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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156801/genomic-characterization-of-human-papillomavirus-positive-and-negative-human-squamous-cell-cancer-cell-lines
#1
Nene N Kalu, Tuhina Mazumdar, Shaohua Peng, Li Shen, Vaishnavi Sambandam, Xiayu Rao, Yuanxin Xi, Lerong Li, Yuan Qi, Frederico O Gleber-Netto, Ameeta Patel, Jing Wang, Mitchell J Frederick, Jeffrey N Myers, Curtis R Pickering, Faye M Johnson
Human cancer cell lines are the most frequently used preclinical models in the study of cancer biology and the development of therapeutics. Although anatomically diverse, human papillomavirus (HPV)-driven cancers have a common etiology and similar mutations that overlap with but are distinct from those found in HPV-negative cancers. Building on prior studies that have characterized subsets of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and cervical squamous cell carcinoma (CESC) cell lines separately, we performed genomic, viral gene expression, and viral integration analyses on 74 cell lines that include all readily-available HPV-positive (9 HNSCC, 8 CESC) and CESC (8 HPV-positive, 2 HPV-negative) cell lines and 55 HPV-negative HNSCC cell lines...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056423/effect-of-recombinant-glutathione-s-transferase-as-vaccine-antigen-against-rhipicephalus-appendiculatus-and-rhipicephalus-sanguineus-infestation
#2
Gabriela Alves Sabadin, Luís Fernando Parizi, Irene Kiio, Marina Amaral Xavier, Renata da Silva Matos, Maria Izabel Camargo-Mathias, Naftaly Wang'ombe Githaka, Vish Nene, Itabajara da Silva Vaz
The ticks Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus are the main vectors of Theileria parva and Babesia spp. in cattle and dogs, respectively. Due to their impact in veterinary care and industry, improved methods against R. appendiculatus and R. sanguineus parasitism are under development, including vaccines. We have previously demonstrated the induction of a cross-protective humoral response against Rhipicephalus microplus following vaccination with recombinant glutathione S-transferase from Haemaphysalis longicornis tick (rGST-Hl), suggesting that this protein could control tick infestations...
October 19, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958783/evaluating-genetic-drift-in-time-series-evolutionary-analysis
#3
Nuno R Nené, Ville Mustonen, Christopher J R Illingworth
The Wright-Fisher model is the most popular population model for describing the behaviour of evolutionary systems with a finite population size. Approximations have commonly been used but the model itself has rarely been tested against time-resolved genomic data. Here, we evaluate the extent to which it can be inferred as the correct model under a likelihood framework. Given genome-wide data from an evolutionary experiment, we validate the Wright-Fisher drift model as the better option for describing evolutionary trajectories in a finite population...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945760/appraising-the-relevance-of-dna-copy-number-loss-and-gain-in-prostate-cancer-using-whole-genome-dna-sequence-data
#4
Niedzica Camacho, Peter Van Loo, Sandra Edwards, Jonathan D Kay, Lucy Matthews, Kerstin Haase, Jeremy Clark, Nening Dennis, Sarah Thomas, Barbara Kremeyer, Jorge Zamora, Adam P Butler, Gunes Gundem, Sue Merson, Hayley Luxton, Steve Hawkins, Mohammed Ghori, Luke Marsden, Adam Lambert, Katalin Karaszi, Gill Pelvender, Charlie E Massie, Zsofia Kote-Jarai, Keiran Raine, David Jones, William J Howat, Steven Hazell, Naomi Livni, Cyril Fisher, Christopher Ogden, Pardeep Kumar, Alan Thompson, David Nicol, Erik Mayer, Tim Dudderidge, Yongwei Yu, Hongwei Zhang, Nimish C Shah, Vincent J Gnanapragasam, William Isaacs, Tapio Visakorpi, Freddie Hamdy, Dan Berney, Clare Verrill, Anne Y Warren, David C Wedge, Andrew G Lynch, Christopher S Foster, Yong Jie Lu, G Steven Bova, Hayley C Whitaker, Ultan McDermott, David E Neal, Rosalind Eeles, Colin S Cooper, Daniel S Brewer
A variety of models have been proposed to explain regions of recurrent somatic copy number alteration (SCNA) in human cancer. Our study employs Whole Genome DNA Sequence (WGS) data from tumor samples (n = 103) to comprehensively assess the role of the Knudson two hit genetic model in SCNA generation in prostate cancer. 64 recurrent regions of loss and gain were detected, of which 28 were novel, including regions of loss with more than 15% frequency at Chr4p15.2-p15.1 (15.53%), Chr6q27 (16.50%) and Chr18q12...
September 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935864/high-levels-of-ammonia-do-not-raise-fine-particle-ph-sufficiently-to-yield-nitrogen-oxide-dominated-sulfate-production
#5
Hongyu Guo, Rodney J Weber, Athanasios Nenes
High levels of ammonia (NH3) have been suggested to elevate ambient particle pH levels to near neutral acidity (pH = 7), a condition that promotes rapid SO2 oxidation by NO2 to form aerosol sulfate concentration consistent with "London fog" levels. This postulation is tested using aerosol data from representative sites around the world to conduct a thorough thermodynamic analysis of aerosol pH and its sensitivity to NH3 levels. We find that particle pH, regardless of ammonia levels, is always acidic even for the unusually high NH3 levels found in Beijing (pH = 4...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873442/use-of-a-novel-antigen-expressing-system-to-study-the-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhi-protein-recognition-by-t-cells
#6
Rosângela Salerno-Gonçalves, Hervé Tettelin, David Lou, Stephanie Steiner, Tasmia Rezwanul, Qin Guo, William D Picking, Vishvanath Nene, Marcelo B Sztein
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), the causative agent of the typhoid fever, is a pathogen of great public health importance. Typhoid vaccines have the potential to be cost-effective measures towards combating this disease, yet the antigens triggering host protective immune responses are largely unknown. Given the key role of cellular-mediated immunity in S. Typhi protection, it is crucial to identify S. Typhi proteins involved in T-cell responses. Here, cells from individuals immunized with Ty21a typhoid vaccine were collected before and after immunization and used as effectors...
September 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790110/replication-stress-leading-to-apoptosis-within-the-s-phase-contributes-to-synergism-between-vorinostat-and-azd1775-in-hnscc-harboring-high-risk-tp53-mutation
#7
Noriaki Tanaka, Ameeta A Patel, Lin Tang, Natalie L Silver, Antje Lindemann, Hideaki Takahashi, Roman Jaksik, Xiayu Rao, Nene N Kalu, Tseng-Cheng Chen, Jiping Wang, Mitchell J Frederick, Faye Johnson, Frederico O Gleber-Netto, Siqing Fu, Marek Kimmel, Jing Wang, Walter N Hittelman, Curtis R Pickering, Jeffrey N Myers, Abdullah A Osman
Purpose: The cure rate for patients with advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) remains poor due to resistance to standard therapy primarily consisting of chemoradiation. As mutation of TP53 in HNSCC occurs in 60% to 80% of non-HPV-associated cases and is in turn associated with resistance to these treatments, more effective therapies are needed. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of a regimen combining vorinostat and AZD1775 in HNSCC cells with a variety of p53 mutations.Experimental Design: Clonogenic survival assays and an orthotopic mouse model of oral cancer were used to examine the in vitro and in vivo sensitivity of high-risk mutant p53 HNSCC cell lines to vorinostat in combination with AZD1775...
August 8, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781391/microphysical-explanation-of-the-rh-dependent-water-affinity-of-biogenic-organic-aerosol-and-its-importance-for-climate
#8
N Rastak, A Pajunoja, J C Acosta Navarro, J Ma, M Song, D G Partridge, A Kirkevåg, Y Leong, W W Hu, N F Taylor, A Lambe, K Cerully, A Bougiatioti, P Liu, R Krejci, T Petäjä, C Percival, P Davidovits, D R Worsnop, A M L Ekman, A Nenes, S Martin, J L Jimenez, D R Collins, D O Topping, A K Bertram, A Zuend, A Virtanen, I Riipinen
A large fraction of atmospheric organic aerosol (OA) originates from natural emissions that are oxidized in the atmosphere to form secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Isoprene (IP) and monoterpenes (MT) are the most important precursors of SOA originating from forests. The climate impacts from OA are currently estimated through parameterizations of water uptake that drastically simplify the complexity of OA. We combine laboratory experiments, thermodynamic modeling, field observations, and climate modeling to (1) explain the molecular mechanisms behind RH-dependent SOA water-uptake with solubility and phase separation; (2) show that laboratory data on IP- and MT-SOA hygroscopicity are representative of ambient data with corresponding OA source profiles; and (3) demonstrate the sensitivity of the modeled aerosol climate effect to assumed OA water affinity...
May 28, 2017: Geophysical Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761521/safety-and-efficacy-of-spinal-loop-rectangle-and-sublaminar-wires-for-osteoporotic-vertebral-compression-fracture-fixation
#9
Sanganagouda Shivanagouda Patil, Shekhar Yashwant Bhojaraj, Abhay Madhusudan Nene
BACKGROUND: Natural history of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVCFs), that is, collapse, loads the rigid pedicle screw rod construct in the absence of anterior column reconstruction, often leading to implant back outs. Semi rigid spinal loop rectangle and sublaminar wire construct allows controlled axial collapse and does not require anterior column reconstruction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective study of 50 consecutive patients of OVCFs...
July 2017: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760483/preliminary-efficacy-investigations-of-oral-fipronil-against-anopheles-arabiensis-when-administered-to-zebu-cattle-bos-indicus-under-field-conditions
#10
Richard M Poché, Naftaly Githaka, Frans van Gool, Rebekah C Kading, Daniel Hartman, Larisa Polyakova, Edward Okoth Abworo, Vishvanath Nene, Saul Lozano-Fuentes
Globally, malaria remains one of the most important vector-borne diseases despite the extensive use of vector control, including indoor residual spraying (IRS) and insecticide-treated nets (ITNs). These control methods target endophagic vectors, whereas some malaria vectors, such as Anopheles arabiensis, preferentially feed outdoors on cattle, making it a complicated vector to control using conventional strategies. Our study evaluated whether treating cattle with a capsule containing the active ingredient (AI) fipronil could reduce vector density and sporozoite rates, and alter blood feeding behavior, when applied in a small-scale field study...
December 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753852/desnt-a-poor-prognosis-category-of-human-prostate-cancer
#11
Bogdan-Alexandru Luca, Daniel S Brewer, Dylan R Edwards, Sandra Edwards, Hayley C Whitaker, Sue Merson, Nening Dennis, Rosalin A Cooper, Steven Hazell, Anne Y Warren, Rosalind Eeles, Andy G Lynch, Helen Ross-Adams, Alastair D Lamb, David E Neal, Krishna Sethia, Robert D Mills, Richard Y Ball, Helen Curley, Jeremy Clark, Vincent Moulton, Colin S Cooper
BACKGROUND: A critical problem in the clinical management of prostate cancer is that it is highly heterogeneous. Accurate prediction of individual cancer behaviour is therefore not achievable at the time of diagnosis leading to substantial overtreatment. It remains an enigma that, in contrast to breast cancer, unsupervised analyses of global expression profiles have not currently defined robust categories of prostate cancer with distinct clinical outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To devise a novel classification framework for human prostate cancer based on unsupervised mathematical approaches...
March 6, 2017: European Urology Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730066/-these-are-not-luxuries-it-is-essential-for-access-to-life-disability-related-out-of-pocket-costs-as-a-driver-of-economic-vulnerability-in-south-africa
#12
Jill Hanass-Hancock, Siphumelele Nene, Nicola Deghaye, Simmi Pillay
BACKGROUND: With the dawn of the new sustainable development goals, we face not only a world that has seen great successes in alleviating poverty but also a world that has left some groups, such as persons with disabilities, behind. Middle-income countries (MICs) are home to a growing number of persons with disabilities. As these countries strive to achieve the new goals, we have ample opportunity to include persons with disabilities in the emerging poverty alleviation strategies. However, a lack of data and research on the linkages between economic vulnerability and disability in MICs hampers our understanding of the factors increasing economic vulnerability in people with disabilities...
2017: Afr J Disabil
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671188/revising-the-hygroscopicity-of-inorganic-sea-salt-particles
#13
P Zieger, O Väisänen, J C Corbin, D G Partridge, S Bastelberger, M Mousavi-Fard, B Rosati, M Gysel, U K Krieger, C Leck, A Nenes, I Riipinen, A Virtanen, M E Salter
Sea spray is one of the largest natural aerosol sources and plays an important role in the Earth's radiative budget. These particles are inherently hygroscopic, that is, they take-up moisture from the air, which affects the extent to which they interact with solar radiation. We demonstrate that the hygroscopic growth of inorganic sea salt is 8-15% lower than pure sodium chloride, most likely due to the presence of hydrates. We observe an increase in hygroscopic growth with decreasing particle size (for particle diameters <150 nm) that is independent of the particle generation method...
July 3, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640603/changes-in-light-absorptivity-of-molecular-weight-separated-brown-carbon-due-to-photolytic-aging
#14
Jenny P S Wong, Athanasios Nenes, Rodney J Weber
Brown carbon (BrC) consists of those organic compounds in atmospheric aerosols that absorb solar radiation and may play an important role in planetary radiative forcing and climate. However, little is known about the production and loss mechanisms of BrC in the atmosphere. Here, we study how the light absorptivity of BrC from wood smoke and secondary BrC generated from the reaction of ammonium sulfate with methylglyoxal changes under photolytic aging by UVA radiation in the aqueous phase. Owing to its chemical complexity, BrC is separated by molecular weight using size exclusion chromatography, and the response of each molecular weight fraction to aging is studied...
July 14, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611503/exploiting-phosphate-starved-cells-of-scenedesmus-sp-for-the-treatment-of-raw-sewage
#15
Swati Yewalkar-Kulkarni, Gayatri Gera, Sanjay Nene, Kiran Pandare, Bhaskar Kulkarni, Sanjay Kamble
Phosphate depletion is one of the favorable ways to enhance the sewage water treatment with the algae, however, detailed information is essential with respect to internal phosphate concentration and physiology of the algae. The growth rate of the phosphate-starved Scenedesmus cells was reduced drastically after 48 h. Indicating cells entered in the stationary phase of the growth cycle. Fourier Transform Infrared analysis of phosphate-starved Scenedesmus cells showed the reduction in internal phosphate concentration and an increase in carbohydrate/phosphate and carbohydrate/lipid ratio...
June 2017: Indian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603566/current-concepts-in-pediatric-cervical-spine-trauma
#16
Kunal Shah, Agnivesh Tikoo, Manish K Kothari, Abhay Nene
BACKGROUND: Pediatric spinal trauma is rare and challenging entity. Although cervical spine is commonly affected, it is often missed on routine imaging investigations. Therefore better understanding of growing spine and its patho-physiology is crucial. METHODS: Articles related to pediatric cervical trauma were searched on Pubmed and other online research data banks. We have summarized unique anatomy of pediatric spine, investigations followed by common injury patterns, their diagnostic challenges and management...
2017: Open Orthopaedics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603565/current-concepts-congenital-scoliosis
#17
Agnivesh Tikoo, Manish K Kothari, Kunal Shah, Abhay Nene
BACKGROUND: Congenital scoliosis is one of the 'difficult to treat' scenarios which a spine surgeon has to face. Multiple factors including the age of child at presentation, no definite pattern of deformity and associated anomalies hinder the execution of the ideal treatment plan. All patients of congenital scoliosis need to be investigated in detail. X rays and MRI of spine is usually ordered first. Screening investigations to rule out VACTERL (Visceral, Anorectal, Cardiac, Tracheo-esophageal fistula, Renal and Lung) abnormalities are required...
2017: Open Orthopaedics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458968/the-aesthetic-items-scale-a-tool-for-the-evaluation-of-aesthetic-outcome-after-breast-reconstruction
#18
Rieky E G Dikmans, Lauren E H Nene, Mark-Bram Bouman, Henrica C W de Vet, Marc A M Mureau, Marlon E Buncamper, Hay A H Winters, Marco J P F Ritt, Margriet G Mullender
BACKGROUND: Valid tools to assess aesthetic outcomes after breast reconstructive surgery are scarce. Previously a professional aesthetic assessment scale was introduced, the Aesthetic Items Scale (AIS). We aim to determine if this method is a valid and reliable tool to assess aesthetic outcome after breast reconstructive surgery. METHODS: The study population was consenting women who underwent prophylactic mastectomy with subsequent implant-based breast reconstruction...
March 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394569/simulating-aqueous-phase-isoprene-epoxydiol-iepox-secondary-organic-aerosol-production-during-the-2013-southern-oxidant-and-aerosol-study-soas
#19
Sri Hapsari Budisulistiorini, Athanasios Nenes, Annmarie G Carlton, Jason D Surratt, V Faye McNeill, Havala O T Pye
The lack of statistically robust relationships between IEPOX (isoprene epoxydiol)-derived SOA (IEPOX SOA) and aerosol liquid water and pH observed during the 2013 Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) emphasizes the importance of modeling the whole system to understand the controlling factors governing IEPOX SOA formation. We present a mechanistic modeling investigation predicting IEPOX SOA based on Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model algorithms and a recently introduced photochemical box model, simpleGAMMA...
May 2, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350334/conceptions-of-contraceptive-use-in-rural-kwazulu-natal-south-africa-lessons-for-programming
#20
Catherine Ndinda, Tidings Ndhlovu, Nene Ernest Khalema
Community family planning programmes in South Africa arose from the controversial apartheid history of controlling the African population while encouraging the growth of European migrant population. Post-apartheid population policies shifted away from population control to aligning policies to the global agenda that placed emphasis on the link between population and development. The focus on population and development polices in post-apartheid South Africa is on social equality, justice and peace rather than controlling sections of the population...
March 28, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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