology; and the first population-based longitudinal cohort study of persons living with HIV - The Gay Men's Health Study...
August 29, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846019/draft-of-iranian-national-guideline-for-cell-therapy-manufacturing
#10
Hamid Reza Aghayan, Babak Arjmand, Naser Ahmadbeigi, Yousof Gheisari, Mohammad Vasei
Cell therapy, a promising method for treatment of incurable diseases, has been moving fast from basic research laboratories to clinical practice in recent years. Defining clear and strict regulations for manufacturing of cell therapy products in clinical applications is the best way to give assurance to the public sector for safe usage, harmonizing research projects, and placing barriers for unqualified products from entering this market. To achieve this goal, the Iranian Council for Stem cell Science and Technologies sponsored a project in 2013 to develop a national cell therapy guideline for research and clinical trials...
August 2017: Archives of Iranian Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833210/status-and-progress-of-treatment-methods-for-root-caries-in-the-last-decade-a-literature-review
#11
REVIEW
J Cai, J E A Palamara, D J Manton, M F Burrow
The aim of this literature review is to explore the treatment methods for root caries in laboratory and clinical research in the last decade. A systematic search of publications in PubMed and Web of Science databases was performed. The time-span was limited to the last 10 years and English language. Further retrieval was conducted using the search terms of specific therapies or treatments. Titles and abstracts of identified publications were screened. Reviews; case reports; conference abstracts; letters to editor; dissertation and theses; non-English articles; epidemiological studies, diagnostic methods or decision-making process for root caries treatment without assessment of its efficacy; deep carious lesions with inflamed pulp and require pulp capping or endodontic treatment and research on root cementum were excluded...
August 18, 2017: Australian Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831595/juvenile-systemic-sclerosis-experience-from-a-tertiary-care-center-from-india
#12
Narendra Kumar Bagri, Dinesh Raj, Jasmeet Kaur, Harish Punia, Isha Saini, Rakesh Lodha, S K Kabra
Juvenile systemic sclerosis (JSSc) is a rare disorder with paucity of information on its treatment and longterm  outcome. Herein, we are sharing our experience with this rare entity. Case records of children, diagnosed to have systemic sclerosis attending Pediatric Rheumatology Clinic at All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi from January 1998 to June 2016 were reviewed. The demographic, clinical, laboratory, treatment and outcome details were recorded. Disease outcome was classified arbitrarily as controlled, partly controlled or non-responsive/progressive based on: (A) ability to perform activities of daily life (ADL) and (B) presence or absence of musculoskeletal symptoms, skin changes (ulceration/progressive digital pitting/gangrene), and visceral organ involvement (dyspahgia, cardiopulmonary symptoms)...
August 22, 2017: Rheumatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830112/infectious-disease-surveillance-in-the-big-data-era-towards-faster-and-locally-relevant-systems
#13
REVIEW
Lone Simonsen, Julia R Gog, Don Olson, Cécile Viboud
While big data have proven immensely useful in fields such as marketing and earth sciences, public health is still relying on more traditional surveillance systems and awaiting the fruits of a big data revolution. A new generation of big data surveillance systems is needed to achieve rapid, flexible, and local tracking of infectious diseases, especially for emerging pathogens. In this opinion piece, we reflect on the long and distinguished history of disease surveillance and discuss recent developments related to use of big data...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828341/a-review-of-salivary-biomarker-a-tool-for-early-oral-cancer-diagnosis
#14
REVIEW
Shikha Saxena, Bharat Sankhla, Krishna Sireesha Sundaragiri, Akshay Bhargava
The oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most common epithelial malignancies with significant morbidity and mortality. Recent observations indicate that the clinical and histological appearance of oral mucosa may not truly depict the damage occurring at the genetic level. This phenotypic and genotypic disparity may account in part for the failure to establish effective screening and surveillance protocols, based on the traditional clinical and microscopic examination. The tumor markers are playing an increasingly important role in cancer detection and management...
2017: Advanced Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821242/methodological-factors-affecting-joint-moments-estimation-in-clinical-gait-analysis-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Valentina Camomilla, Andrea Cereatti, Andrea Giovanni Cutti, Silvia Fantozzi, Rita Stagni, Giuseppe Vannozzi
Quantitative gait analysis can provide a description of joint kinematics and dynamics, and it is recognized as a clinically useful tool for functional assessment, diagnosis and intervention planning. Clinically interpretable parameters are estimated from quantitative measures (i.e. ground reaction forces, skin marker trajectories, etc.) through biomechanical modelling. In particular, the estimation of joint moments during motion is grounded on several modelling assumptions: (1) body segmental and joint kinematics is derived from the trajectories of markers and by modelling the human body as a kinematic chain; (2) joint resultant (net) loads are, usually, derived from force plate measurements through a model of segmental dynamics...
August 18, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819633/clinical-laboratory-evaluation-of-electronic-cigarettes-electronic-nicotine-delivery-systems-methodological-challenges
#16
Melissa D Blank, Alison B Breland, Caroline O Cobb, Tory Spindle, Carolina Ramôa, Thomas Eissenberg
OBJECTIVE: Evaluating electronic cigarettes (ECIGs) in the clinical laboratory is critical to understanding their effects. However, laboratory evaluation of ECIGs can be challenging, as they are a novel, varied, and evolving class of products. The objective of this paper is to describe some methodological challenges to the clinical laboratory evaluation of ECIGs. METHODS: The authors gathered information about challenges involved in the laboratory evaluation of ECIGs...
October 2016: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818272/on-human-parthenogenesis
#17
Gabriel Jose de Carli, Tiago Campos Pereira
Spontaneous parthenogenetic and androgenetic events occur in humans, but they result in tumours: the ovarian teratoma and the hydatidiform mole, respectively. However, the observation of fetiform (ovarian) teratomas, the serependious identification of several chimeric human parthenotes and androgenotes in the last two decades, along with the creation of viable bi-maternal mice in the laboratory based on minor genetic interferences, raises the question of whether natural cases of clinically healthy human parthenotes have gone unnoticed to science...
September 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810833/population-effectiveness-of-the-pentavalent-and-monovalent-rotavirus-vaccines-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-observational-studies
#18
Daniel Hungerford, Katie Smith, Angela Tucker, Miren Iturriza-Gómara, Roberto Vivancos, Catherine McLeonard, Nigel A Cunliffe, Neil French
BACKGROUND: Rotavirus was the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in infants and young children prior to the introduction of routine vaccination. Since 2006 there have been two licensed vaccines available; with successful clinical trials leading the World Health Organization to recommend rotavirus vaccination for all children worldwide. In order to inform immunisation policy we have conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of observation studies to assess population effectiveness against acute gastroenteritis...
August 15, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807985/inhaled-carbon-monoxide-from-toxin-to-therapy
#19
Dean R Hess
Carbon monoxide (CO) is usually recognized as a toxic gas that can be used to assess lung function in the pulmonary function laboratory. The toxicity of CO relates to its high affinity for hemoglobin and other heme molecules, producing carboxyhemoglobin (HbCO). Despite that blood HbCO levels are commonly measured in patients with CO poisoning, the clinical presentation often does not correlate with the HbCO level, and clinical improvement in the patient's condition does not correlate with HbCO clearance. In patients with CO poisoning, administration of 100% O2 is standard practice...
August 14, 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791144/machine-learning-landscapes-and-predictions-for-patient-outcomes
#20
Ritankar Das, David J Wales
The theory and computational tools developed to interpret and explore energy landscapes in molecular science are applied to the landscapes defined by local minima for neural networks. These machine learning landscapes correspond to fits of training data, where the inputs are vital signs and laboratory measurements for a database of patients, and the objective is to predict a clinical outcome. In this contribution, we test the predictions obtained by fitting to single measurements, and then to combinations of between 2 and 10 different patient medical data items...
July 2017: Royal Society Open Science
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