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Anesthesia post concussion

Kavita Singh, Richa Trivedi, Seenu Haridas, Kailash Manda, Subash Khushu
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is the most common form of TBI (70-90%) with consequences of anxiety-like behavioral alterations in approximately 23% of mTBI cases. This study aimed to assess whether mTBI-induced anxiety-like behavior is a consequence of neurometabolic alterations. mTBI was induced using a weight drop model to simulate mild human brain injury in rodents. Based on injury induction and dosage of anesthesia, four animal groups were included in this study: (i) injury with anesthesia (IA); (ii) sham1 (injury only, IO); (iii) sham2 (only anesthesia, OA); and (iv) control rats...
December 2016: NMR in Biomedicine
Jiro Ezaki, Ryo Shimada, Misato Shibuya, Kazuhiko Kibayashi
OBJECTIVES: In experimental models of traumatic brain injury (TBI), posttraumatic hippocampal neuronal degeneration in the cornu ammonis 1 (CA1), and/or the cornu ammonis 3 (CA3) regions are regarded as the most notable phenotypic appearances relating to the pathophysiology of human post-concussion syndrome. However, these morphological changes are often also seen in subjects without TBI, namely 'sham' groups. The frequencies and reasons of appearance of hippocampal neuronal degeneration in mice with TBI and/or sham are not clear...
November 2016: Neurological Research
Gretchen M Thomsen, Annie M Ma, Ara Ko, Megan Y Harada, Livia Wyss, Patricia S Haro, Jean-Philippe Vit, Oksana Shelest, Peter Rhee, Clive N Svendsen, Eric J Ley
BACKGROUND: Concussion injury is the most common form of traumatic brain injury (TBI). How recurrent concussions alter long-term outcomes is poorly understood, especially as related to the development of neurodegenerative disease. We evaluated the functional and pathological consequences of repeated TBI over time in wild type (WT) rats as well as rats harboring the human SOD1 mutation ("SOD1"), a model of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). METHODS: A total of 42 rats, 26 WT and 16 SOD1, were examined over a study period of 25 weeks (or endpoint)...
December 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Nikita M Bajwa, Shina Halavi, Mary Hamer, Bridgette D Semple, Linda J Noble-Haeusslein, Mohsen Baghchechi, Alex Hiroto, Richard E Hartman, André Obenaus
Mild traumatic brain injuries can lead to long-lasting cognitive and motor deficits, increasing the risk of future behavioral, neurological, and affective disorders. Our study focused on long-term behavioral deficits after repeated injury in which mice received either a single mild CHI (mCHI), a repeated mild CHI (rmCHI) consisting of one impact to each hemisphere separated by 3 days, or a moderate controlled cortical impact injury (CCI). Shams received only anesthesia. Behavioral tests were administered at 1, 3, 5, 7, and 90 days post-injury (dpi)...
2016: PloS One
H S Sharma, R Patnaik, S Patnaik, A Sharma, S Mohanty, P Vannemreddy
The potential neuroprotective efficacy of dynorphin A antiserum on BBB dysfunction, edema formation and brain pathology was examined in a closed head injury (CHI) model in the rat. The CHI was produced by an impact of 0.224 N on the right parietal bone under anesthesia by dropping a weight of 114.6 g on the skull from a height of 20 cm through a guide tube. This concussive brain injury resulted in profound BBB disruption as evidenced by leakage of Evans blue and radioiodine in the brain. Edema formation and swelling at 5 h were most pronounced in the contralateral cerebral hemisphere...
2010: Acta Neurochirurgica. Supplement
Vadim Tashlykov, Yeshayahu Katz, Vered Gazit, Ofer Zohar, Shaul Schreiber, Chaim G Pick
Interpretation of the cellular and molecular pathogenic basis of post-minimal traumatic brain injury is a significant clinical and scientific problem, especially due to the high prevalence of motor vehicle--and other accidents. Pathogenetic brain mechanisms following traumatic impact are usually investigated by using models of severe or moderate trauma. Apoptotic neuronal degeneration after notable brain trauma is a well-known phenomenon, but the source of its activation is not clear, especially after mild, subclinical brain trauma...
January 26, 2007: Brain Research
A C Conti, R Raghupathi, J Q Trojanowski, T K McIntosh
The temporal pattern of apoptosis in the adult rat brain after lateral fluid-percussion (FP) brain injury was characterized using terminal deoxynucleotidyl-transferase-mediated biotin-dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) histochemistry and agarose gel electrophoresis. Male Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to brain injury and killed for histological analysis at intervals from 12 hr to 2 months after injury (n = 3/time point). Sham (uninjured) controls were subjected to anesthesia with (n = 3) or without (n = 3) surgery...
August 1, 1998: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
C E Dixon, S J Liu, L W Jenkins, M Bhattachargee, J S Whitson, K Yang, R L Hayes
We have previously shown that spatial memory changes following experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI) include long-term changes that are (1) 'overt': detected by routine behavioral assessments, or (2) 'covert': undetected in the absence of a secondary pharmacological challenge, such as by the cholinergic antagonist, scopolamine. Our objective in this study was to extend this finding by characterizing the time course of recovery of overt and covert spatial memory performance following two magnitudes of experimental TBI...
October 1995: Behavioural Brain Research
E Shohami, M Novikov, M Horowitz
Cerebral edema is one of the major consequences of head trauma (HT); its evolution may cause secondary ischemia and neuronal damage. In a closed head injury model in rats, we have shown BBB disruption and edema formation during the post traumatic period. We have previously shown that chronic exposure to moderate heat improves clinical outcome of rats subjected to HT. Long term exposure to heat results in the achievement of a stable acclimated state, characterized by a lower metabolic rate and improved heat tolerance...
1994: Acta Neurochirurgica. Supplementum
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