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Clinical Laboratory Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419268/the-american-society-for-clinical-pathology-s-2015-wage-survey-of-medical-laboratories-in-the-united-states
#1
Edna Garcia, Patrick B Fisher
Objectives: To inform the pathology and laboratory field of the most recent national wage data from the American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP). Historically, the results of this biennial survey have served as a basis for additional research on laboratory recruitment, retention, education, marketing, certification, and advocacy. Methods: The 2015 wage survey was conducted through collaboration between the ASCP's Institute of Science, Technology, and Policy in Washington, DC, and the ASCP Board of Certification in Chicago, Illinois...
April 15, 2017: Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410655/tau-spread-apolipoprotein-e-inflammation-and-more-rapidly-evolving-basic-science-in-alzheimer-disease
#2
REVIEW
Bianca Gonzalez, Edsel M Abud, Abigail M Abud, Wayne W Poon, Karen H Gylys
To date, Alzheimer disease drug candidates have produced negative results in human trials, and progress in moving new targets out of the laboratory and into trials has been slow. However, based on 3 decades of previous work, there is reason to hope that amyloid-based and other novel therapies will move at a faster pace toward successful clinical trials. This article highlights selected preclinical research topics that are rapidly advancing in the laboratory.
May 2017: Neurologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404091/tenofovir-alafenamide-versus-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-for-the-treatment-of-hbeag-positive-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-a-randomised-double-blind-phase-3-non-inferiority-trial
#3
Henry L Y Chan, Scott Fung, Wai Kay Seto, Wan-Long Chuang, Chi-Yi Chen, Hyung Joon Kim, Aric Josun Hui, Harry L A Janssen, Abhijit Chowdhury, Tak Yin Owen Tsang, Rajiv Mehta, Edward Gane, John F Flaherty, Benedetta Massetto, Anuj Gaggar, Kathryn M Kitrinos, Lanjia Lin, G Mani Subramanian, John G McHutchison, Young-Suk Lim, Subrat K Acharya, Kosh Agarwal
BACKGROUND: Tenofovir alafenamide is a novel prodrug formulated to deliver the active metabolite to target cells more efficiently than tenofovir disoproxil fumarate at a lower dose, thereby reducing systemic exposure. In patients with HIV, tenofovir alafenamide was as efficacious as tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, with reduced bone and renal toxic effects. We compared the efficacy and safety of the two drugs in patients with HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in a non-inferiority study...
November 2016: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400834/comparison-of-commonly-used-icr-stocks-and-the-characterization-of-korl-icr
#4
Hye-Jun Shin, Young Min Cho, Hee Jung Shin, Hae Deun Kim, Kyung Min Choi, Mi Gyeong Kim, Hyoung Doo Shin, Myeon-Woo Chung
Mouse is a commonly used animal in life science studies and is classified as outbred if genetically diverse and inbred if genetically homogeneous. Outbred mouse stocks, are used in toxicology, oncology, infection and pharmacology research. The National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation (NIFDS; former the Korea National Institute of Health) have bred ICR mice for more than 50 years. We investigated to provide users with information and promote accountability to the Korl:ICR. To secure the indigenous data, biological characteristics of Korl:ICR were identified by comparing with other ICR stocks...
March 2017: Laboratory Animal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396844/laboratory-evaluation-in-rheumatic-diseases
#5
REVIEW
Murat Birtane, Selçuk Yavuz, Nurettin Taştekin
Autoantibodies can help clinicians to allow early detection of autoimmune diseases and their clinical manifestations, to determine effective monitoring of prognosis and the treatment response. From this point, they have a high impact in rheumatic disease management. When used carefully they allow rapid diagnosis and appropriate treatment. However, as they may be present in healthy population they may cause confusion for interpreting the situation. False positive test results may lead to wrong treatment and unnecessary anxiety for patients...
March 26, 2017: World Journal of Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392698/assessment-of-isoniazid-preventive-therapy-in-the-reduction-of-tuberculosis-among-art-patients-in-arba-minch-hospital-ethiopia
#6
Ashenafi Abossie, Tsegaye Yohanes
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is the most frequent life-threatening opportunistic disease among people living with HIV and remains a leading cause of mortality, even among persons receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). Isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) and cotrimoxazole prophylaxis have been recommended for the benefit of HIV/AIDS-infected individuals to prevent opportunistic infections. The aim of this study was to assess IPT prophylaxis in the reduction of TB among ART patients. METHODS: The study was a hospital-based retrospective study...
2017: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381724/current-status-of-regulatory-science-education-in-faculties-of-pharmaceutical-science-in-japan
#7
Masahiro Tohkin
 I introduce the current pharmaceutical education system in Japan, focusing on regulatory science. University schools or faculties of pharmaceutical science in Japan offer two courses: a six-year course for pharmacists and a four-year course for scientists and technicians. Students in the six-year pharmaceutical course receive training in hospitals and pharmacies during their fifth year, and those in the four-year life science course start research activities during their third year. The current model core curriculum for pharmaceutical education requires them to "explain the necessity and significance of regulatory science" as a specific behavior object...
2017: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369755/strengthening-medical-education-in-haematology-and-blood-transfusion-postgraduate-programmes-in-tanzania
#8
REVIEW
Julie Makani, Magdalena Lyimo, Pius Magesa, David J Roberts
Haematology and blood transfusion, as a clinical and laboratory discipline, has a far-reaching impact on healthcare both through direct patient care as well as provision of laboratory and transfusion services. Improvement of haematology and blood transfusion may therefore be significant in achieving advances in health in Africa. In 2005, Tanzania had one of the lowest distributions of doctors in the world, estimated at 2·3 doctors per 100 000 of population, with only one haematologist, a medical doctor with postgraduate medical education in haematology and blood transfusion...
April 3, 2017: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369247/the-implications-of-antibiotic-resistance-for-patients-recovery-from-common-infections-in-the-community-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
Oliver Van Hecke, Kay Wang, Joseph J Lee, Nia W Roberts, Chris C Butler
Background: Antibiotic use is the main driver for carriage of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The perception exists that failure of antibiotic treatment due to antibiotic resistance has little clinical impact in the community. Methods: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Web of Science from inception to 15 April 2016 without language restriction. We included studies conducted in community settings which reported patient-level data on laboratory-confirmed infections (respiratory, urinary tract, skin or soft tissue), antibiotic resistance, and clinical outcomes...
March 20, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365617/the-francis-crick-institute
#10
Keith Peters, Jim Smith
The Francis Crick Institute Laboratory, opened in 2016, is supported by the Medical Research Council, Cancer Research UK, the Wellcome Trust, and University College London, King's College London and Imperial College London. The emphasis on research training and early independence of gifted scientists in a multidisciplinary environment provides unique opportunities for UK medical science, including clinical and translational research.
April 2017: Clinical Medicine: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365182/hopes-and-disappointments-with-antiarrhythmic-drugs
#11
A John Camm
Ventricular arrhythmias such as sustained ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation account for two thirds of sudden cardiac deaths. Most ventricular tachyarrhythmias have well understood mechanisms such that it is theoretically possible to conceive of an antiarrhythmic drug-based intervention that would prevent arrhythmias that cause sudden cardiac death. Pharmaceutical agents which interfere with ion channel activity are known as antiarrhythmic drugs. Acute experiments showing antiarrhythmic effects in the basic science laboratory have often not translated into clinical effectiveness...
March 16, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360782/determination-of-genotypic-and-phenotypic-characteristics-of-friedreich-s-ataxia-and-autosomal-dominant-spinocerebellar-ataxia-types-1-2-3-and-6
#12
Pınar Bengi Boz, Filiz Koç, Sabriye Kocatürk Sel, Ali İrfan Güzel, Halil Kasap
INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to analyze the genotypic characteristics of Friedreich's ataxia (FA) and autosomal dominant ataxias [such as spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) types 1, 2, 3, and 6] using molecular and biological methods in hereditary cerebellar ataxia considering both clinical and electrophysiological findings. METHODS: The study included 129 indexed cases, who applied to the neurology department and were diagnosed with hereditary cerebellar ataxia through clinical, laboratory, and electrophysiological findings, and 15 sibling patients who were diagnosed through family scanning (144 cases in total); their genetic analyses were also performed...
June 2016: Noro Psikiyatri Arsivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351915/comparison-of-standard-culture-based-method-to-culture-independent-method-for-evaluation-of-hygiene-effects-on-the-hand-microbiome
#13
C Zapka, J Leff, J Henley, J Tittl, E De Nardo, M Butler, R Griggs, N Fierer, S Edmonds-Wilson
Hands play a critical role in the transmission of microbiota on one's own body, between individuals, and on environmental surfaces. Effectively measuring the composition of the hand microbiome is important to hand hygiene science, which has implications for human health. Hand hygiene products are evaluated using standard culture-based methods, but standard test methods for culture-independent microbiome characterization are lacking. We sampled the hands of 50 participants using swab-based and glove-based methods prior to and following four hand hygiene treatments (using a nonantimicrobial hand wash, alcohol-based hand sanitizer [ABHS], a 70% ethanol solution, or tap water)...
March 28, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351296/regulatory-forum-opinion-piece
#14
Sherry J Morgan, Jessica Couch, Peggy Guzzie-Peck, Douglas A Keller, Ray Kemper, Monicah A Otieno, Robert J Schulingkamp, Thomas W Jones
An Innovation and Quality (IQ) Consortium focus group conducted a cross-company survey to evaluate current practices and perceptions around the use of animal models of disease (AMDs) in nonclinical safety assessment of molecules in clinical development. The IQ Consortium group is an organization of pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies with the mission of advancing science and technology. The survey queried the utilization of AMDs during drug discovery in which drug candidates are evaluated in efficacy models and limited short-duration non-Good Laboratory Practices (GLP) toxicology testing and during drug development in which drug candidates are evaluated in GLP toxicology studies...
January 1, 2017: Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346993/artemisia-sieberi-besser-essential-oil-and-treatment-of-fungal-infections
#15
REVIEW
Mohaddese Mahboubi
A. sieberi essential oil has been used for treatment of hardly curable infectious ulcers in Middle East Medicine and has been famous due to its wormicide effects. In this review, we evaluated the potency of A. sieberi essential oil in treatment of fungal infections. We searched in PubMed Central, Science direct, Wiley, Springer, SID, and accessible books, reports, thesis. There is a lot of mixed information on chemical compositions of A. sieberi essential oil, but most articles reported α, β-thujones as the main components of essential oils...
March 22, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339797/the-american-society-for-clinical-pathology-s-2015-wage-survey-of-medical-laboratories-in-the-united-states
#16
Edna Garcia, Patrick B Fisher
Objectives: To inform the pathology and laboratory field of the most recent national wage data from the American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP). Historically, the results of this biennial survey have served as a basis for additional research on laboratory recruitment, retention, education, marketing, certification, and advocacy. Methods: The 2015 wage survey was conducted through collaboration between the ASCP's Institute of Science, Technology, & Policy in Washington, DC, and the ASCP Board of Certification in Chicago, Illinois...
April 1, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339374/basics-of-compounding-clinical-pharmaceutics-part-1
#17
Loyd V Allen
Pharmaceutics is relevant far beyond the pharmaceutical industry, compounding, and the laboratory. Pharmaceutics can be used to solve many clinical problems in medication therapy. A pharmacists' knowledge of the physicochemical aspects of drugs and drug products should help the patient, physician, and healthcare professionals resolve issues in the increasingly complex world of modern medicine. Pharmacy is unique as it contains a knowledge base significantly different from that of physicians, nurses, and other health-related practitioners...
September 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328690/the-first-use-of-pralidoxime-in-a-child-with-rivastigmine-poisoning
#18
Eylem Ulaş Saz, Ali Yurtseven, Mehmet Arda Kilinç, Yusuf Sari, Hasan Ağin
The aim of this report is to describe the successful use of pralidoxime in a pediatric patient who accidentally ingested 12 mg of rivastigmine and presented to the emergency department with weakness, drowsiness, hyporeactivity to environmental stimuli, and full cholinergic syndrome. CASE: The patient presented to the emergency department 2 hours after a suspected ingestion of rivastigmine. He was sleepy but oriented and cooperative, hypotonic, and hyporeflexic and has a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 13 (E3M6V4)...
March 21, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326513/manual-vs-computer-assisted-sperm-analysis-can-casa-replace-manual-assessment-of-human-semen-in-clinical-practice
#19
Joanna Talarczyk-Desole, Anna Berger, Grażyna Taszarek-Hauke, Jan Hauke, Leszek Pawelczyk, Piotr Jedrzejczak
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to check the quality of computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) system in comparison to the reference manual method as well as standardization of the computer-assisted semen assessment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted between January and June 2015 at the Andrology Laboratory of the Division of Infertility and Reproductive Endocrinology, Poznań University of Medical Sciences, Poland. The study group consisted of 230 men who gave sperm samples for the first time in our center as part of an infertility investigation...
2017: Ginekologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326064/contribution-of-ultra-deep-sequencing-in-the-clinical-diagnosis-of-a-new-fungal-pathogen-species-basidiobolus-meristosporus
#20
Emilie Sitterlé, Christophe Rodriguez, Roman Mounier, Julien Calderaro, Françoise Foulet, Michel Develoux, Jean-Michel Pawlotsky, Françoise Botterel
Some cases of fungal infection remained undiagnosed, especially when the pathogens are uncommon, require specific conditions for in vitro growth, or when several microbial species are present in the specimen. Ultra-Deep Sequencing (UDS) could be considered as a precise tool in the identification of involved pathogens in order to upgrade patient treatment. In this study, we report the implementation of UDS technology in medical laboratory during the follow-up of an atypical fungal infection case. Thanks to UDS technology, we document the first case of gastro-intestinal basidiobolomycosis (GIB) due to Basidiobolus meristosporus...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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