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"Aging muscle"

Sydney K Vaughan, Olivia L Stanley, Gregorio Valdez
The impact of aging on proprioceptive sensory neurons and intrafusal muscle fibers (IMFs) remains largely unexplored despite the central function these cells play in modulating voluntary movements. Here, we show that proprioceptive sensory neurons undergo deleterious morphological changes in middle age (11- to 13-month-old) and old (15- to 21-month-old) mice. In the extensor digitorum longus and soleus muscles of middle age and old mice, there is a significant increase in the number of Ia afferents with large swellings that fail to properly wrap around IMFs compared with young adult (2- to 4-month-old) mice...
September 29, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Kotomi Sakai, Enri Nakayama, Haruka Tohara, Tomomi Maeda, Motonobu Sugimoto, Takahiro Takehisa, Yozo Takehisa, Koichiro Ueda
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate whether tongue strength observed in older adult inpatients of a rehabilitation hospital is associated with muscle function, nutritional status, and dysphagia. A total of 174 older adult inpatients aged 65 years and older in rehabilitation (64 men, 110 women; median age, 84 years; interquartile range, 80-89 years) who were suspected of having reduced tongue strength due to sarcopenia were included in this study. Isometric tongue strength was measured using a device fitted with a disposable oral balloon probe...
September 29, 2016: Dysphagia
Jessica R Terrill, Miranda D Grounds, Peter G Arthur
BACKGROUND: The mdx mouse model for the fatal muscle wasting disease Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) shows a very mild pathology once growth has ceased, with low levels of myofibre necrosis in adults. However, from about 3 weeks of post-natal age, muscles of juvenile mdx mice undergo an acute bout of severe necrosis and inflammation: this subsequently decreases and stabilises to lower adult levels by about 6 weeks of age. Prior to the onset of this severe dystropathology, we have shown that mdx mice are deficient in the amino acid taurine (potentially due to weaning), and we propose that this exacerbates myofibre necrosis and inflammation in juvenile mdx mice...
April 29, 2016: PLoS Currents
Andrew C Fry, Terry J Housh, Joel B Cramer, Joseph P Weir, Travis W Beck, Brian K Schilling, Jonathan D Miller, Justin X Nicoll
Numerous conditions and types of physical activity (e.g., exercise, aging, muscle-related diseases) can influence muscle fiber types and the proteins expressed. To date, muscle fibers can only be characterized by actually obtaining a tissue sample using the invasive muscle biopsy procedure. Mechanomyography (MMG) is the assessment of the vibration properties of contracting skeletal muscle, and has been proposed as a possible non-invasive method for muscle fiber analysis. Therefore, the purpose of this project was to examine the feasibility of using MMG and muscle performance measures to non-invasively assess muscle fiber characteristics...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Andrea Del Campo, Enrique Jaimovich, Maria Florencia Tevy
Sarcopenia is the loss of muscle mass accompanied by a decrease in muscle strength and resistance and is the main cause of disability among the elderly. Muscle loss begins long before there is any clear physical impact in the senior adult. Despite all this, the molecular mechanisms underlying muscle aging are far from being understood. Recent studies have identified that not only mitochondrial metabolic dysfunction but also mitochondrial dynamics and mitochondrial calcium uptake could be involved in the degeneration of skeletal muscle mass...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Sally Spendiff, Madhusudanarao Vuda, Gilles Gouspillou, Sudhakar Aare, Anna Perez, José A Morais, Robert T Jagoe, Marie-Eve Filion, Robin Glicksman, Sophia Kapchinsky, Norah MacMillan, Charlotte H Pion, Mylène Aubertin-Leheudre, Stefan Hettwer, José A Correa, Tanja Taivassalo, Russell T Hepple
Experimental denervation modulates mitochondrial function, where changes in both reactive oxygen species (ROS) and sensitivity to permeability transition are implicated in the resultant muscle atrophy. Notably, although denervation occurs sporadically in ageing muscle, its impact on ageing muscle mitochondria is unknown. As this information has important therapeutic implications concerning targeting the mitochondrion in ageing muscle, we examined mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle from four groups of humans, comprising two active (mean age 23...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Angelica C Alonso, Mark D Peterson, Alexandre L Busse, Wilson Jacob-Filho, Mauricio T A Borges, Marcos M Serra, Natalia M S Luna, Paulo H Marchetti, Júlia M D A Greve
BACKGROUND: Despite the well-known declines in driving performance with advancing age, there is little understanding of the specific factors that predict changes in key determinants such as braking time. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to determine the extent to which age, muscle strength, cognition and postural balance are associated with braking performance in middle-aged and older adults. METHODS: Male and female middle-aged adults (n=62, age=39...
September 8, 2016: Experimental Gerontology
James W Larrick, Jasmine W Larrick, Andrew R Mendelsohn
The loss of muscle stem cell (MuSC) numbers and function in the elderly results in a dramatic delay or incomplete repair of muscle following injury or surgery. Prolonged immobility can exacerbate the loss of muscle mass with increased morbidity of affected patients. Stem cells and their niche cooperate to regulate the activation, self-renewal, differentiation, and return to quiescence of MuSCs. Extracellular matrix fibronectin (FN) and MuSC β1-integrin have been identified as critical factors in the dysfunction of aging muscle...
October 11, 2016: Rejuvenation Research
Ugo Carraro, Helmut Kern, Paolo Gava, Christian Hofer, Stefan Loefler, Paolo Gargiulo, Kyle Edmunds, Íris Dröfn Árnadóttir, Sandra Zampieri, Barbara Ravara, Francesco Gava, Alessandra Nori, Valerio Gobbo, Stefano Masiero, Andrea Marcante, Alfonc Baba, Francesco Piccione, Sheila Schils, Amber Pond, Simone Mosole
Many factors contribute to the decline of skeletal muscle that occurs as we age. This is a reality that we may combat, but not prevent because it is written into our genome. The series of records from World Master Athletes reveals that skeletal muscle power begins to decline at the age of 30 years and continues, almost linearly, to zero at the age of 110 years. Here we discuss evidence that denervation contributes to the atrophy and slowness of aged muscle. We compared muscle from lifelong active seniors to that of sedentary elderly people and found that the sportsmen have more muscle bulk and slow fiber type groupings, providing evidence that physical activity maintains slow motoneurons which reinnervate muscle fibers...
September 3, 2016: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
Allen Herbst, Jonathan Wanagat, Nashwa Cheema, Kevin Widjaja, Debbie McKenzie, Judd M Aiken
With age, somatically derived mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletion mutations arise in many tissues and species. In skeletal muscle, deletion mutations clonally accumulate along the length of individual fibers. At high intrafiber abundances, these mutations disrupt individual cell respiration and are linked to the activation of apoptosis, intrafiber atrophy, breakage, and necrosis, contributing to fiber loss. This sequence of molecular and cellular events suggests a putative mechanism for the permanent loss of muscle fibers with age...
August 25, 2016: Aging Cell
S J Clyse, M A Short
Twenty-four children with learning disabilities or perceptual-motor handicaps were evaluated using the Southern California Postrotary Nystagmus Test and other clinical measures frequently used by occupational therapists to assess vestibular function. Correlational analyses revealed significant relationships between nystagmus duration scores and Walk on Floor Eyes Closed (a test of dynamic balance), prone extension posture, Walk on Floor Eyes Open, age, muscle tone and Standing Balance: Eyes Open. Multiple regression analysis indicated that when all of the clinical variables were considered together, the Walk on Floor Eyes Closed test was the best predictor of postrotary nystagmus duration...
1983: Physical & Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics
M Hagovská, P Takác
OBJECTIVE: Our research deals with the efficiency of rehabilitation in patients after vaginal and abdominal hysterectomy. The activation of pelvic floor muscles has been evaluated and comparison of individual parameters according has been carried out. Also the occurrence of incontinence has been assessed. Subjects consisted of 66 women, out of which there were 21 women after vaginal hysterectomy and 45 women after abdominal hysterectomy. TYPE OF STUDY: Prospective experimental study...
December 2010: Ceská Gynekologie
S Ghadiali R, E Guimond S, E Turnbull J, A Pisconti
Satellite cells (SCs) are skeletal muscle stem cells residing quiescent around healthy muscle fibres. In response to injury or disease SCs activate, proliferate and eventually differentiate and fuse to one another to form new muscle fibres, or to existing damaged fibres to repair them. The sulfated polysaccharide heparan sulfate (HS) is a highly variable biomolecule known to play key roles in the regulation of cell fate decisions, though the changes that muscle HS undergoes during SC differentiation are unknown...
August 2, 2016: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
Joseph T Rodgers
Following an injury, the extracellular matrix (ECM) undergoes dramatic remodeling to facilitate tissue repair. In a new study, Lukjanenko and colleagues show how an age-associated change in this process affects the regenerative ability of muscle stem cells (MuSCs).
August 4, 2016: Cell Stem Cell
Kunihiro Sakuma, Masakazu Kinoshita, Yoshinori Ito, Miki Aizawa, Wataru Aoi, Akihiko Yamaguchi
AIM: We investigated the pathway of autophagy signaling linked to sarcopenia of mice. METHODS: Young adult (3-month) and aged (24- month) C57BL/6J mice were used. Using real-time PCR, Western blotting, and immunohistochemical microscopy, we evaluated the amounts of p62/SQSTM1, LC3, and Beclin-1 in the quadriceps muscle change with aging in mice. RESULTS: Marked fiber atrophy (30%) and many fibers with central nuclei were observed in the aged mice...
May 2016: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
A B F Kassi, F Beuvon, R Costi, P Ph Massault, B Dousset
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2016: Revue Médicale de Bruxelles
Milene F Nunes, Michele E Hukuda, Francis M Favero, Acary B Oliveira, Mariana C Voos, Fátima A Caromano
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between muscle strength and motor function and between these variables and age. METHOD: Muscle strength was measured by Medical Research Council (MRC) scale and motor function, by Motor Function Measure (MFM), in 40 non-ambulatory patients. Spearman tests investigated the relationships between muscle strength, motor function and age. RESULTS: Total MRC and MFM scores were strongly related to each other (r = 0...
July 2016: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
Domenic A LaRosa, Stacey J Ellery, Rod J Snow, David W Walker, Hayley Dickinson
BACKGROUND: Maternal antenatal creatine supplementation protects the brain, kidney and diaphragm against the effects of birth asphyxia in the spiny mouse. In this study we examined creatine's potential to prevent damage to axial skeletal muscles. METHODS: Pregnant spiny mice were fed a control or creatine-supplemented diet from mid-pregnancy, and one day (d) before term (39d) fetuses were delivered by c-section with or without 7.5 min of birth asphyxia. At 24 hours (h) or 33±2 d after birth, gastrocnemius muscles were obtained for ex-vivo study of twitch-tension, muscle fatigue, and structural and histochemical analysis...
July 28, 2016: Pediatric Research
John T Kim, Benjamin M Kasukonis, Lemuel A Brown, Tyrone A Washington, Jeffrey C Wolchok
Termed volumetric muscle loss (VML), the bulk loss of skeletal muscle tissue either through trauma or surgery overwhelms the capacity for repair, leading to the formation of non-contractile scar tissue. The myogenic potential, along with other factors that influence wound repair are known to decline with age. In order to develop effective treatment strategies for VML injuries that are effective across a broad range of patient populations, it is necessary to understand how the response to VML injury is affected by aging...
October 2016: Experimental Gerontology
Ruairi W Lynch, Timothy Soane, Rod Gibson, Suvankar Pal, Charlie W Lees
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2, 2016: Lancet
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