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Clinical Laboratory Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216270/are-premixed-calcium-silicate-based-endodontic-sealers-comparable-to-conventional-materials-a-systematic-review-of-in%C3%A2-vitro-studies
#1
REVIEW
Luiza Helena Silva Almeida, Rafael Ratto Moraes, Renata Dornelles Morgental, Fernanda Geraldo Pappen
INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to compare the physicochemical and biological properties of premixed calcium silicate-based endodontic sealers with other conventional root canal filling materials by systematically reviewing laboratory studies. METHODS: The search was conducted in 3 databases (Medline via PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science) following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. Two reviewers independently selected the studies and extracted the data...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190508/navigating-the-clinical-trial-pathway-conception-design-execution-and-results-dissemination
#2
John S Sampalis, Joanne Watson, Stella Boukas, Marianna Boukas, Natalie Harvey, Sanjay Machado, Michel Bordeleau, Emmanouil Rampakakis
Dr Sampalis is founder, Chief Executive Officer, and Chief Scientific Officer of JSS Medical Research Inc, founded in 1997. He is a tenured professor of Surgery and Epidemiology & Biostatistics of McGill University, the University of Montreal and University of Laval. Recognized as a leading clinical epidemiologist and one of the top trauma researchers in Canada, he possesses extensive expertise in health services research, clinical trials, and offers services as a Research and Epidemiological Consultant for numerous pharmaceutical companies, hospitals and government organizations and agencies...
March 2017: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188242/diagnosis-of-endocrine-disease-steroid-hormone-analysis-in-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-dsd-position-paper-of-eu-cost-action-bm-1303-dsdnet
#3
Alexandra Kulle, Nils Krone, Paul-Martin Holterhus, Gerhard Schuler, Ronda Greaves, Anders Juul, Yolanda de Rijke, Michaela Hartmann, Alessandro Saba, Olaf Hiort, Stefan Wudy
Disorders or differences in sex development (DSD) comprise a heterogeneous group of conditions with an atypical sex development. For optimal diagnosis highly specialized laboratory analyses are required across European countries. Working group 3 of EU COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology) Action BM 1303 "DSDnet" "Harmonisation of Laboratory Assessment" has developed recommendations on laboratory assessment for DSD regarding the use of technologies and analytes to be investigated. This position paper on steroid hormone analysis in diagnosis and treatment of DSD was compiled by a group of specialists in DSD and/or hormonal analysis, either from participating European Countries or international partner countries...
February 10, 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184087/learning-to-look-from-different-perspectives-what-can-dental-undergraduates-learn-from-an-arts-and-humanities-based-teaching-approach
#4
F Smyth Zahra, K Dunton
By its nature, clinical teaching involves supporting small groups of dental students at the chairside as they treat their own patients. Scaffolding their learning in this way enables observation at close quarters of the various stages of development from early novice, just commencing clinical treatment of patients, to those approaching qualification. The students' main concerns throughout are not primarily with the technical skills required, which they have already been taught in the clinical skills laboratories, but dealing with the complex realities and ambiguities of clinical practice; the 'hidden curriculum' of decision making, judgement calls, issues of communication and what it actually means to be professional...
February 10, 2017: British Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182618/the-evolving-landscape-of-hiv-drug-resistance-diagnostics-for-expanding-testing-in-resource-limited-settings
#5
Seth C Inzaule, Raph L Hamers, Roger Paredes, Chunfu Yang, Rob Schuurman, Tobias F Rinke de Wit
Global scale-up of antiretroviral treatment (ART) has dramatically changed the prospects of HIV/AIDS disease rendering life-long chronic care and treatment a reality for millions of HIV-infected patients. Affordable technologies to monitor ART are needed to ensure long-term durability of limited available drug regimens. HIV drug resistance tests can complement existing strategies in optimizing clinical decision-making for patients with treatment failure, in addition to facilitating population-based surveillance of HIV drug resistance...
February 9, 2017: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180928/safety-and-efficacy-of-sodium-tetradecyl-sulfate-and-lipiodol-foam-in-balloon-occluded-retrograde-transvenous-obliteration-brto-for-large-porto-systemic-shunts
#6
Amar Mukund, Ganesh Deogaonkar, S Rajesh, Saggerre Muralikrishna Shasthry, Shiv Kumar Sarin
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and efficacy sodium tetradecyl sulfate and lipiodol foam (STS foam) in BRTO for large (caliber ≥15 mm) porto-systemic shunt and gastric fundal varices. MATERIALS AND METHODS: It is a retrospective record-based study of patients who underwent BRTO using STS foam at the Institute of Liver and Biliary Sciences, New Delhi, for gastric variceal bleed or refractory hepatic encephalopathy (HE) who had large porto-systemic shunt (diameter ≥15 mm) with or without associated gastric varices...
February 8, 2017: Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179715/integration-of-basic-and-clinical-science-courses-in-us-pharmd-programs
#7
Mohammed A Islam, Rahmat M Talukder, Reza Taheri, Nicholas Blanchard
Objective. To determine the current status of and faculty perceptions regarding integration of basic and clinical science courses in US pharmacy programs. Methods. A 25-item survey instrument was developed and distributed to 132 doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) programs. Survey data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test or Kruskal-Wallis test. Thematic analysis of text-based comments was performed using the constant comparison method. Results. One hundred twelve programs responded for a response rate of 85%. Seventy-eight (70%) offered integrated basic and clinical science courses...
December 25, 2016: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176778/reconciled-rat-and-human-metabolic-networks-for-comparative-toxicogenomics-and-biomarker-predictions
#8
Edik M Blais, Kristopher D Rawls, Bonnie V Dougherty, Zhuo I Li, Glynis L Kolling, Ping Ye, Anders Wallqvist, Jason A Papin
The laboratory rat has been used as a surrogate to study human biology for more than a century. Here we present the first genome-scale network reconstruction of Rattus norvegicus metabolism, iRno, and a significantly improved reconstruction of human metabolism, iHsa. These curated models comprehensively capture metabolic features known to distinguish rats from humans including vitamin C and bile acid synthesis pathways. After reconciling network differences between iRno and iHsa, we integrate toxicogenomics data from rat and human hepatocytes, to generate biomarker predictions in response to 76 drugs...
February 8, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157472/the-100-most-cited-articles-on-non-tuberculous-mycobacterial-infection-from-1995-to-2015
#9
B W Jhun, S-Y Kim, J H Kong, J R Park, S Y Park, M A Shim, K Jeon, H Y Park, S J Shin, W-J Koh
SETTING: Citation analyses aid in assessing quality, trends and future directions of research fields. OBJECTIVE: To identify the most influential articles on infections caused by non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in the last 20 years. DESIGN: We performed a cited reference search of the Web of Science database from 1995 to 2015. The 100 most cited articles on NTM infections were analysed. RESULTS: The top 100 articles were cited 114-1471 times, and were published from 1995 to 2013...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153360/metrological-traceability-of-assays-and-comparability-of-patient-test-results
#10
REVIEW
David Armbruster
At the start of the twenty-first century, a dramatic change occurred in the clinical laboratory community. Concepts from Metrology, the science of measurement, began to be formally applied to clinical laboratory field methods, resulting in a new appreciation of metrological calibrator traceability. It is a change because clinical laboratories test complex patient samples, for example, whole blood, serum, plasma, urine, and so forth, using commercial assay systems, not reference methods, and patient samples are tested once, not in replicate...
March 2017: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153037/global-cocaine-intoxication-research-trends-during-1975-2015-a-bibliometric-analysis-of-web-of-science-publications
#11
Sa'ed H Zyoud, W Stephen Waring, Samah W Al-Jabi, Waleed M Sweileh
BACKGROUND: Cocaine is subject to recreational abuse as a stimulant and psychoactive agent, which poses a major worldwide health problem. The aim of the present study was to perform a bibliometric analysis of publication related to cocaine intoxication an insight of the research trends at a global level to enable recommendations for future research strategies in this field. METHODS: Publications about cocaine intoxication were retrieved from the Web of Science (WoS) Core Collection database on December 28, 2016, and analysed regarding the following bibliometric indicators: research trends, document types, languages, countries/territories with their h-index, collaboration patterns, journals with their impact factors (IF), and institutions...
February 2, 2017: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148320/training-fellows-in-paediatric-cardiology-the-harvard-experience
#12
David W Brown, Catherine K Allan, Jane W Newburger
The Fellowship Program of the Department of Cardiology at Boston Children's Hospital seeks to train academically oriented leaders in clinical care and laboratory and clinical investigation of cardiovascular disease in the young. The core clinical fellowship involves 3 years in training, comprising 24 months of clinical rotations and 12 months of elective and research experience. Trainees have access to a vast array of research opportunities - clinical, basic, and translational. Clinical fellows interested in basic science may reverse the usual sequence and start their training in the laboratory, deferring clinical training for 1 or more years...
December 2016: Cardiology in the Young
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130394/application-of-microfluidic-technologies-to-human-assisted-reproduction
#13
REVIEW
Gary D Smith, Shuichi Takayama
Microfluidics can be considered both a science and a technology. It is defined as the study of fluid behavior at a sub-microliter level and the investigation into its application to cell biology, chemistry, genetics, molecular biology and medicine. There are at least two characteristics of microfluidics, mechanical and biochemical, which can be influential in the field of mammalian gamete and preimplantation embryo biology. These microfluidic characteristics can assist in basic biological studies on sperm, oocyte and preimplantation embryo structure, function and environment...
January 27, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127360/species-identification-and-molecular-typing-of-leishmania-spp-using-targeting-hsp70-gene-in-suspected-patients-of-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-from-sistan-and-baluchestan-province-southeast-iran
#14
Hadi Mirahmadi, Alireza Salimi Khorashad, Alireza Sohrabnahad, Peyman Heydarian, Negar Bizhani
BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis is a sand fly-borne disease caused by the protozoan parasites belonging to the genus Leishmania. Because of the preventing and controlling methods, clinical course, prognosis and choice of treatment are differing from species; differentiation of species is critical. The present study was aimed to detect the parasite species using the PCR-RFLP method. METHODS: A total of 130 Giemsa-Stained slides from suspected Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) patients were examined under a light microscope at ×1000...
October 2016: Iranian Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099036/another-generation-of-stigma-assessing-healthcare-student-perceptions-of-hiv-positive-patients-in-mwanza-tanzania
#15
Sahil Aggarwal, Debora H Lee, William B Minteer, Reece T H Fenning, Shella K Raja, Megan E Bernstein, Kaavya R Raman, Sean P Denny, Priya A Patel, Mark Lieber, Allison O Farfel, Catherine A Diamond
HIV-related stigma remains a persistent global health concern among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWA) in developing nations. The literature is lacking in studies about healthcare students' perceptions of PLWA. This study is the first effort to understand stigmatizing attitudes toward HIV-positive patients by healthcare students in Mwanza, Tanzania, not just those who will be directly treating patients but also those who will be indirectly involved through nonclinical roles, such as handling patient specimens and private health information...
February 2017: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092053/sh2-domain-based-fret-biosensor-for-measuring-bcr-abl-activity-in-living-cml-cells
#16
Mari Fujioka, Yumi Asano, Shigeyuki Nakada, Yusuke Ohba
Fluorescent proteins (FPs) displaying distinct spectra have shed their light on a wide range of biological functions. Moreover, sophisticated biosensors engineered to contain single or multiple FPs, including Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based biosensors, spatiotemporally reveal the molecular mechanisms underlying a variety of pathophysiological processes. However, their usefulness for applied life sciences has yet to be fully explored. Recently, our research group has begun to expand the potential of FPs from basic biological research to the clinic...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079592/implementation-science-the-laboratory-as-a-command-centre
#17
Debrah I Boeras, John N Nkengasong, Rosanna W Peeling
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent advances in point-of-care technologies to ensure universal access to affordable quality-assured diagnostics have the potential to transform patient management, surveillance programmes, and control of infectious diseases. Decentralization of testing can put tremendous stresses on fragile health systems if the laboratory is not involved in the planning, introduction, and scale-up strategies. RECENT FINDINGS: The impact of investments in novel technologies can only be realized if these tests are evaluated, adopted, and scaled up within the healthcare system with appropriate planning and understanding of the local contexts in which these technologies will be used...
March 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076528/the-brief-life-of-norplant%C3%A2-in-brazil-controversies-and-reassemblages-between-science-society-and-state
#18
Ana Cristina de Lima Pimentel, Cláudia Bonan Jannotti, Paula Gaudenzi, Luiz Antonio da Silva Teixeira
Norplant® is the brand name of the world's first registered subdermal hormonal contraceptive implant, developed by the laboratories of the Population Council, an international organisation working in the area of fertility and population growth. The article revisits the trajectory of this contraceptive in Brazil from its arrival through clinical trials to its eventual ban in 1986 by the Brazilian regulatory agency responsible for approving medications at the time. Its circulation generated controversies related to research practices, side effects and political uses of the drug as a birth control method...
January 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070529/low-prevalence-of-aeromonas-hydrophilain-infectious-diarrhea-samples-of-pediatric-patients-in-arak-iran
#19
Abbasi Elnaz, Khansari-Nejad Behzad, Abtahi Hamid, Akbari Majid, Ghaznavi-Rad Ehsanollah
BACKGROUND: Aeromonashydrophila (A. hydrophila) is an aquatic bacterium that can cause a spectrum of infectious diseases, including both gastrointestinal and extraintestinal infections. Due to the high rate of diarrheal infections in pediatric patients in central Iran, this study was designed to determine the frequency of A. hydrophila in diarrhea samples from children in this region. METHODS: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, diarrheal stool specimens were collected from 200 children admitted between February and October of 2015 to educational and medical centers affiliated with the Arak University of Medical Sciences...
October 2016: Reports of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058061/beyond-regulatory-compression-confronting-the-liminal-spaces-of-health-research-regulation
#20
Samuel Taylor-Alexander, Edward S Dove, Isabel Fletcher, Agomoni Ganguli Mitra, Catriona McMillan, Graeme Laurie
Biomedicine and the life sciences continuously rearrange the relationship between culture and biology. In consequence, we increasingly look for a suitable regulatory response to reduce perceived uncertainty and instability. This article examines the full implications of this 'regulatory turn' by drawing on the anthropological concept of liminality. We offer the term 'regulatory compression' to characterise the effects of extant regulatory approaches on health research practices. With its focus on transformation and the 'in-between', liminality allows us to see how regulatory frameworks rely on a silo-based approach to classifying and regulating research objects such that they: (1) limit the flexibility necessary in clinical and laboratory research; (2) result in the emergence of unregulated spaces that lie between the bounded regulatory spheres; and (3) curtail modes of public participation in the health research enterprise...
December 6, 2016: Law Innov Technol
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