keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Superantigen

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784858/production-of-staphylococcal-complement-inhibitor-scin-and-other-immune-modulators-during-the-early-stages-of-staphylococcus-aureus-biofilm-formation-in-a-mammalian-cell-culture-medium
#1
Andi R Sultan, Jasper W Swierstra, Nicole A Lemmens-den Toom, Susan V Snijders, Silvie Hansenová Maňásková, Annelies Verbon, Willem J B van Wamel
Immune modulators are known to be produced by matured biofilms and during different stages of planktonic growth of Staphylococcus aureus. Little is known about immune modulator production during the early stages of biofilm formation, thus raising the question: how does S. aureus protect itself from the innate immune responses at these stages? Therefore, we determined the production of the following immune modulators: chemotaxis inhibitory protein of staphylococci (CHIPS), staphylococcal complement inhibitor (SCIN), formyl peptide receptor-like 1 inhibitor, gamma-hemolysin component B, leukocidin D, E, and S, staphylococcal superantigen-like protein 1, 3, 5 and 9, and staphylococcal enterotoxin A...
May 21, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772261/maternal-immune-activation-with-staphylococcal-enterotoxin-a-produces-unique-behavioral-changes-in-c57bl-6-mouse-offspring
#2
Ruthy Glass, Sara Norton, Nicholas Fox, Alexander W Kusnecov
Stimulation of the immune system during pregnancy, known as maternal immune activation (MIA), can cause long-lasting neurobiological and behavioral changes in the offspring. This phenomenon has been implicated in the etiology of developmental psychiatric disorders, such as autism and schizophrenia. Much of this evidence is predicated on animal models using bacterial agents such as LPS and/or viral mimics such as Poly I:C, both of which act through toll-like receptors. However, fewer studies have examined the role of direct activation of maternal T-cells during pregnancy using microbial agents...
May 14, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745876/the-presence-of-staphylococcal-superantigens-in-nasal-swabs-and-correlation-with-activity-of-granulomatosis-with-polyangiitis-in-own-material
#3
Justyna Fijołek, Elzbieta Wiatr, Violetta Petroniec, Ewa Augustynowicz-Kopec, Michal Bednarek, Dariusz Gawryluk, Magdalena Maria Martusewicz-Boros, Katarzyna Modrzewska, Elzbieta Radzikowska, Kazimerz Roszkowski-Sliz
OBJECTIVES: Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus and its superantigens (SAg) seem to be a risk factor disease exacerbation in granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA). We investigated the association between the presence of SAg in nasal swabs and activity of disease in GPA patients also taking into account correlation with an antimicrobial treatment. METHODS: In a prospective study of a total of 150 GPA patients hospitalised in the period 2009-2016, nasal swabs were examined for the presence of Staphylococcus aureus and SAg...
May 4, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718183/historical-links-between-toxinology-and-immunology
#4
Jean-Marc Cavaillon
Research on bacterial toxins is closely linked to the birth of immunology. Our understanding of the interaction of bacterial protein toxins with immune cells has helped to decipher immunopathology, develop preventive and curative treatments for infections, and propose anti-cancer immunotherapies. The link started when Behring and Kitasato demonstrated that serotherapy was effective against 'the strangling angel', namely diphtheria, and its dreadful toxin discovered by Roux and Yersin. The antitoxin treatment helped to save thousands of children...
April 1, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662470/basis-of-virulence-in-enterotoxin-mediated-staphylococcal-food-poisoning
#5
REVIEW
Emilie L Fisher, Michael Otto, Gordon Y C Cheung
The Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins are a superfamily of secreted virulence factors that share structural and functional similarities and possess potent superantigenic activity causing disruptions in adaptive immunity. The enterotoxins can be separated into two groups; the classical (SEA-SEE) and the newer (SEG-SE l Y and counting) enterotoxin groups. Many members from both these groups contribute to the pathogenesis of several serious human diseases, including toxic shock syndrome, pneumonia, and sepsis-related infections...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619033/triggering-receptor-expressed-on-myeloid-cells-1-signaling-protective-and-pathogenic-roles-on-streptococcal-toxic-shock-like-syndrome-caused-by-streptococcus-suis
#6
REVIEW
Li Han, Lei Fu, Yongbo Peng, Anding Zhang
Streptococcus suis infections can cause septic shock, which is referred to as streptococcal toxic-shock-like syndrome (STSLS). The disease is characterized by a severe inflammatory response, multiple organ failure, and high mortality. However, no superantigen that is responsible for toxic shock syndrome was detected in S. suis , indicating that the mechanism underlying STSLS is different and remains to be elucidated. Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1), belonging to the Ig superfamily, is an activating receptor expressed on myeloid cells, and has been recognized as a critical immunomodulator in several inflammatory diseases of both infectious and non-infectious etiologies...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616025/differences-between-pediatric-and-adult-t-cell-responses-to-in-vitro-staphylococcal-enterotoxin-b-stimulation
#7
Mark E Rudolph, Monica A McArthur, Robin S Barnes, Laurence S Magder, Wilbur H Chen, Marcelo B Sztein
Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is capable of inducing life-threatening fever, rash, and systemic organ failure, though the specific mechanisms behind these symptoms remain poorly understood. Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) and other superantigens have shown to be important factors in TSS, capable of promoting cross-linking between T cell receptors and major histocompatibility complexes which results in overwhelming T cell activation, proliferation, and cytokine production. The resulting proinflammatory cytokine cascade, often referred to as the "cytokine storm," seems to be critical to the development of disease...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603683/oral-candida-colonization-and-plaque-type-psoriasis-is-there-any-relationship
#8
Simin Lesan, Roja Toosi, Reza Aliakbarzadeh, Maryam Daneshpazhooh, Leila Mahmoudi, Soheil Tavakolpour, Hamidreza Mahmoudi
AIM: The potential role of superantigens derived from microbial agents could be considered in the pathogenesis of psoriasis, but the association between Candida albicans and psoriasis severity is still controversial. The present study was designed to compare the prevalence of oral candidiasis in a group of psoriatic patients and healthy patients, and its correlation with psoriasis severity. METHODS: Seventy psoriatic patients with no history of systemic treatment and 70 closely-matched control patients underwent oral examination...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Investigative and Clinical Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599675/activity-of-antimicrobial-peptides-and-conventional-antibiotics-against-superantigen-positive-staphylococcus-aureus-isolated-from-patients-with-atopic-dermatitis
#9
Izabela Błażewicz, Maciej Jaśkiewicz, Lidia Piechowicz, Damian Neubauer, Roman J Nowicki, Wojciech Kamysz, Wioletta Barańska-Rybak
Introduction: Staphylococcus aureus causes a diverse array of diseases, ranging from relatively harmless localized skin infections to life-threatening systemic conditions. It secretes toxins directly associated with particular disease symptoms. Aim: To determine the prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) colonization among patients with atopic dermatitis and to assess the antimicrobial susceptibility to conventional antibiotics and selected antimicrobial peptides among toxin-producing strains and nonproducing strains...
February 2018: Postȩpy Dermatologii i Alergologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584685/characterization-of-human-type-c-enterotoxin-produced-by-clinical-s-epidermidis-isolates
#10
Chimène Nanoukon, Dissou Affolabi, Daniel Keller, Rodrigue Tollo, Philippe Riegel, Lamine Baba-Moussa, Gilles Prévost
Staphylococcal Enterotoxins (SEs) are superantigens (SAg) originally produced by S. aureus , but their presence in coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) has long been suspected. This study aims to better characterize a novel C-like enterotoxin expressed by clinical S. epidermidis strains, called SECepi . We isolated and characterized SECepi for its molecular and functional properties. The toxin was structurally modeled according to its significant similarity with S. aureus SEC3. Most of SEC amino acid residues important for the formation of the trimolecular Major Histocompatibility Complex II MHCII-SEC-T Cell Receptor TCR complex are conserved in SECepi ...
March 27, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574061/identification-and-characterization-of-two-novel-superantigens-among-staphylococcus-aureus-complex
#11
Dao-Feng Zhang, Xin-Yi Yang, Jing Zhang, Xiaojie Qin, Xiaozhen Huang, Yan Cui, Min Zhou, Chunlei Shi, Nigel P French, Xianming Shi
Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs), also known as superantigens, play a very important role in infections and food poisoning caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Recently, S. argenteus and S. schweitzeri were recognized as novel species closely related to S. aureus. In this study of these three species, it was found that two putative SE genes were located upstream of some vSaβ pathogenicity islands and the deduced amino acid sequences showed < 65.3% identity with those of known SEs. The related proteins, designated staphylococcal enterotoxin-like toxin 26 (SEl26) and 27 (SEl27), were identified and characterized among the three species...
March 6, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551087/construction-expression-and-characterization-of-rsea-egf-and-in-vitro-evaluation-of-its-antitumor-activity-against-nasopharyngeal-cancer
#12
Xueting Liu, Liping Zeng, Zhongqiu Zhao, Yang Xie, Shan Wang, Junyan Zhang, Ying He, Zehong Zou, Jianguo Zhang, Ailin Tao
Staphylococcal enterotoxin A is well known as a superantigen and able to be used for cancer immunotherapy. In this study, recombinant Staphylococcal enterotoxin A was genetically conjugated to epidermal growth factor to produce a chimeric protein recombinant Staphylococcal enterotoxin A-epidermal growth factor expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant Staphylococcal enterotoxin A-epidermal growth factor protein was purified using Strep-Tactin affinity chromatography and Endotoxin Removal Resin and identified by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electropheresis and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis...
January 1, 2018: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29532420/detection-of-streptococcus-pyogenes-virulence-genes-in-streptococcus-dysgalactiae-subsp-equisimilis-from-vellore-india
#13
Anshu Babbar, Andreas Itzek, Dietmar H Pieper, D Patric Nitsche-Schmitz
Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE), belonging to the group C and G streptococci, are human pathogens reported to cause clinical manifestations similar to infections caused by Streptococcus pyogenes. To scrutinize the distribution of gene coding for S. pyogenes virulence factors in SDSE, 255 isolates were collected from humans infected with SDSE in Vellore, a region in southern India, with high incidence of SDSE infections. Initial evaluation indicated SDSE isolates comprising of 82.35% group G and 17...
March 12, 2018: Folia Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530660/streptococcal-pharyngitis-and-rheumatic-heart-disease-the-superantigen-hypothesis-revisited
#14
REVIEW
Jacklyn R Hurst, Katherine J Kasper, Akshay N Sule, John K McCormick
Streptococcus pyogenes is a human-specific and globally prominent bacterial pathogen that despite causing numerous human infections, this bacterium is normally found in an asymptomatic carrier state. This review provides an overview of both bacterial and human factors that likely play an important role in nasopharyngeal colonization and pharyngitis, as well as the development of acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease. Here we highlight a recently described role for bacterial superantigens in promoting acute nasopharyngeal infection, and discuss how these immune system activating toxins could be crucial to initiate the autoimmune process in rheumatic heart disease...
July 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528865/autoimmune-manifestations-of-infections
#15
Luis J Jara, Gabriela Medina, Miguel A Saavedra
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an update about the interactions between infections and autoimmune diseases (AIDs), from the molecular perspective to the clinical spectrum and the differentiation between infection and disease activity. RECENT FINDINGS: Any kind of infection may modify the innate and adaptive immune response through the following mechanisms: molecular mimicry, superantigens, epitope spreading and B-cell activation. The consequence is the overproduction of antibodies shared with those found in AIDs...
March 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29512867/resveratrol-protects-mice-against-seb-induced-acute-lung-injury-and-mortality-by-mir-193a-modulation-that-targets-tgf-%C3%AE-signalling
#16
Hasan Alghetaa, Amira Mohammed, Muthanna Sultan, Philip Busbee, Angela Murphy, Saurabh Chatterjee, Mitzi Nagarkatti, Prakash Nagarkatti
Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) is a potent superantigen produced by Staphylococcus aureus that triggers a strong immune response, characterized by cytokine storm, multi-organ failure, and often death. When inhaled, SEB can cause acute lung injury (ALI) and respiratory failure. In this study, we investigated the effect of resveratrol (RES), a phytoallexin, on SEB-driven ALI and mortality in mice. We used a dual-exposure model of SEB in C3H/HeJ mice, which caused 100% mortality within the first 5 days of exposure, and treatment with RES resulted in 100% survival of these mice up to 10 days post-SEB exposure...
May 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506153/il-7-unveils-pathogen-specific-t-cells-by-enhancing-antigen-recall-responses
#17
Nadia Terrazzini, Paola Mantegani, Florian Kern, Claudio Fortis, Anna Mondino, Stefano Caserta
Background: IL-7 promotes the generation, expansion and survival of memory T cells. Previous mouse and human studies showed that IL-7 can support immune cell reconstitution in lymphopenic conditions, expand tumor-reactive T cells for adoptive immunotherapy and enhance effector cytokine expression by autoreactive T cells. Whether pathogen-reactive T cells also benefit from IL-7 exposure remains unknown. Methods: Here we investigated this issue in cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) derived from patients infected with various endemic pathogens...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462623/identification-of-matrix-metalloproteinase-9-interacting-sequences-in-staphylococcal-superantigen-like-protein-5
#18
Katsuhiro Kohno, Saotomo Itoh, Akari Hanai, Takemasa Takii, Toshinobu Fujiwara, Kikuo Onozaki, Tsutomu Tsuji, Shigeaki Hida
Staphylococcal superantigen like 5 (SSL5) is an exotoxin produced by S. aureus and has a strong inhibitory effect on MMP-9 enzymatic activity. However, the mechanism of inhibition remains unclear. We sought to identify the responsible regions of SSL5 for the interaction with MMP-9 by comparing a series of domain swap and deletion mutants of SSL5. Binding analyses revealed that SSL5 had two regions for binding to MMP-9 catalytic domain, β1-3 region (25 SKELKNVTGY RYSKGGKHYL IFDKNRKFTR VQIFGK60 ) in N-terminal half and α4β9 region (138 KELDFKLRQY LIQNFDLYKK FPKDSKIKVI MKD170 ) in C-terminal half...
March 4, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350159/clinical-and-molecular-epidemiology-of-staphylococcal-toxic-shock-syndrome-in-the-united-kingdom
#19
Hema Sharma, Debra Smith, Claire E Turner, Laurence Game, Bruno Pichon, Russell Hope, Robert Hill, Angela Kearns, Shiranee Sriskandan
Staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome (TSS) was originally described in menstruating women and linked to TSS toxin 1 (TSST-1)-producing Staphylococcus aureus. Using UK national surveillance data, we ascertained clinical, molecular and superantigenic characteristics of TSS cases. Average annual TSS incidence was 0.07/100,000 population. Patients with nonmenstrual TSS were younger than those with menstrual TSS but had the same mortality rate. Children <16 years of age accounted for 39% of TSS cases, most caused by burns and skin and soft tissue infections...
February 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335257/staphylococcal-superantigens-use-lama2-as-a-coreceptor-to-activate-t-cells
#20
Zhigang Li, Joseph J Zeppa, Mark A Hancock, John K McCormick, Terence M Doherty, Geoffrey N Hendy, Joaquín Madrenas
Canonical Ag-dependent TCR signaling relies on activation of the src-family tyrosine kinase LCK. However, staphylococcal superantigens can trigger TCR signaling by activating an alternative pathway that is independent of LCK and utilizes a Gα11-containing G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) leading to PLCβ activation. The molecules linking the superantigen to GPCR signaling are unknown. Using the ligand-receptor capture technology LRC-TriCEPS, we identified LAMA2, the α2 subunit of the extracellular matrix protein laminin, as the coreceptor for staphylococcal superantigens...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
keyword
keyword
116590
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"