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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350563/predicting-the-mental-health-and-functioning-of-torture-survivors
#1
Suzan J Song, Andrew Subica, Charles Kaplan, Wietse Tol, Joop de Jong
The psychological effects of war represent a growing public health concern as more refugees and asylum seekers migrate across borders. This study investigates whether sociodemographic, premigration and postmigration, and psychosocial factors predict adverse psychiatric symptoms in refugees and asylum seekers exposed to torture (N = 278). Hierarchical linear regressions revealed that female sex, older age, and unstable housing predicted greater severity of anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and depression...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345736/-kleine-levin-syndrome-differential-diagnosis-in-recurrent-encephalitic-syndromes-in-adolescence
#2
A Duat-Rodriguez, I Martinez-Albadalejo, I Perez-Sebastian, V Cantarin-Extremera, A Hedrera-Fernandez, J J Garcia-Penas
INTRODUCTION: The Kleine-Levin syndrome is a rare disease of unknown origin characterized by recurrent and self-limited episodes of hypersomnia that are also accompanied by a cognitive and behavioral dysfunction. Patients present normal sleeping and behavior patterns between episodes. CASE REPORTS: We present three patients who are 14 years old: two boys and one girl. They started having the episodes after a predisposing factor (vaccine, influenza B and menstruation)...
April 1, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344044/impairments-of-motor-function-among-children-with-a-familial-risk-of-schizophrenia-or-bipolar-disorder-at-7-years-old-in-denmark-an-observational-cohort-study
#3
Birgitte Klee Burton, Anne A E Thorup, Jens Richardt Jepsen, Gry Poulsen, Ditte Ellersgaard, Katrine S Spang, Camilla Jerlang Christiani, Nicoline Hemager, Ditte Gantriis, Aja Greve, Ole Mors, Merete Nordentoft, Kerstin Jessica Plessen
BACKGROUND: Owing to the genetic overlap between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, we aimed to assess domain-specific motor aberrations and disorder specificity among 7-year-old children with a familial risk of schizophrenia or bipolar disorder by comparing children in familial risk groups with each other and with children not in these risk groups. METHODS: In the Danish High Risk and Resilience Study, we established a cohort of 7-year-old children with no, one, or two parents with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder in Denmark between Jan 1, 2013, and Jan 31, 2016...
March 23, 2017: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344043/renewed-awareness-of-motor-symptoms-in-psychiatric-assessment
#4
Anne Beate Helseth Udal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 23, 2017: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343697/modeling-avoidance-in-mood-and-anxiety-disorders-using-reinforcement-learning
#5
Anahit Mkrtchian, Jessica Aylward, Peter Dayan, Jonathan P Roiser, Oliver J Robinson
BACKGROUND: Serious and debilitating symptoms of anxiety are the most common mental health problem worldwide, accounting for around 5% of all adult years lived with disability in the developed world. Avoidance behavior-avoiding social situations for fear of embarrassment, for instance-is a core feature of such anxiety. However, as for many other psychiatric symptoms the biological mechanisms underlying avoidance remain unclear. METHODS: Reinforcement learning models provide formal and testable characterizations of the mechanisms of decision making; here, we examine avoidance in these terms...
February 8, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343453/a-trans-diagnostic-perspective-on-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#6
C M Gillan, N A Fineberg, T W Robbins
Progress in understanding the underlying neurobiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has stalled in part because of the considerable problem of heterogeneity within this diagnostic category, and homogeneity across other putatively discrete, diagnostic categories. As psychiatry begins to recognize the shortcomings of a purely symptom-based psychiatric nosology, new data-driven approaches have begun to be utilized with the goal of solving these problems: specifically, identifying trans-diagnostic aspects of clinical phenomenology based on their association with neurobiological processes...
March 27, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343409/development-of-a-prediction-model-for-post-concussive-symptoms-following-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-a-track-tbi-pilot-study
#7
Maryse C Cnossen, Ethan A Winkler, John K Yue, David O Okonkwo, Alex Valadka, Ewout W Steyerberg, Hester Lingsma, Geoffrey T Manley
Post-concussive symptoms occur frequently after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and may be categorized as cognitive, somatic, or emotional. We aimed to: 1) assess whether patient demographics and clinical variables predict development of each of these three symptom categories, and 2) develop a prediction model for six-month post-concussive symptoms. MTBI patients (Glasgow Coma Scale score 13-15) from the prospective multicenter Transforming Research and Clinical Knowledge in Traumatic Brain Injury (TRACK-TBI) Pilot study (2010-2012) who completed the Rivermead Post-Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire (RPQ) at six-months post-injury were included...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343342/caregiver-teacher-concordance-of-challenging-behaviors-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-served-in-community-mental-health-settings
#8
Nicole Stadnick, Colby Chlebowski, Lauren Brookman-Frazee
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit high rates of challenging behaviors that impair functioning and represent the primary presenting problem in mental health (MH) services. Obtaining symptom reports from multiple informants is critical for treatment planning. This study evaluated caregiver-teacher concordance of ratings of the intensity of challenging behaviors in children with ASD receiving MH services, and identified child clinical factors associated with concordance. This sample included 141 children (M = 9...
March 25, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343281/using-patterns-of-genetic-association-to-elucidate-shared-genetic-etiologies-across-psychiatric-disorders
#9
Seung Bin Cho, Fazil Aliev, Shaunna L Clark, Amy E Adkins, Howard J Edenberg, Kathleen K Bucholz, Bernice Porjesz, Danielle M Dick
Twin studies indicate that latent genetic factors overlap across comorbid psychiatric disorders. In this study, we used a novel approach to elucidate shared genetic factors across psychiatric outcomes by clustering single nucleotide polymorphisms based on their genome-wide association patterns. We applied latent profile analysis (LPA) to p-values resulting from genome-wide association studies across three phenotypes: symptom counts of alcohol dependence (AD), antisocial personality disorder (ASP), and major depression (MD), using the European-American case-control genome-wide association study subsample of the collaborative study on the genetics of alcoholism (N = 1399)...
March 25, 2017: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343053/self-reported-graphic-personal-and-social-performance-scale-srg-psp-for-measuring-functionality-in-patients-with-bipolar-disorder
#10
Ya Mei Bai, Cheng-Ta Li, Mu-Hong Chen, Yen Kuang Yang
OBJECTIVES: The self-reported graphic version of the Personal and Social Performance Scale (SRG-PSP) is the first graphic, self-reported rating scale that assesses functioning, and its reliability and validity have been documented in patients with schizophrenia. This study investigated the validity of SRG-PSP in patients with bipolar disorder (BD). METHODS: Patients with BD were recruited from psychiatric outpatient clinics, and assessed with the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), the Clinical Global Impression Scale (CGI)-Bipolar and CGI-Depression, the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS), the Global assessment of function (GAF), and the PSP...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342697/recent-publications-from-the-alzheimer-s-disease-neuroimaging-initiative-reviewing-progress-toward-improved-ad-clinical-trials
#11
REVIEW
Michael W Weiner, Dallas P Veitch, Paul S Aisen, Laurel A Beckett, Nigel J Cairns, Robert C Green, Danielle Harvey, Clifford R Jack, William Jagust, John C Morris, Ronald C Petersen, Andrew J Saykin, Leslie M Shaw, Arthur W Toga, John Q Trojanowski
INTRODUCTION: The Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) has continued development and standardization of methodologies for biomarkers and has provided an increased depth and breadth of data available to qualified researchers. This review summarizes the 450+ publications using ADNI data during 2014 and 2015. METHODS: We used standard searches to find publications using ADNI data. RESULTS: (1) Structural and functional changes, including subtle changes to hippocampal shape and texture, atrophy in areas outside of hippocampus, and disruption to functional networks, are detectable in presymptomatic subjects before hippocampal atrophy; (2) In subjects with abnormal β-amyloid deposition (Aβ+), biomarkers become abnormal in the order predicted by the amyloid cascade hypothesis; (3) Cognitive decline is more closely linked to tau than Aβ deposition; (4) Cerebrovascular risk factors may interact with Aβ to increase white-matter (WM) abnormalities which may accelerate Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression in conjunction with tau abnormalities; (5) Different patterns of atrophy are associated with impairment of memory and executive function and may underlie psychiatric symptoms; (6) Structural, functional, and metabolic network connectivities are disrupted as AD progresses...
March 22, 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342379/association-of-social-support-and-quality-of-life-among-people-with-schizophrenia-receiving-community-psychiatric-service-a-cross-sectional-study
#12
Thurkadevi Munikanan, Marhani Midin, Tuti Iryani Mohd Daud, Riana Abdul Rahim, Abdul Kadir Abu Bakar, Nik Ruzyanei Nik Jaafar, Hatta Sidi, Najwa Baharuddin
OBJECTIVE: To understand the needs of patients with schizophrenia for recovery, this study examined the type and level of social support and its association with quality of life (QOL) among this group of patients in the city of Kuala Lumpur. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 160 individuals with schizophrenia receiving community psychiatric services in Hospital Kuala Lumpur (HKL). The WHOQOL-BREF, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) were used to assess QOL, severity of symptoms and social support, respectively...
February 28, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342337/nice-guys-homozygocity-for-the-tph2-703g-t-rs4570625-minor-allele-promotes-low-aggressiveness-and-low-anxiety
#13
Kariina Laas, Evelyn Kiive, Jarek Mäestu, Mariliis Vaht, Toomas Veidebaum, Jaanus Harro
BACKGROUND: Tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of serotonin. We examined whether the TPH2 polymorphism -703G/T (rs4570625) is associated with aggressiveness and impulsivity, and the prevalence of psychiatric disorders, in a population-representative sample. METHODS: We used self and proxy reports on aggressive behaviour in the younger birth cohort of the longitudinal Estonian Children Personality, Behaviour and Health Study collected at age 25, and earlier collected impulsivity and related data of both ECPBHS cohorts...
March 19, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341942/integrating-nimh-research-domain-criteria-rdoc-into-ptsd-research
#14
Ulrike Schmidt, Eric Vermetten
Three and a half decades of research on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has produced substantial knowledge on the pathobiology of this frequent and debilitating disease. However, despite all research efforts, so far no drug that has specifically targeted PTSD core symptoms progressed to clinical use. Instead, although not overly efficient, serotonin re-uptake inhibitors continue to be considered the gold standard of PTSD pharmacotherapy. The psychotherapeutic treatment and symptom-oriented drug therapy options available for PTSD treatment today show some efficacy, although not in all PTSD patients, in particular not in a substantial percent of those suffering from the detrimental sequelae of repeated childhood trauma or in veterans with combat related PTSD...
March 25, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341444/the-importance-of-tcf4-gene-in-the-etiology-of-recurrent-depressive-disorders
#15
Joanna Mossakowska-Wójcik, Agata Orzechowska, Monika Talarowska, Janusz Szemraj, Piotr Gałecki
BACKGROUND: A recurrent depressive disorder is one of the most commonly diagnosed disease entities among psychiatric disorders. The prevalence and morbidity of depression are constantly increasing. Numerous studies have demonstrated the role of genetic factors in the etiology of depressive disorders. Many studies are being conducted to identify genes that predispose to depression. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of TCF4 gene in the etiology of recurrent depressive disorders and, in particular, to assess expression of the TCF4 gene at the mRNA and protein level in patients with recurrent depressive disorders versus healthy individuals...
March 21, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341443/high-serum-soluble-tumor-necrosis-factor-receptor-1-predicts-poor-treatment-response-in-acute-stage-schizophrenia
#16
Shohei Nishimon, Tohru Ohnuma, Yuto Takebayashi, Narimasa Katsuta, Mayu Takeda, Toru Nakamura, Takahiro Sannohe, Ryoko Higashiyama, Ayako Kimoto, Nobuto Shibata, Tomohito Gohda, Yusuke Suzuki, Sho-Ichi Yamagishi, Yasuhiko Tomino, Heii Arai
Inflammation may be involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. However, few cross-sectional or longitudinal studies have examined changes in biomarker expression to evaluate diagnostic and prognostic efficacy in acute-stage schizophrenia. We compared serum inflammatory biomarker concentrations in 87 patients with acute-stage schizophrenia on admission to 105 age-, sex-, and body mass index (BMI)-matched healthy controls. The measured biomarkers were soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (sTNFR1) and adiponectin, which are associated with inflammatory responses, and pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), which has anti-inflammatory properties...
March 21, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340581/does-psychological-functioning-mediate-the-relationship-between-bullying-involvement-and-weight-loss-preoccupation-in-adolescents-a-two-stage-cross-sectional-study
#17
Kirsty Lee, Alexa Guy, Jeremy Dale, Dieter Wolke
BACKGROUND: Adolescent bullying is associated with a range of adversities for those who are bullied i.e., victims and bully-victims (e.g., those who bully others and get victimised), including reduced psychological functioning and eating disorder symptoms. Bullies are generally well-adjusted psychologically, but previous research suggests that bullies may also engage in problematic diet behaviours. This study investigates a) whether adolescents involved in bullying (bullies, victims, bully-victims) are at increased risk of weight loss preoccupation, b) whether psychological functioning mediates this relationship and c) whether sex is a key moderator...
March 24, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340569/an-immunohistochemical-enzymatic-and-behavioral-study-of-cd157-bst-1-as-a-neuroregulator
#18
Haruhiro Higashida, Mingkun Liang, Toru Yoshihara, Shirin Akther, Azam Fakhrul, Cherepanov Stanislav, Tae-Sik Nam, Uh-Hyun Kim, Satoka Kasai, Tomoko Nishimura, Naila Al Mahmuda, Shigeru Yokoyama, Katsuhiko Ishihara, Maria Gerasimenko, Alla Salmina, Jing Zhong, Takahiro Tsuji, Chiharu Tsuji, Olga Lopatina
BACKGROUND: Recent rodent and human studies provide evidence in support of the fact that CD157, well known as bone marrow stromal cell antigen-1 (BST-1) and a risk factor in Parkinson's disease, also meaningfully acts in the brain as a neuroregulator and affects social behaviors. It has been shown that social behaviors are impaired in CD157 knockout mice without severe motor dysfunction and that CD157/BST1 gene single nucleotide polymorphisms are associated with autism spectrum disorder in humans...
March 24, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340444/comparative-effectiveness-of-dual-action-versus-single-action-antidepressants-for-the-treatment-of-depression-in-people-living-with-hiv-aids
#19
Jon C Mills, Jeffrey S Harman, Robert L Cook, Nicole M Marlow, Christopher A Harle, R Paul Duncan, Angela M Bengtson, Brian W Pence
BACKGROUND: Depression is the most common psychiatric comorbidity among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Little is known about the comparative effectiveness between different types of antidepressants used to treat depression in this population. We compared the effectiveness of dual-action and single-action antidepressants in PLWHA for achieving remission from depression. METHODS: We used data from the Centers for AIDS Research Network of Integrated Clinic Systems to identify 1175 new user dual-action or single-action antidepressant treatment episodes occurring from 2005 to 2014 for PLWHA diagnosed with depression...
March 19, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338743/incidental-memory-for-faces-in-children-with-different-genetic-subtypes-of-prader-willi-syndrome
#20
Alexandra P Key, Elisabeth M Dykens
The present study examined the effects of genetic subtype on social memory in children (7-16 years) with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). Visual event-related potentials (ERPs) during a passive viewing task were used to compare incidental memory traces for repeated vs single presentations of previously unfamiliar social (faces) and nonsocial (houses) images in 15 children with the deletion subtype and 13 children with maternal uniparental disomy (mUPD). While all participants perceived faces as different from houses (N170 responses), repeated faces elicited more positive ERP amplitudes ('old/new' effect, 250-500ms) only in children with the deletion subtype...
February 17, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
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