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Correction for hyponatremia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142352/localized-pontine-uptake-in-fluorine-18-fuorodeoxyglucose-positron-emission-tomography-computed-tomography-in-a-case-of-hyponatremia-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#1
Thangalakshmi Sivathapandi, Shelley Simon, Indirani Elangovan
A rare acquired demyelinating lesion of the pons central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) typically occurs after rapid correction of hyponatremia. There is disruption of blood-brain barrier due to osmotic stress allowing access for inflammatory mediators in extravascular brain tissue, which most likely attracts glial cells of the brain, attracts macrophages, and activates astrocytes. We present a case of female with a known history of inflammatory bowel disease who presented with altered sensorium and hyponatremia...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Nuclear Medicine: IJNM: the Official Journal of the Society of Nuclear Medicine, India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135397/electrolytes-imbalance-caused-by-amikacin-in-patients-receiving-multi-drug-resistance-tuberculosis-treatment-at-hazara-region-kpk-pakistan
#2
Faheem Jan, Mukhtiar Hassan, Naveed Muhammad, Shahid Wali, Hafiz Sajid Akbar, Qazi Mashhood Atta, Farzana Gul
Introduction: Multi drug resistance-tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is considered amongst one of the fatal medical and public health issue. Greater frequency of adverse reactions has been observed using 2nd line antituberculosis drugs, which rises the rate of morbidity. Hypokalemia and hyponatremia are common in patients receiving MDR-TB treatment. Materials and Methods: This study was aimed to assess the effect of amikacin as multidrug resistance tuberculosis treatment on serum sodium and potassium level...
September 2017: Tüberküloz Ve Toraks
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095576/is-central-pontine-myelinolysis-reversible
#3
David Lee Rebedew
Central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) is a rare phenomenon that causes significant morbidity and mortality. Active therapeutic interventions for CPM can have a positive impact on recovery and overall prognosis. This case represents a 34-year-old white man with a chronic history of alcohol abuse who had Parkinsonian symptoms 13 days after rapid correction of his serum sodium in the hospital. Similarly to prior CPM case reports, this patient significantly improved following reinduction of hyponatremia, methylprednisolone, and/or plasmapharesis...
December 2016: WMJ: Official Publication of the State Medical Society of Wisconsin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075541/unusual-complication-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis
#4
Prerna Sharma, Ravindra Nath Sahay
INTRODUCTION: Capreomycin is a second-line drug often used for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis which can result in nephrotoxic effects similar to other aminoglycosides. We describe a case of capreomycin induced Bartter-like syndrome with hypocalcemic tetany. CASE REPORT: 23-year-old female patient presented with carpopedal spasms and tingling sensations in hands. Patient was being treated with capreomycin for two months for tuberculosis. On further investigation, hypocalcemia, hyponatremia, hypomagnesemia, hypokalemia, and hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis were noted...
2017: Case Reports in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061503/outcomes-in-severe-hyponatremia-treated-with-and-without-desmopressin-ddavp
#5
Thomas E MacMillan, Rodrigo B Cavalcanti
BACKGROUND: Overcorrection of plasma sodium in severe hyponatremia is associated with osmotic demyelination syndrome. Desmopressin (DDAVP) can prevent overcorrection of plasma sodium in hyponatremia. The objective of this study is to compare outcomes in hyponatremia based on DDAVP usage. METHODS: Retrospective, observational study including all admissions to internal medicine with hyponatremia (plasma sodium concentration < 123 mEq/L), from 2004-2014 at two academic hospitals in Toronto, Canada...
October 20, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057220/iatrogenic-dysnatremias-in-children-with-acute-gastroenteritis-in-high-income-countries-a-systematic-review
#6
Silviu Grisaru, Jianling Xie, Susan Samuel, Stephen B Freedman
BACKGROUND: Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) causing dehydration with or without dysnatremias is a common childhood health challenge. While it is accepted that oral rehydration therapy is preferred, clinical factors or parent and healthcare provider preferences may lead to intravenous rehydration (IVR). Isotonic solutions are increasingly recommended in most scenarios requiring IVR. Nevertheless, children with AGE, having ongoing losses of water and electrolytes, represent a unique population...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957470/treatment-of-severe-cholera-a-review-of-strategies-to-reduce-stool-output-and-volumes-of-rehydration-fluid
#7
Thomas Butler
Background: Severe cholera is a life-threatening illness of hypovolemic shock and metabolic acidosis due to rapid and profuse diarrheal fluid loss. Emergency life-saving therapy is i.v. saline, optionally supplemented with potassium and alkali to correct the fluid deficit, potassium losses and acidosis. After this initial rehydration, for the next 2 days ongoing stool losses are replaced with oral rehydration solution (ORS), which contains sodium chloride, potassium and alkali together with glucose or rice powder as a source of glucose to serve as a carrier for sodium...
May 1, 2017: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943585/the-outcome-of-cirrhotic-patients-with-ascites-is-improved-by-the-normalization-of-the-serum-sodium-level-by-tolvaptan
#8
Tomomi Kogiso, Mutsuki Kobayashi, Kuniko Yamamoto, Yuichi Ikarashi, Kazuhisa Kodama, Makiko Taniai, Nobuyuki Torii, Etsuko Hashimoto, Katsutoshi Tokushige
Objectives Hyponatremia is frequently observed in patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis and it is also related to a poor prognosis. The vasopressin V2-receptor antagonist tolvaptan is used to treat cirrhotic patients with ascites and increases the serum sodium (Na) level. In this study, we investigated (i) whether or not correction of the Na level improves the prognosis of cirrhotic patients with ascites and (ii) predictors of normalization of the serum Na level after tolvaptan therapy. Methods This was a single-center retrospective study...
September 25, 2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924482/atypical-presentation-of-central-pontine-myelinolysis-in-hyperglycemia
#9
Swapna Talluri, Raghu Charumathi, Muhammad Khan, Kerri Kissell
Central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) usually occurs with rapid correction of severe chronic hyponatremia. Despite the pronounced fluctuations in serum osmolality, CPM is rarely seen in diabetics. This is a case report of CPM associated with hyperglycemia. A 45-year-old non-smoking and non-alcoholic African American male with past medical history of type 2 diabetes, hypertension, stage V chronic kidney disease and hypothyroidism presented with a two-week history of intermittent episodes of gait imbalance, slurred speech and inappropriate laughter...
2017: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816830/fatal-cerebral-edema-seizures-and-hyponatremia-after-trazodone-overdose
#10
Jose David Avila
Trazodone is a serotonin antagonist and reuptake inhibitor that is widely used for the treatment of depression and insomnia. Fatal overdose is rare and usually occurs when combined with other drugs or alcohol. Only a few lethal cases of pure trazodone overdose have been reported, all attributed to cardiotoxicity. We reported a 37-year-old woman who presented after ingesting 6.45 g of trazodone in a suicidal attempt. She was hyponatremic because of the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion and, shortly after, had a seizure and developed fatal cerebral edema...
September 2017: Clinical Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803333/low-dose-tolvaptan-pk-pd-comparison-of-patients-with-hyponatremia-due-to-syndrome-of-inappropriate-antidiuretic-hormone-secretion-to-healthy-adults
#11
Susan E Shoaf, Patricia Bricmont, Ann Dandurand
PURPOSE: Tolvaptan (TLV) is indicated to treat hyponatremia due to syndrome of inappropriate diuretic hormone (SIADH) in Europe. Treatment is to be initiated at 15 mg QD but post-approval reporting indicates increasing use of 7.5 mg as the starting dose. Physicians believe 7.5 mg is effective and has a lower incidence of overly rapid correction of serum sodium. METHODS: Single TLV doses of 3.75, 7.5, and 15 mg were administered to 14 healthy adults in a crossover design and to 29 subjects ≥18 years with SIADH and serum sodium between 120 and 133 mmol/L in a parallel-group design...
November 2017: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798240/tetraparesia-an-unusual-presentation-of-disseminated-tuberculosis
#12
Filipa Quaresma, Margarida Bentes Jesus
A 48-year-old man with a 4 months history of asthenia, anorexia, 10 kg weight loss and 1 month of hematuria and dysuria was admitted to another hospital for sudden muscular weakness. He was found to have areflexic tetraparesis and was referred to our hospital.On admission, he was bradycardic, tachypneic, with flaccid tetraplegia. Laboratory results showed metabolic acidemia, severe hyperkalemia and hyponatremia, acute renal dysfunction and sterile pyuria. After hyperkalemia correction, the neurological symptoms resolved...
August 10, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775063/current-management-of-hyponatremia-in-acute-heart-failure-a-report-from-the-hyponatremia-registry-for-patients-with-euvolemic-and-hypervolemic-hyponatremia-hn-registry
#13
Mark E Dunlap, Paul J Hauptman, Alpesh N Amin, Sandra L Chase, Joseph A Chiodo, Jun R Chiong, Joseph F Dasta
BACKGROUND: Hyponatremia (HN) occurs commonly in patients with acute heart failure and confers a worse prognosis. Current HN treatment varies widely, with no consensus. This study recorded treatment practices currently used for patients hospitalized with acute heart failure and HN. METHODS AND RESULTS: Data were collected prospectively from 146 US sites on patients hospitalized with acute heart failure and HN (serum sodium concentration [Na(+)] ≤130 mEq/L) present at admission or developing in the hospital...
August 3, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739771/clinical-characteristics-and-prognosis-of-elderly-small-cell-lung-cancer-patients-complicated-with-hyponatremia-a-retrospective-analysis
#14
Yongping Yang, Naihong Sun, Ping Sun, Liangming Zhang
AIM: This study was designed to evaluate the clinical characteristics and prognosis of elderly small cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients complicated with hyponatremia, thus providing increased attention for appropriate intervention and improving outcomes in symptomatic subjects. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The clinical data of 320 patients with SCLC in the Yuhuangding Hospital from March 1st, 2006, to March 1st, 2012, were studied retrospectively. The prognosis and possible association with hyponatremia was investigated...
August 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730291/electrolyte-disorders-with-platinum-based-chemotherapy-mechanisms-manifestations-and-management
#15
REVIEW
Bryan Oronsky, Scott Caroen, Arnold Oronsky, Vaughn E Dobalian, Neil Oronsky, Michelle Lybeck, Tony R Reid, Corey A Carter
Platinum chemotherapy, particularly cisplatin, is commonly associated with electrolyte imbalances, including hypomagnesemia, hypokalemia, hypophosphatemia, hypocalcemia and hyponatremia. The corpus of literature on these dyselectrolytemias is large; the objective of this review is to synthesize the literature and summarize the mechanisms responsible for these particular electrolyte disturbances in the context of platinum-based treatment as well as to present the clinical manifestations and current management strategies for oncologists and primary care physicians, since the latter are increasingly called on to provide care for cancer patients with medical comorbidities...
July 20, 2017: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704229/treatment-of-hyponatremic-encephalopathy-in-the-critically-ill
#16
REVIEW
Steven G Achinger, Juan Carlos Ayus
OBJECTIVES: Hyponatremic encephalopathy, symptomatic cerebral edema due to a low osmolar state, is a medical emergency and often encountered in the ICU setting. This article provides a critical appraisal and review of the literature on identification of high-risk patients and the treatment of this life-threatening disorder. DATA SOURCES, STUDY SELECTION, AND DATA EXTRACTION: Online search of the PubMed database and manual review of articles involving risk factors for hyponatremic encephalopathy and treatment of hyponatremic encephalopathy in critical illness...
October 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697837/-poor-weight-gain-recurrent-metabolic-alkalosis-and-hypokalemia-in-a-neonate
#17
Miao Qian, Shu-Ping Han, Zhang-Bing Yu, Xiao-Hui Chen
The study reports a female neonate with a gestational age of 29(+2) weeks and a birth weight of 1 210 g. Ten minutes after birth, the neonate was admitted to the hospital due to shortness of breath. Several days after birth, the neonate presented with hyperglycemia, polyuria, and poor weight gain, accompanied by azotemia, hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis, hypokalemia, and hyponatremia. Laboratory examinations showed elevated levels of aldosterone, renin, and angiotensin II. Gene detection revealed SLC12A1 gene mutation...
July 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694395/use-of-tolvaptan-in-patients-hospitalized-for-worsening-chronic-heart-failure-with-severe-hyponatremia-the-initial-experience-at-a-single-center-in-turkey
#18
Saim Sağ, Aysel Aydın Kaderli, Abdülmecit Yıldız, Bülent Cuma Gül, Bülent Özdemir, İbrahim Baran, Sümeyye Güllülü, Ali Aydınlar, Yüksel Çavuşoğlu
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to assess the efficacy and safety of tolvaptan for severe hyponatremia (SH) in hypervolemic heart failure (HF) patients within daily clinical practice. METHODS: We restrospectively reviewed our database on tolvaptan as an add-on treatment in hypervolemic patients admitted to our clinic due to deterioration of HF and having hyponatremia resistant to standard therapy. Severe hyponatremia was defined as serum sodium concentration ≤125 mEq/L...
July 2017: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneği Arşivi: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneğinin Yayın Organıdır
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675827/hyperglycemia-induced-hyponatremia-reevaluation-of-the-na-correction-factor
#19
Matthew B Wolf
This study addresses the clinically important relationship between the decreases in plasma Na(+) and the increases in plasma glucose concentrations seen in diabetes and other hyperglycemic syndromes. This plasma 'Na(+) correction factor', is generally accepted as 1.6mM Na(+) per 100mg% glucose (0.29mM/mM in SI units) assuming osmotic equilibrium, although much larger numbers have been measured in experiments on normal humans. To resolve this controversy, a mathematical model of whole-body fluid-electrolyte balance was used to perform the experiment wherein plasma glucose concentration was increased to diabetic levels and the plasma Na(+) concentration changes assessed, without the complications seen in human experiments...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665367/-algorithms-of-the-correction-of-fluid-and-electrolyte-disorders-in-patients-with-severe-ischemic-stroke
#20
V I Ershov, A N Chirkov
AIM: To develop a practical algorithm for the correction of sodium levels and osmolality of blood plasma during the acute period of severe ischemic stroke (IS). MATERIAL AND METHODS: One hundred and fifty patients with cardioembolic or atherothrombotic stroke, aged from 30 to 80 years, hospitalized in the first 12 h after symptom emergence, were examined. Neurological deficit was assessed with the NIHSS. The monitoring of blood plasma sodium level and osmolality of blood plasma in the 1st and 5th day after stroke as well as of blood circulation volume was performed...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
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