Read by QxMD icon Read


Nuno R Nené, Alistair S Dunham, Christopher J R Illingworth
A common challenge arising from the observation of an evolutionary system over time is to infer the magnitude of selection acting upon a specific genetic variant, or variants, within the population. The inference of selection may be confounded by the effects of genetic drift in a system, leading to the development of inference procedures to account for these effects. However, recent work has suggested that deterministic models of evolution may be effective in capturing the effects of selection even under complex models of demography, suggesting the more general application of deterministic approaches to inference...
March 2, 2018: Genetics
Armin Sorooshian, Alexander B MacDonald, Hossein Dadashazar, Kelvin H Bates, Matthew M Coggon, Jill S Craven, Ewan Crosbie, Scott P Hersey, Natasha Hodas, Jack J Lin, Arnaldo Negrón Marty, Lindsay C Maudlin, Andrew R Metcalf, Shane M Murphy, Luz T Padró, Gouri Prabhakar, Tracey A Rissman, Taylor Shingler, Varuntida Varutbangkul, Zhen Wang, Roy K Woods, Patrick Y Chuang, Athanasios Nenes, Haflidi H Jonsson, Richard C Flagan, John H Seinfeld
Airborne measurements of meteorological, aerosol, and stratocumulus cloud properties have been harmonized from six field campaigns during July-August months between 2005 and 2016 off the California coast. A consistent set of core instruments was deployed on the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Studies Twin Otter for 113 flight days, amounting to 514 flight hours. A unique aspect of the compiled data set is detailed measurements of aerosol microphysical properties (size distribution, composition, bioaerosol detection, hygroscopicity, optical), cloud water composition, and different sampling inlets to distinguish between clear air aerosol, interstitial in-cloud aerosol, and droplet residual particles in cloud...
February 27, 2018: Scientific Data
Anand V Nene, Alexandre Rainha Campos, Klemen Grabljevec, Arminda Lopes, Bengt Skoog, Anthony S Burns
A thorough assessment of the extent and severity of spasticity, and its impact on functioning, is central to the effective management of spasticity in persons with spinal cord damage (SCD). These individuals, however, do not always receive adequate assessment of their spasticity. Inadequate assessment compromises management when the impact of spasticity and/or need for intervention are not fully recognized. Assessment is also central to determining treatment efficacy. A barrier to spasticity assessment has been the lack of consensus on clinical and functional measures suitable for routine clinical practice...
February 9, 2018: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Anna Lacasta, Stephen Mwalimu, Elisabeth Kibwana, Rosemary Saya, Elias Awino, Thomas Njoroge, Jane Poole, Nicholas Ndiwa, Roger Pelle, Vishvanath Nene, Lucilla Steinaa
East Coast fever (ECF) is a lymphoproliferative disease caused by the tick-transmitted protozoan parasite Theileria parva. ECF is one of the most serious cattle tick-borne diseases in Sub-Saharan Africa. We have previously demonstrated that three doses of the C-terminal part of the sporozoite protein p67 (p67C) adjuvanted with ISA206VG confers partial protection against ECF at a herd level. We have tested the efficacy of two doses of this experimental vaccine, as reducing the vaccination regimen would facilitate its deployment in the field...
February 8, 2018: Vaccine
Danielle Mandikian, Nene Takahashi, Amy A Lo, Ji Li, Jeffrey Eastham-Anderson, Dionysos Slaga, Jason Ho, Maria Hristopoulos, Robyn Clark, Klara Totpal, Kedan Lin, Sean B Joseph, Mark S Dennis, Saileta Prabhu, Teemu T Junttila, C Andrew Boswell
Anti-HER2/CD3, a T cell-dependent bispecific antibody (TDB) construct, induces T cell-mediated cell death in cancer cells expressing HER2 by cross-linking tumor HER2 with CD3 on cytotoxic T cells, thereby creating a functional cytolytic synapse. TDB design is a very challenging process that requires consideration of multiple parameters. While therapeutic antibody design strategy is commonly driven by striving for the highest attainable antigen binding affinity, little is known about how the affinity of each TDB arm can affect the targeting ability of the other arm and the consequent distribution and efficacy...
January 16, 2018: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
Rahul V Nene, Christopher D Putnam, Bin-Zhong Li, Katarina G Nguyen, Anjana Srivatsan, Christopher S Campbell, Arshad Desai, Richard D Kolodner
Defects in the genes encoding the Paf1 complex can cause increased genome instability. Loss of Paf1, Cdc73, and Ctr9, but not Rtf1 or Leo1, caused increased accumulation of gross chromosomal rearrangements (GCRs). Combining the cdc73Δ mutation with individual deletions of 43 other genes, including TEL1 and YKU80, which are involved in telomere maintenance, resulted in synergistic increases in GCR rates. Whole genome sequence analysis of GCRs indicated that there were reduced relative rates of GCRs mediated by de novo telomere additions and increased rates of translocations and inverted duplications in cdc73Δ single and double mutants...
January 2018: PLoS Genetics
Kunal Shah, Abhay Nene
Spinal mucormycosis is a rare and fatal condition. High degree of suspicion is required for early diagnosis and treatment.
October 2017: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases
Michael C Gregory, Piotr J Mak, Yogan Khatri, James R Kincaid, Stephen G Sligar
CYP17A1 is a key steroidogenic enzyme known to conduct several distinct chemical transformations on multiple substrates. In its hydroxylase activity this enzyme adds a hydroxyl group at the 17α-position of both pregnenolone and progesterone at approximately equal rates. However, the subsequent 17,20 carbon-carbon scission reaction displays variable substrate speci-ficity in the numerous CYP17A1 isozymes operating in verte-brates, manifesting as different Kd and kcat values when presented with 17α-hydroxypregnenlone (OHPREG) versus 17α-hydroxyprogesterone (OHPROG)...
December 28, 2017: Biochemistry
James Nyagwange, Edwin Tijhaar, Nicola Ternette, Fredrick Mobegi, Kyle Tretina, Joana C Silva, Roger Pelle, Vishvanath Nene
East Coast fever is a lymphoproliferative disease caused by the tick-borne protozoan parasite Theileria parva. The sporozoite stage of this parasite, harboured and released from the salivary glands of the tick Rhipicephalus appendiculatus during feeding, invades and establishes infection in bovine lymphocytes. Blocking this initial stage of invasion presents a promising vaccine strategy for control of East Coast fever and can in part be achieved by targeting the major sporozoite surface protein p67. To support research on the biology of T...
December 16, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
Mayur A Gadhikar, Jiexin Zhang, Li Shen, Xiayu Rao, Jing Wang, Mei Zhao, Nene N Kalu, Faye M Johnson, Lauren A Byers, John Heymach, Walter N Hittelman, Durga Udayakumar, Raj K Pandita, Tej K Pandita, Curtis R Pickering, Abena B Redwood, Helen Piwnica-Worms, Katharina Schlacher, Mitchell J Frederick, Jeffrey N Myers
Checkpoint kinase inhibitors (CHKi) exhibit striking single-agent activity in certain tumors, but the mechanisms accounting for hypersensitivity are poorly understood. We screened a panel of 49 established human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines and report that nearly 20% are hypersensitive to CHKi monotherapy. Hypersensitive cells underwent early S-phase arrest at drug doses sufficient to inhibit greater than 90% of CHK1 activity. Reduced rate of DNA replication fork progression and chromosomal shattering were also observed, suggesting replication stress as a root causative factor in CHKi hypersensitivity...
February 1, 2018: Cancer Research
Timmy Li, M Katherine Dokus, Kristin N Kelly, Nene Ugoeke, James R Rogers, George Asham, Venkatesh Abhishek Sharma, Dominic J Cirillo, Mary K Robinson, Erika K Venniro, Jeremy G Taylor, Mark S Orloff, Scott McIntosh, Randeep Kashyap
INTRODUCTION: Understanding living organ donors' experience with donation and challenges faced during the process is necessary to guide the development of effective strategies to maximize donor benefit and increase the number of living donors. METHODS: An anonymous self-administered survey, specifically designed for this population based on key informant interviews, was mailed to 426 individuals who donated a kidney or liver at our institution. Quantitative and qualitative methods including open and axial coding were used to analyze donor responses...
September 2017: Progress in Transplantation
S S Nene, K Liu, M Frank, R S Mishra, R E Brennan, K C Cho, Z Li, D Raabe
The potential of high-entropy alloys (HEAs) to exhibit an extraordinary combination of properties by shifting the compositional regime from the corners towards the centers of phase diagrams has led to worldwide attention by material scientists. Here we present a strong and ductile non-equiatomic HEA obtained after friction stir processing (FSP). A transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) assisted HEA with composition Fe50 Mn30 Co10 Cr10 (at.%) was severely deformed by FSP and evaluated for its microstructure-mechanical property relationship...
November 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
Nene Ugoeke, Chidinma Onweni, Jennifer Treece, Vandana Pai, Sowminya Arikapudi, Evan Kulbacki, Kailash Bajaj
Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is a disease process that involves the destruction of red blood cells mediated by the humoral immune system. It can be characterized as a cold agglutinin syndrome, paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria, and warm, mixed type, and drug-induced AIHA. Although a well-established relationship exists between the presence of AIHA and lymphoproliferative malignancy, AIHA rarely presents in association with solid malignancies. An analysis of the limited number of published cases of AIHA in association with solid malignancies performed showed that AIHA may present before the diagnosis of a solid malignancy, concurrently with the presence of a solid malignancy, or even on resolution of a solid malignancy...
October 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
Nene N Kalu, Tuhina Mazumdar, Shaohua Peng, Li Shen, Vaishnavi Sambandam, Xiayu Rao, Yuanxin Xi, Lerong Li, Yuan Qi, Frederico O Gleber-Netto, Ameeta Patel, Jing Wang, Mitchell J Frederick, Jeffrey N Myers, Curtis R Pickering, Faye M Johnson
Human cancer cell lines are the most frequently used preclinical models in the study of cancer biology and the development of therapeutics. Although anatomically diverse, human papillomavirus (HPV)-driven cancers have a common etiology and similar mutations that overlap with but are distinct from those found in HPV-negative cancers. Building on prior studies that have characterized subsets of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and cervical squamous cell carcinoma (CESC) cell lines separately, we performed genomic, viral gene expression, and viral integration analyses on 74 cell lines that include all readily-available HPV-positive (9 HNSCC, 8 CESC) and CESC (8 HPV-positive, 2 HPV-negative) cell lines and 55 HPV-negative HNSCC cell lines...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
Gabriela Alves Sabadin, Luís Fernando Parizi, Irene Kiio, Marina Amaral Xavier, Renata da Silva Matos, Maria Izabel Camargo-Mathias, Naftaly Wang'ombe Githaka, Vish Nene, Itabajara da Silva Vaz
The ticks Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus are the main vectors of Theileria parva and Babesia spp. in cattle and dogs, respectively. Due to their impact in veterinary care and industry, improved methods against R. appendiculatus and R. sanguineus parasitism are under development, including vaccines. We have previously demonstrated the induction of a cross-protective humoral response against Rhipicephalus microplus following vaccination with recombinant glutathione S-transferase from Haemaphysalis longicornis tick (rGST-Hl), suggesting that this protein could control tick infestations...
October 19, 2017: Vaccine
Nuno R Nené, Ville Mustonen, Christopher J R Illingworth
The Wright-Fisher model is the most popular population model for describing the behaviour of evolutionary systems with a finite population size. Approximations have commonly been used but the model itself has rarely been tested against time-resolved genomic data. Here, we evaluate the extent to which it can be inferred as the correct model under a likelihood framework. Given genome-wide data from an evolutionary experiment, we validate the Wright-Fisher drift model as the better option for describing evolutionary trajectories in a finite population...
January 21, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Niedzica Camacho, Peter Van Loo, Sandra Edwards, Jonathan D Kay, Lucy Matthews, Kerstin Haase, Jeremy Clark, Nening Dennis, Sarah Thomas, Barbara Kremeyer, Jorge Zamora, Adam P Butler, Gunes Gundem, Sue Merson, Hayley Luxton, Steve Hawkins, Mohammed Ghori, Luke Marsden, Adam Lambert, Katalin Karaszi, Gill Pelvender, Charlie E Massie, Zsofia Kote-Jarai, Keiran Raine, David Jones, William J Howat, Steven Hazell, Naomi Livni, Cyril Fisher, Christopher Ogden, Pardeep Kumar, Alan Thompson, David Nicol, Erik Mayer, Tim Dudderidge, Yongwei Yu, Hongwei Zhang, Nimish C Shah, Vincent J Gnanapragasam, William Isaacs, Tapio Visakorpi, Freddie Hamdy, Dan Berney, Clare Verrill, Anne Y Warren, David C Wedge, Andrew G Lynch, Christopher S Foster, Yong Jie Lu, G Steven Bova, Hayley C Whitaker, Ultan McDermott, David E Neal, Rosalind Eeles, Colin S Cooper, Daniel S Brewer
A variety of models have been proposed to explain regions of recurrent somatic copy number alteration (SCNA) in human cancer. Our study employs Whole Genome DNA Sequence (WGS) data from tumor samples (n = 103) to comprehensively assess the role of the Knudson two hit genetic model in SCNA generation in prostate cancer. 64 recurrent regions of loss and gain were detected, of which 28 were novel, including regions of loss with more than 15% frequency at Chr4p15.2-p15.1 (15.53%), Chr6q27 (16.50%) and Chr18q12...
September 2017: PLoS Genetics
Hongyu Guo, Rodney J Weber, Athanasios Nenes
High levels of ammonia (NH3) have been suggested to elevate ambient particle pH levels to near neutral acidity (pH = 7), a condition that promotes rapid SO2 oxidation by NO2 to form aerosol sulfate concentration consistent with "London fog" levels. This postulation is tested using aerosol data from representative sites around the world to conduct a thorough thermodynamic analysis of aerosol pH and its sensitivity to NH3 levels. We find that particle pH, regardless of ammonia levels, is always acidic even for the unusually high NH3 levels found in Beijing (pH = 4...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
Rosângela Salerno-Gonçalves, Hervé Tettelin, David Lou, Stephanie Steiner, Tasmia Rezwanul, Qin Guo, William D Picking, Vishvanath Nene, Marcelo B Sztein
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), the causative agent of the typhoid fever, is a pathogen of great public health importance. Typhoid vaccines have the potential to be cost-effective measures towards combating this disease, yet the antigens triggering host protective immune responses are largely unknown. Given the key role of cellular-mediated immunity in S. Typhi protection, it is crucial to identify S. Typhi proteins involved in T-cell responses. Here, cells from individuals immunized with Ty21a typhoid vaccine were collected before and after immunization and used as effectors...
September 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Noriaki Tanaka, Ameeta A Patel, Lin Tang, Natalie L Silver, Antje Lindemann, Hideaki Takahashi, Roman Jaksik, Xiayu Rao, Nene N Kalu, Tseng-Cheng Chen, Jiping Wang, Mitchell J Frederick, Faye Johnson, Frederico O Gleber-Netto, Siqing Fu, Marek Kimmel, Jing Wang, Walter N Hittelman, Curtis R Pickering, Jeffrey N Myers, Abdullah A Osman
Purpose: The cure rate for patients with advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) remains poor due to resistance to standard therapy primarily consisting of chemoradiation. As mutation of TP53 in HNSCC occurs in 60% to 80% of non-HPV-associated cases and is in turn associated with resistance to these treatments, more effective therapies are needed. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of a regimen combining vorinostat and AZD1775 in HNSCC cells with a variety of p53 mutations.Experimental Design: Clonogenic survival assays and an orthotopic mouse model of oral cancer were used to examine the in vitro and in vivo sensitivity of high-risk mutant p53 HNSCC cell lines to vorinostat in combination with AZD1775...
August 8, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"