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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205241/septic-transfusion-case-caused-by-a-platelet-pool-with-visible-clotting-due-to-contamination-with-staphylococcus-aureus
#1
Maria Loza-Correa, Yuntong Kou, Mariam Taha, Miloslav Kalab, Jennifer Ronholm, Patrick M Schlievert, Michael P Cahill, Robert Skeate, Christine Cserti-Gazdewich, Sandra Ramirez-Arcos
BACKGROUND: Contamination of platelet concentrates (PCs) with Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most significant ongoing transfusion safety risks in developed countries. CASE REPORT: This report describes a transfusion reaction in an elderly patient diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia, transfused with a 4-day-old buffy coat PC through a central venous catheter. The transfusion was interrupted when a large fibrous clot in the PC obstructed infusion pump flow...
February 16, 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193526/identification-of-the-blood-coagulation-factor-interacting-sequences-in-staphylococcal-superantigen-like-protein-10
#2
Saotomo Itoh, Takemasa Takii, Kikuo Onozaki, Tsutomu Tsuji, Shigeaki Hida
Staphylococcal superantigen-like proteins (SSLs) are a family of exoproteins of Staphylococcus aureus. We have shown that SSL10 binds to vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors and inhibits blood coagulation induced by recalcification of citrated plasma. SSL10 was revealed to bind to coagulation factors via theirγ-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) domain. In this study we attempted to identify the responsible sequence of SSL10 for the interaction with coagulation factors. We prepared a series of domain swap mutants between SSL10 and its paralog SSL7 that does not interact with coagulation factors, and examined their binding activity to immobilized prothrombin using ELISA-like binding assay...
February 10, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128856/experimental-arthritis-in-the-rat-induced-by-the-superantigen-staphylococcal-enterotoxin-a-sea
#3
Kristina Gerlach, Christian Tomuschat, Rainer Finke, Martin Sebastian Staege, Christine Brütting, Jörg Brandt, Berit Jordan, René Schwesig, Angela Rosemeier, Karl-Stefan Delank, Malte Erich Kornhuber, Alexander Emmer
The pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is incompletely understood. Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) and their superantigenic envelope protein (env) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of RA. In the present investigation the arthritogenic potential of the superantigen Staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) has been investigated. In the present investigation, the bacterial superantigen Staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) was injected into the right knee joint of 15 Lewis rats. Further 9 animals received saline...
January 27, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123509/different-roles-of-staphylococcus-aureus-enterotoxin-in-different-subtypes-of-nasal-polyps
#4
Ke-Jia Cheng, Shen-Qing Wang, Ying-Ying Xu
Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is a multifactorial disease. The pathogenesis of CRSwNP remains unclear. This study was designed to investigate the role of inflammation and Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin (SE) in this disease. The study included a total of 74 patients with CRSwNP and 6 controls. A serum Phadiatop assay was conducted to detect atopy status, and serum eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and total immunoglobulin (Ig)E levels were determined using ELISA. SEA, SEB, total IgE, ECP and myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels in nasal tissue supernatant were measured using ELISA...
January 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122962/staphylococcus-aureus-downregulates-ip-10-production-and-prevents-th1-cell-recruitment
#5
Zhigang Li, Benoît Levast, Joaquín Madrenas
Staphylococcal superantigens cause toxic shock syndrome, which is characterized by massive T cell activation and a predominant Th1 profile of cytokine production. However, superantigen-producing Staphylococcus aureus strains are often part of the human nasal microbiome, and this carrier state has often been associated with some type 2 immune responses such as chronic sinusitis with polyps and atopic dermatitis. We have previously reported that the S. aureus cell wall downregulates the human T cell response to superantigens through a TLR2-dependent, IL-10-mediated mechanism...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099884/characterization-of-human-and-staphylococcus-aureus-proteins-in-respiratory-mucosa-by-in-vivo-and-immunoproteomics
#6
Frank Schmidt, Tanja Meyer, Nandakumar Sundaramoorthy, Stephan Michalik, Kristin Surmann, Maren Depke, Vishnu Dhople, Manuela Gesell Salazar, Gabriele Holtappels, Nan Zhang, Barbara M Bröker, Claus Bachert, Uwe Völker
: Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive opportunistic bacterium which can be found as a commensal in the nares of about 50% of the human population. Besides asymptomatic carriage, S. aureus has also been found to colonize nasal polyps, a subform of chronic rhinosinusitis, in 60 to 100% of cases, and even reside intracellularly in nasal polyp tissue. The aim of this study was to shed light on the behavior of S. aureus in the human airways by analyzing S. aureus-specific proteins in nasal polyp tissue from patients with chronic rhinosinusitis and to characterize the immunogenic potential of the identified (mainly secreted) proteins...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063655/analysis-of-home-dust-for-staphylococcus-aureus-and-staphylococcal-enterotoxin-genes-using-quantitative-pcr
#7
Shanna Ludwig, Isabel Jimenez-Bush, Emily Brigham, Sonali Bose, Gregory Diette, Meredith C McCormack, Elizabeth C Matsui, Meghan F Davis
BACKGROUND: The bacterium Staphylococcus aureus (SA) is known to induce allergic inflammatory responses, including through secreted staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) superantigens. To quantify indoor environmental exposures to these potential allergens, which may be associated with worse asthma, we developed a method for the assessment of S. aureus and SE in home dust and applied it to a study of homes of inner-city adults with asthma. METHODS: We conducted laboratory experiments to optimize sample processing and real-time PCR methods for detection and quantification of SA (femB) and SEA-D, based on published primers...
January 4, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035011/invariant-nkt-cells-are-pathogenic-in-the-hla-dr4-transgenic-humanized-mouse-model-of-toxic-shock-syndrome-and-can-be-targeted-to-reduce-morbidity
#8
Peter A Szabo, Patrick T Rudak, Joshua Choi, Stacey X Xu, Robert Schaub, Bhagirath Singh, John K McCormick, S M Mansour Haeryfar
During toxic shock syndrome (TSS), bacterial superantigens trigger a polyclonal T cell response leading to a potentially catastrophic 'cytokine storm'. Whether innate-like invariant natural killer T(iNKT) cells, with remarkable immunomodulatory properties, participate in TSS is unclear. Using genetic and cell depletion approaches, we generated iNKT cell-deficient, superantigen-sensitive HLA-DR4-transgenic (DR4tg) mice, which were compared with their iNKT-sufficient counterparts for responsiveness to staphylococcal enterotoxin B(SEB)...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033724/identification-of-virulence-genes-carried-by-bacteriophages-obtained-from-clinically-isolated-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#9
Djursun Karasartova, Zeynep Burcin Cavusoglu, Buse Turegun, Murat T Ozsan, Fikret Şahin
Bacteriophages play an important role in the pathogenicity of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) either by carrying accessory virulence factors or several superantigens. Despite their importance, there are not many studies showing the actual distribution of the virulence genes carried by the prophages obtained from the clinically isolated Staphylococcus. In this study, we investigated prophages obtained from methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains isolated from hospital- and community-associated (HA-CA) infections for the virulence factors...
December 2016: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025135/doxorubicin-enhances-the-capacity-of-b-cells-to-activate-t-cells-in-urothelial-urinary-bladder-cancer
#10
A Ali Zirakzadeh, Johan Kinn, David Krantz, Robert Rosenblatt, Malin E Winerdal, Jin Hu, Ciputra Adijaya Hartana, Christian Lundgren, Emma Ahlén Bergman, Markus Johansson, Benny Holmström, Johan Hansson, Alexander Sidikii, Janos Vasko, Per Marits, Amir Sherif, Ola Winqvist
Cancer is currently treated by a combination of therapies, including chemotherapy which is believed to suppress the immune system. Combination of immunotherapy and chemotherapy correlates with improved survival but needs careful planning in order to achieve a synergistic effect. In this study, we have demonstrated that doxorubicin treatment of B cells resulted in increased expression of CD86 and concordantly increased CD4(+) T cell activation in the presence of superantigen, an effect that was inhibited by the addition of a CD86 blocking antibody...
December 24, 2016: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012189/vitamin-d3-derivatives-alone-or-in-combination-with-glucocorticoids-suppress-streptococcal-pyrogenic-enterotoxin-a-stimulated-proliferation-of-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-in-patients-with-psoriasis
#11
Kae Usui, Yukari Okubo, Toshihiko Hirano, Ryoji Tsuboi
Bacterial colonization on skin or tonsil may influence the clinical response of patients with psoriasis to immunosuppressive drugs. However, few studies have investigated the effects of bacterial superantigens on therapy in these patients. Recently, combination therapy with topical glucocorticoids (GC) and vitamin D3 (VD3) appears to be more effective than GC or VD3 monotherapy for psoriasis. We evaluated the suppressive effects of betamethasone butyrate propionate (BBP), three VD3 derivatives (calcipotriol, maxacalcitol and tacalcitol), cyclosporin and BBP plus VD3, on concanavalin A (ConA)- or streptococcal pyrogenic enterotoxin A (SPEA)-stimulated proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) obtained from 35 psoriasis patients...
December 24, 2016: Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992203/sage-a-fast-computational-tool-for-linear-epitope-grafting-onto-a-foreign-protein-scaffold
#12
Riccardo Capelli, Filippo Marchetti, Guido Tiana, Giorgio Colombo
Computational design is becoming a driving force of structural vaccinology, whereby protein antigens are engineered to generate new biomolecules with optimized immunological properties. In particular, the design of new proteins that contain multiple, different epitopes can potentially provide novel highly efficient vaccine candidates. In this context, epitope grafting, which entails the transplantation of an antibody recognition motif from one protein onto a different protein scaffold (possibly containing other immunoreactive sequences) holds great promise for the realization of superantigens...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991848/molecular-characteristics-of-erythromycin-resistant-streptococcus-pyogenes-strains-isolated-from-children-patients-in-tunis-tunisia
#13
Sonia Ksia, Hanen Smaoui, Manel Hraoui, Aida Bouafsoun, Ihem Boutiba-Ben Boubaker, Amel Kechrid
AIM: The aims of our study were to characterize phenotypically and genotypically erythromycin-resistant Streptococcus pyogenes or group A streptococci (ERGAS) isolates, to evaluate macrolide resistance and to analyze the association between emm types and virulence factors. Included in this study were all ERGAS strains isolated from 2000 to 2013 at the Children's hospital of Tunis. Antimicrobial susceptibility was performed according to the CA-SFM guidelines. Macrolide resistance genes were revealed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method...
December 19, 2016: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990380/kawasaki-disease-for-dermatologists
#14
REVIEW
Aman Gupta, Surjit Singh
Kawasaki disease (KD) is a systemic vasculitis that mostly affects children below the age of 5. The vasculitis involves arteries of medium size, especially the coronaries. Various etiologies have been proposed including association with micro-organisms, bacterial superantigens, and genetic factors, however, the exact cause remains unknown. There is no specific laboratory test for KD. Diagnosis is clinical and depends upon the presence of fever for ≥5 days and 4 or more of five principal features, viz. polymorphous exanthem, extremity changes, mucosal changes involving the lips and oral cavity, bilateral bulbar conjunctival injection, and unilateral cervical lymphadenopathy...
November 2016: Indian Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982549/latest-insights-into-pathogenesis-of-mycosis-fungoides-and-cutaneous-t-cell-lymphoma
#15
Laura Y McGirt
Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) is a rare but increasing malignancy whose protean manifestations necessarily present in the integument, but can also spread to involve blood, lymph nodes and internal organs. We have developed efficacious and varied therapies to treat early and advanced stage disease, but there are still many who suffer tremendously from this illness. Although the pathogenesis of this cancer remains frustratingly elusive, over the last 200 years we have generated a robust body of evidence that points toward possible singular as well as multifactorial etiologies...
April 2017: Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia: Organo Ufficiale, Società Italiana di Dermatologia e Sifilografia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981233/temporal-and-racial-differences-associated-with-atopic-dermatitis-staphylococcusaureus-and-encoded-virulence-factors
#16
Joseph A Merriman, Elizabeth A Mueller, Michael P Cahill, Lisa A Beck, Amy S Paller, Jon M Hanifin, Peck Y Ong, Lynda Schneider, Denise C Babineau, Gloria David, Alexandre Lockhart, Keli Artis, Donald Y M Leung, Patrick M Schlievert
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an inflammatory skin condition strongly associated with Staphylococcus aureus colonization and infection. S. aureus strains shift in populations in ~10-year intervals depending on virulence factors. Shifts in S. aureus virulence factors may in part explain the racial differences observed in the levels of prevalence and severity of AD. AD S. aureus isolates collected from 2011 to 2014 (103 isolates) and in 2008 (100 isolates) were examined for the prevalence of genes encoding superantigens (SAgs)...
November 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925510/passive-therapy-with-humanized-anti-staphylococcal-enterotoxin-b-antibodies-attenuates-systemic-inflammatory-response-and-protects-from-lethal-pneumonia-caused-by-staphylococcal-enterotoxin-b-producing-staphylococcus-aureus
#17
Melissa J Karau, Mulualem E Tilahun, Ashton Krogman, Barbara A Osborne, Richard A Goldsby, Chella S David, Jayawant N Mandrekar, Robin Patel, Govindarajan Rajagopalan
Drugs such as linezolid that inhibit bacterial protein synthesis may be beneficial in treating infections caused by toxigenic Staphylococcus aureus. As protein synthesis inhibitors have no effect on preformed toxins, neutralization of pathogenic exotoxins with anti-toxin antibodies may be beneficial in conjunction with antibacterial therapy. Herein, we evaluated the efficacy of human-mouse chimeric high-affinity neutralizing anti-staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) antibodies in the treatment of experimental pneumonia caused by SEB-producing S...
December 7, 2016: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903001/right-in-front-of-our-eyes-evolution-of-streptococcal-toxic-shock-syndrome-with-ischemic-optic-neuropathy
#18
Salaheldin M Elhamamsy, Mazen O Al-Qadi, Taro Minami, Marguerite Neill
INTRODUCTION: Toxic shock syndrome occurs from dysregulation of host inflammatory responses. Toxin- producing strains of Group A streptococcus cause TSS. Ischemic optic neuropathy rarely complicates septic shock. We present a rare case of streptococcal pharyngitis complicated by septic arthritis and TSS with reversible blindness due to non-arteritic ischemic optic neuropathy. CASE: A 28-year-old man drove to our ED with exudative pharyngitis. A rapid streptococcal test was positive...
December 1, 2016: Rhode Island Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895635/molecular-characteristic-and-virulence-gene-profiles-of-community-associated-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-from-pediatric-patients-in-shanghai-china
#19
Xing Wang, Xia Li, Wei Liu, Weichun Huang, Qihua Fu, Min Li
Staphylococcus aureus is a globally important human pathogen, especially among children and immunocompromised patients. The emergence and spread of community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) has become a serious public health problem worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, molecular characteristics and virulence profiles of CA-MRSA infections from pediatric patients in a university hospital in Shanghai, China. A total of 80 CA-MRSA isolates were collected from July 2012 to December 2013 in Shanghai Children's Medical Center and analyzed by multilocus sequence typing, staphylococcus chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) typing, and spa typing...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888916/refractory-chronic-rhinosinusitis-with-nasal-polyposis
#20
REVIEW
Benjamin P Hull, Rakesh K Chandra
Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis (CRSwNP) represents a subset of chronic sinusitis with various causes. Some forms of the disease are driven by allergy, often in association with asthma. Refractory CRSwNP can be associated with cystic fibrosis and other clinical syndromes. More recent literature is presented regarding roles of innate immunity and superantigens. Effective treatment of CRSwNP requires careful endoscopic sinus surgery followed by an individualized treatment plan that often includes oral and topical steroids...
February 2017: Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America
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