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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352532/the-impact-of-severe-mental-disorders-and-psychotropic-medications-on-sexual-health-and-its-implications-for-clinical-management
#1
Angel L Montejo, Laura Montejo, David S Baldwin
Sexual dysfunction often accompanies severe psychiatric illness and can be due to both the mental disorder itself and the use of psychotropic treatments. Many sexual symptoms resolve as the mental state improves, but treatment-related sexual adverse events tend to persist over time, and are unfortunately under-recognized by clinicians and scarcely investigated in clinical trials. Treatment-emergent sexual dysfunction adversely affects quality of life and may contribute to reduce treatment adherence. There are important differences between the various compounds in the incidence of adverse sexual effects, associated with differences in mechanisms of action...
February 2018: World Psychiatry: Official Journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352034/translational-new-approaches-for-investigating-mood-disorders-in-rodents-and-what-they-may-reveal-about-the-underlying-neurobiology-of-major-depressive-disorder
#2
REVIEW
Emma S J Robinson
Mood disorders represent one of society's most costly and challenging health burdens. The drug treatments used today were initially discovered serendipitously in the 1950s. Animal models were then developed based on the ability of these drugs to alter specific behaviours. These models have played a major role in the development of the second generation of antidepressants. However, their use has been heavily criticized, particularly in relation to whether they recapitulate similar underlying biology to the psychiatric disorder they are proposed to represent...
March 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352031/can-we-use-mice-to-study-schizophrenia
#3
REVIEW
Sarah Canetta, Christoph Kellendonk
The validity of rodent models for the study of psychiatric disorders is controversial. Despite great efforts from academic institutions and pharmaceutical companies, as of today, no major therapeutic intervention has been developed for the treatment of psychiatric disorders based on mechanistic insights from rodent models. Here, we argue that despite these historical shortcomings, rodent studies are nevertheless instrumental for identifying neuronal circuit mechanisms underlying behaviours that are affected in psychiatric disorders...
March 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351714/-prevalence-and-phenomenology-of-psychotic-like-symptoms-in-borderline-personality-disorders-associations-with-suicide-attempts-and-use-of-psychiatric-inpatient-treatment
#4
Katrin Schroeder, Anja Schätzle, Pauline Kowohl, Lisa Leske, Christian G Huber, Ingo Schäfer
BACKGROUND: Psychotic-like symptoms are found in a subgroup of borderline patients (BPD). Reported prevalence is heterogeneous (up to 50% affected). Investigations in Germany have not been conducted so far. Furthermore, the precise phenomenology of the psychotic symptoms and the effects on suicidal behavior and the use of inpatient psychiatric treatment are unclear. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to investigate prevalence rates and phenomenology of psychotic-like symptoms...
January 19, 2018: Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351667/what-to-expect-and-when-benznidazole-toxicity-in-chronic-chagas-disease-treatment
#5
E Aldasoro, E Posada, A Requena-Méndez, A Calvo-Cano, N Serret, A Casellas, S Sanz, D Soy, M J Pinazo, J Gascon
Background: Benznidazole is one of the two most effective antiparasitic drugs for Chagas' disease treatment. However, knowledge about its toxicity profile is mostly based on post-marketing observational studies. Objectives: Our study combines data from two prospective clinical trials designed to assess the safety of the drug newly produced by ELEA Laboratories (Abarax®). Methods: Eligible participants were selected using a consecutive sampling strategy in the CINEBENZ and BIOMARCHA studies between 2013 and 2016 (EUDRACT 2011-002900-34 and 2012-002645-38, respectively, and clinicaltrials...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351402/poststroke-delusions-what-about-the-neuroanatomical-and-neurofunctional-basis
#6
Michele Torrisi, Rosaria De Luca, Patrizia Pollicino, Simona Leonardi, Silvia Marino, Giuseppa Maresca, Maria Grazia Maggio, Adriana Piccolo, Placido Bramanti, Rocco Salvatore Calabrò
Delusion is a belief about yourself, people, or events that has no accordance with reality. Although it is known that stroke could cause various psychiatric and psychological effects, including depression, anxiety, and aggressiveness, psychotic symptoms, especially delusions, are rather uncommon. The most investigated poststroke delusions are paranoid type, nihilistic, and Fregoli syndrome. We will describe two patients showing delusion symptoms (Cotard-like and erotomanic ones) that occurred after a stroke involving the right temporal lobe, the basal ganglia and insular region, persisting for a long period after the stroke onset...
January 19, 2018: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350754/neurocognitive-differences-between-inpatients-and-outpatients-with-symptomatically-nonremitted-schizophrenia-a-cross-sectional-study
#7
Yusuke Kurebayashi, Junichi Otaki
PURPOSE: We aimed to examine whether neurocognition in individuals with nonremitted schizophrenia differed between inpatients and outpatients. DESIGN AND METHODS: We recruited 59 inpatients and 41 patients with nonremitted schizophrenia (assessed with the Andreason criteria), and neurocognitive functions were compared between both, controlling for demographics, psychiatric symptoms. FINDINGS: Outpatients with nonremitted schizophrenia performed better on tests of processing speed, visual attention, and working memory than did inpatients with nonremitted...
January 19, 2018: Perspectives in Psychiatric Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350251/pyramidal-cell-selective-glun1-knockout-causes-impairments-in-salience-attribution-and-related-eeg-activity
#8
Alexandra D Forrest, Jakyung Bang, Robert E Featherstone, Jonathan H Bloom, Matthew S Luminais, Rebecca V Zhang, Christopher R Gajewski, Mary F McMullen, Yuling Liang, Steven J Siegel
Schizophrenia is a disabling psychiatric disease characterized by symptoms including hallucinations, delusions, social withdrawal, loss of pleasure, and inappropriate affect. Although schizophrenia is marked by dysfunction in dopaminergic and glutamatergic signaling, it is not presently clear how these dysfunctions give rise to symptoms. The aberrant salience hypothesis of schizophrenia argues that abnormal attribution of motivational salience to stimuli is one of the main contributors to both positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia...
January 19, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350128/between-a-rock-a-bye-and-a-hard-place-mood-disorders-during-the-peripartum-period
#9
Michael Thomson, Verinder Sharma
Mood disorders including major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder are common during and after pregnancy. Timely identification and appropriate management of mood episodes is essential to maximize maternal well-being and minimize adverse outcomes. Failure to do so results in maternal suffering and impaired child bonding, and has the potential for devastating outcomes including suicide and infanticide. Women are routinely screened for unipolar depression during or after pregnancy but not for bipolar disorder, in spite of the fact that childbirth is associated with a major risk for onset or exacerbation of bipolar disorder...
December 2017: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350124/a-dimensional-approach-to-assessing-psychiatric-risk-in-adults-born-very-preterm
#10
Jasmin Kroll, Sean Froudist-Walsh, Philip J Brittain, Chieh-En J Tseng, Vyacheslav Karolis, Robin M Murray, Chiara Nosarti
BACKGROUND: Individuals who were born very preterm have higher rates of psychiatric diagnoses compared with term-born controls; however, it remains unclear whether they also display increased sub-clinical psychiatric symptomatology. Hence, our objective was to utilize a dimensional approach to assess psychiatric symptomatology in adult life following very preterm birth. METHODS: We studied 152 adults who were born very preterm (before 33 weeks' gestation; gestational range 24-32 weeks) and 96 term-born controls...
January 19, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349928/problem-behaviours-and-psychotropic-medication-use-in-intellectual-disability-a-multinational-cross-sectional-survey
#11
B I Perry, H F Kwok, J Mendis, K Purandare, A Wijeratne, S Manjubhashini, M Dasari, F Esan, I Gunaratna, R A Naseem, S Hoare, V Chester, A Roy, J Devapriam, R Alexander, S E Cooray
BACKGROUND: Problem behaviours (PBs) are a common cause for clinician contact in people with disorders of intellectual development and may be a common cause for the prescription of psychotropic medication. We aimed to use a large, multinational sample to define the prevalence of PBs, the associations with psychotropic medication use, and to assess for any potential 'diagnostic overshadowing' by the label of PBs in a population of people with disorders of intellectual development. METHOD: A multinational, multi-setting, cross-sectional service evaluation and baseline audit was completed...
February 2018: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349809/alexithymia-as-a-potential-source-of-symptom-over-reporting-an-exploratory-study-in-forensic-patients-and-non-forensic-participants
#12
Harald Merckelbach, Chinouk Prins, Irena Boskovic, Isabella Niesten, Joost À Campo
The traditional interpretation of symptom over-reporting is that it indicates malingering. We explored a different perspective, namely that over-reporting of eccentric symptoms is related to deficits in articulating internal experiences (i.e., alexithymia). Given that alexithymia has been linked to sleep problems and that fatigue may fuel inattentive responding to symptom lists, we administered measures of alexithymia (TAS-20) and symptom over-reporting (SIMS), but also sleep quality (SLEEP-50) to forensic psychiatric outpatients (n = 40) and non-forensic participants (n = 40)...
January 19, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348532/amygdala-orbitofrontal-structural-and-functional-connectivity-in-females-with-anxiety-disorders-with-and-without-a-history-of-conduct-disorder
#13
Philip Lindner, Pär Flodin, Peter Larm, Meenal Budhiraja, Ivanka Savic-Berglund, Jussi Jokinen, Jari Tiihonen, Sheilagh Hodgins
Conduct disorder (CD) and anxiety disorders (ADs) are often comorbid and both are characterized by hyper-sensitivity to threat, and reduced structural and functional connectivity between the amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Previous studies of CD have not taken account of ADs nor directly compared connectivity in the two disorders. We examined three groups of young women: 23 presenting CD and lifetime AD; 30 presenting lifetime AD and not CD; and 17 with neither disorder (ND). Participants completed clinical assessments and diffusion-weighted and resting-state functional MRI scans...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347891/changing-character-a-narrative-review-of-personality-change-in-psychotherapies-for-personality-disorder
#14
John R Keefe, Robert J DeRubeis
OBJECTIVE: Personality disorder (PD) is a negative prognostic indicator for treatment, and absolute improvements in functioning among these patients are often modest. This may be because personality features that give rise to dysfunction in PD are not targeted optimally during most treatments. METHOD: Attachment, mentalization, core beliefs, and personality organization/defense use were identified as personality constructs that have been pursued in treatment studies and that are proposed to underlie PD...
January 19, 2018: Psychotherapy Research: Journal of the Society for Psychotherapy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346213/self-esteem-and-anger-in-borderline-patients-with-self-injury-behavior
#15
Carla Maria Almeida, Maria Purificação Horta
Anger and low self-esteem characterize borderline individuals, yet little is known about their role and impact in the presence or absence of self-injury behavior. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of anger and self-esteem in borderline patients and whether these variables distinguish these patients with and without self-injury. Patients were recruited from a psychiatric service and were evaluated for self-esteem and anger. Additionally, impulsivity and symptoms were assessed. Two groups were compared, one with self-injurious behavior (n = 18) and another one without it (n = 23)...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345690/clozapine-induced-myocarditis
#16
COMMENT
Tanuka Datta, Allen J Solomon
Approved in 1989 for the management of treatment-resistant schizophrenia, Clozapine is a last-line atypical antipsychotic drug used with increasing frequency. In addition to its well-known side effect of agranulocytosis, this drug also carries with it rare but serious adverse cardiovascular risk of myocarditis. We present a patient on Clozapine who was admitted to the cardiology service with chest pain, ST segment elevations and elevated troponin concerning for acute myocardial infarction. Evaluation with imaging revealed decreased left ventricular function, however, no coronary artery disease was present on catheterization; findings consistent with a diagnosis of myocarditis...
January 2018: Oxford Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345192/cross-validation-of-the-dot-counting-test-in-a-large-sample-of-credible-and-non-credible-patients-referred-for-neuropsychological-testing
#17
Courtney McCaul, Kyle B Boone, Annette Ermshar, Maria Cottingham, Tara L Victor, Elizabeth Ziegler, Michelle A Zeller, Matthew Wright
OBJECTIVE: To cross-validate the Dot Counting Test in a large neuropsychological sample. METHOD: Dot Counting Test scores were compared in credible (n = 142) and non-credible (n = 335) neuropsychology referrals. RESULTS: Non-credible patients scored significantly higher than credible patients on all Dot Counting Test scores. While the original E-score cut-off of ≥17 achieved excellent specificity (96.5%), it was associated with mediocre sensitivity (52...
January 18, 2018: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344390/job-related-stress-in-psychiatric-assistant-nurses
#18
Hironori Yada, Hiroshi Abe, Hisamitsu Omori, Yasushi Ishida, Takahiko Katoh
Aim: We aimed to clarify how stress among psychiatric assistant nurses (PANs) differed from Registered Nurses (PRNs). Design: Cross-sectional survey study was conducted with PRNs and PANs working in six psychiatric hospitals in Japan. Methods: The Psychiatric Nurse Job Stressor Scale (PNJSS) and the job stressor and stress reaction subscales of the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire measured stress in 68 PANs and 140 PRNs. The results were statistically analysed...
January 2018: Nursing Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343229/the-colombo-twin-and-singleton-follow-up-study-a-population-based-twin-study-of-psychiatric-disorders-and-metabolic-syndrome-in-sri-lanka
#19
Kaushalya Jayaweera, Lisa Aschan, Gayani Pannala, Anushka Adikari, Nicholas Glozier, Khalida Ismail, Carmine M Pariante, Fruhling Rijsdijk, Sisira Siribaddana, Helena M S Zavos, Patricia A Zunszain, Athula Sumathipala, Matthew Hotopf
BACKGROUND: The disease burden related to mental disorders and metabolic syndrome is growing in low-and middle-income countries (LMIC). The Colombo Twin and Singleton Study (COTASS) is a population-based sample of twins and singletons in Colombo, Sri Lanka. Here we present prevalence estimates for metabolic syndrome (metS) and mental disorders from a follow-up (COTASS-2) of the original study (COTASS-1), which was a mental health survey. METHODS: In COTASS-2, participants completed structured interviews, anthropometric measures and provided fasting blood and urine samples...
January 17, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343228/problematic-internet-use-and-psychiatric-co-morbidity-in-a-population-of-japanese-adult-psychiatric-patients
#20
Hille T de Vries, Takashi Nakamae, Kenji Fukui, Damiaan Denys, Jin Narumoto
BACKGROUND: Many studies reported the high prevalence of problematic internet use (PIU) among adolescents (13-50%), and PIU was associated with various psychiatric symptoms. In contrast, only a few studies investigated the prevalence among the adult population (6%). This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of PIU and psychiatric co-morbidity among adult psychiatric patients. METHODS: Three hundred thirty-three adult psychiatric patients were recruited over a 3-month period...
January 17, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
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