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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065490/immunotherapy-for-pediatric-brain-tumors
#1
REVIEW
Elias J Sayour, Duane A Mitchell
Malignant brain tumors are the most common cause of solid cancer death in children. New targeted therapies are vital to improve treatment outcomes, but must be developed to enable trafficking across the blood brain barrier (BBB). Since activated T cells cross the BBB, cancer immunotherapy can be harnessed to unlock the cytotoxic potential of the immune system. However, standard of care treatments (i.e., chemotherapy and radiation) applied concomitant to pediatric brain tumor immunotherapy may abrogate induction of immunotherapeutic responses...
October 21, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034126/development-and-characterization-of-methylene-blue-oleate-salt-loaded-polymeric-nanoparticles-and-their-potential-application-as-a-treatment-for-glioblastoma
#2
J M Castañeda-Gill, A P Ranjan, J K Vishwanatha
Glioblastoma (GBM) is an aggressive, grade IV brain tumor that develops from astrocytes located within the cerebrum, resulting in poor prognosis and survival rates following an accepted treatment regimen of surgery, radiation, and temozolomide. Thus, development of new therapeutics is necessary. During the last two decades, methylene blue (MB) has received increased attention as a potential neurotherapeutic due to its duality in brain cancers and neurodegenerative diseases. While MB is capable of easily permeating the blood-brain barrier, its therapeutic concentrations in GBM are known to induce off-target cytotoxicity and thus, another mode of drug delivery must be considered...
August 2017: Journal of Nanomedicine & Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958145/large-amino-acid-transporter-1-selective-liposomes-of-l-dopa-functionalized-amphiphile-for-combating-glioblastoma
#3
Sukanya Bhunia, Venugopal Vangala, Dwaipayan Bhattacharya, Halley Gora Ravuri, Madhusudana Kuncha, Sumana Chakravarty, Ramakrishna Sistla, Arabinda Chaudhuri
Despite significant progress in neurosurgery and radiation therapy during the past decade, overall survivability (OS) of glioblastoma patients continues to be less than 2 years. The scope of systemic chemotherapy is greatly limited by poor drug transport across the blood brain barrier (BBB) and, thereby, suboptimal drug accumulation in glioma tissue. To this end, use of large amino acid transporter-1 (LAT1) overexpressed both on brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs) and glioma cells has begun. Prior reports on the use of LAT1 mediated delivery of model drugs showed their brain accumulations...
November 6, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870216/trifluoperazine-a-novel-autophagy-inhibitor-increases-radiosensitivity-in-glioblastoma-by-impairing-homologous-recombination
#4
Xin Zhang, Ran Xu, Chao Zhang, Yangyang Xu, Mingzhi Han, Bin Huang, Anjing Chen, Chen Qiu, Frits Thorsen, Lars Prestegarden, Rolf Bjerkvig, Jian Wang, Xingang Li
BACKGROUND: Resistance to adjuvant radiotherapy is a major cause of treatment failure in patients with glioblastoma (GBM). Autophagy inhibitors have been shown to enhance the efficacy of radiotherapy for certain solid tumors. However, current inhibitors do not penetrate the blood-brain-barrier (BBB). Here, we assessed the radiosensitivity effects of the antipsychotic drug trifluoperazine (TFP) on GBM in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: U251 and U87 GBM cell lines as well as GBM cells from a primary human biopsy (P3), were used in vitro and in vivo to evaluate the efficacy of TFP treatment...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625644/treatment-options-for-egfr-mutant-nsclc-with-cns-involvement-can-patients-bloom-with-the-use-of-next-generation-egfr-tkis
#5
REVIEW
Chee-Seng Tan, Byoung Chul Cho, Ross A Soo
With the use of EGFR TKIs, patient survival is now prolonged and as a consequence, a higher chance of development of CNS metastases has been observed during the course of the disease. CNS metastases remains a therapeutically challenging subset of patient to treat owing to the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Prior to routine EGFR mutation testing, surgical resection, stereotactic radiosurgery and/or whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) were the main treatment options whereas treatment options for patients with leptomeningeal metastases (LM) included intra-thecal chemotherapy, WBRT, and ventriculo-peritoneal shunting...
June 2017: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619756/alpha-particle-enhanced-blood-brain-tumor-barrier-permeabilization-in-glioblastomas-using-integrin-alpha-v-beta-3-targeted-liposomes
#6
Anirudh Sattiraju, Xiaobing Xiong, Darpan N Pandya, Thaddeus J Wadas, Ang Xuan, Yao Sun, Youngkyoo Jung, Kiran Kumar Solingapuram Sai, Jay F Dorsey, King C Li, Akiva Mintz
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary malignant astrocytoma characterized by extensive invasion, angiogenesis, hypoxia, and micrometastasis. Despite the relatively leaky nature of GBM blood vessels, effective delivery of antitumor therapeutics has been a major challenge due to the complications caused by the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the highly torturous nature of newly formed tumor vasculature (blood tumor barrier-BTB). External beam radiotherapy was previously shown to be an effective means of permeabilizing central nervous system (CNS) barriers...
October 2017: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522263/serum-concentrations-of-the-axonal-injury-marker-neurofilament-light-protein-are-not-influenced-by-blood-brain-barrier-permeability
#7
Marie Kalm, Martina Boström, Åsa Sandelius, Yohanna Eriksson, C Joakim Ek, Kaj Blennow, Thomas Björk-Eriksson, Henrik Zetterberg
A blood biomarker to monitor individual susceptibility to neuronal injury from cranial radiotherapy could potentially help to individualize radiation treatment and thereby reduce the incidence and severity of late effects. An important feature of such a blood biomarker is that its concentration is not confounded by varying degrees of release from the brain into the blood across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In this study, we investigated serum neurofilament light protein (NFL) concentrations in 21-day old mice following a single dose of cranial irradiation (8 Gy)...
May 15, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294065/tetramethylpyrazine-facilitates-functional-recovery-after-spinal-cord-injury-by-inhibiting-mmp2-mmp9-and-vascular-endothelial-cell-apoptosis
#8
Jian-Zhong Hu, Xiao-Kai Wang, Yong Cao, Dong-Zhe Li, Tian-Ding Wu, Tao Zhang, Da-Qi Xu, Hong-Bin Lu
BACKGROUND: Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a major public health issue that leads to neurological dysfunctions and morbidities in patients. Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) plays a neuroprotective role in SCI; however, the underlying mechanism has not been fully elucidated. Objective In the present study, we aimed to investigate the mechanisms and therapeutic effects of TMP on SCI. METHODS: A contusion SCI model was established that used a modified Allen's method. In the TMP group, TMP (200 mg/kg) was injected daily for 5 days post-injury, while in the Negative Control (NC) group, an equal volume of normal saline was injected...
March 13, 2017: Current Neurovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149752/epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitors-for-the-treatment-of-central-nervous-system-metastases-from-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-the-present-and-the-future
#9
REVIEW
Claudia Proto, Martina Imbimbo, Rosaria Gallucci, Angela Brissa, Diego Signorelli, Milena Vitali, Marianna Macerelli, Giulia Corrao, Monica Ganzinelli, Francesca Gabriella Greco, Marina Chiara Garassino, Giuseppe Lo Russo
Lung cancer is one of the major causes of cancer related mortality worldwide. Brain metastases (BM) complicate clinical evolution of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in approximately 25-40% of cases, adversely influencing quality of life (QoL) and overall survival (OS). Systemic therapy remains the standard strategy for metastatic disease. Nevertheless, the blood-brain barrier (BBB) makes central nervous system (CNS) a sanctuary site. To date, the combination of chemotherapy with whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT), surgery and/or stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) represents the most used treatment for patients (pts) with intracranial involvement...
December 2016: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088075/development-of-a-hypoxia-triggered-and-hypoxic-radiosensitized-liposome-as-a-doxorubicin-carrier-to-promote-synergetic-chemo-radio-therapy-for-glioma
#10
Hongmei Liu, Yandong Xie, Yafei Zhang, Yifan Cai, Baiyang Li, Honglin Mao, Yingguo Liu, Jun Lu, Longzhen Zhang, Rutong Yu
The treatment of malignant primary brain tumors is challenging. Concomitant radiochemotherapy has become the standard clinical treatment for malignant glioma, but there are two critical challenges to overcome in order to increase efficacy. First, glioma is known to have increased resistant to radiation due to its intra-tumoral hypoxia. In addition, the blood-brain barrier (BBB) restricts the distribution of the chemotherapeutic agent to the brain. Therefore, we developed a hypoxic radiosensitizer-prodrug liposome (MLP), in order to deliver DOX to the tumor and to overcome the above challenges, achieving a synergistic chemo-/radiotherapy treatment of malignant glioma...
March 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861324/laser-ablation-of-recurrent-malignant-gliomas-current-status-and-future-perspective
#11
REVIEW
Analiz Rodriguez, Stephen B Tatter
Recurrent malignant glioma continues to be a clinical challenge, and repeat surgery is an option in only select patients. Stereotactic laser ablation, a new minimally invasive technique, can be used as an alternative to surgery. We review the current literature on laser ablation for recurrent malignant gliomas as well as discuss practical and theoretical advantages and disadvantages of this emerging technique in comparison with repeat surgery or radiation. We also discuss the potential for laser ablation to augment adjuvant therapies, namely, chemotherapy, radiation, and immunotherapy...
December 2016: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861323/stereotactic-laser-interstitial-thermal-therapy-for-recurrent-high-grade-gliomas
#12
REVIEW
Ian Lee, Steven Kalkanis, Constantinos G Hadjipanayis
BACKGROUND: The value of maximal safe cytoreductive surgery in recurrent high-grade gliomas (HGGs) is gaining wider acceptance. However, patients may harbor recurrent tumors that may be difficult to access with open surgery. Laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) is emerging as a technique for treating a variety of brain pathologies, including primary and metastatic tumors, radiation necrosis, and epilepsy. OBJECTIVE: To review the role of LITT in the treatment of recurrent HGGs, for which current treatments have limited efficacy, and to discuss the possible role of LITT in the disruption of the blood-brain barrier to increase delivery of chemotherapy locoregionally...
December 2016: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808492/dual-targeting-magnetic-plga-nanoparticles-for-codelivery-of-paclitaxel-and-curcumin-for-brain-tumor-therapy
#13
Yanna Cui, Meng Zhang, Feng Zeng, Hongyue Jin, Qin Xu, Yongzhuo Huang
Chemotherapy is one of the most important strategies for glioma treatment. However, the "impermeability" of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) impedes most chemotherapeutics from entering the brain, thereby rendering very few drugs suitable for glioma therapy, letting alone application of a combination of chemotherapeutics. Thereby, there is a pressing need to overcome the obstacles. A dual-targeting strategy was developed by a combination of magnetic guidance and transferrin receptor-binding peptide T7-mediated active targeting delivery...
November 30, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738326/radiosensitizing-effect-of-lapatinib-in-human-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-2-positive-breast-cancer-cells
#14
Tosol Yu, Bong Jun Cho, Eun Jung Choi, Ji Min Park, Dan Hyo Kim, In Ah Kim
Trastuzumab has been widely used for the treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-overexpressing breast cancer, however, it cannot easily cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and is known to increase the incidence of brain metastases. In contrast, lapatinib has a low molecular weight and can cross the BBB and it could be useful to treat brain metastases in patients with HER2-positive breast cancer.To explore the impact of lapatinib on radiation response, we conducted an in vitro experiment using SKBR3 and BT474 breast carcinoma cells exhibiting HER2/neu amplification...
November 29, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27538905/intracranial-applications-of-mr-imaging-guided-focused-ultrasound
#15
REVIEW
N Khanna, D Gandhi, A Steven, V Frenkel, E R Melhem
Initially used in the treatment of prostate cancer and uterine fibroids, the role of focused ultrasound has expanded as transcranial acoustic wave distortion and other limitations have been overcome. Its utility relies on focal energy deposition via acoustic wave propagation. The duty cycle and intensity of focused ultrasound influence the rate of energy deposition and result in unique physiologic and biomechanical effects. Thermal ablation via high-intensity continuous exposure generates coagulative necrosis of tissues...
March 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27469219/delivery-of-nanoparticles-for-treatment-of-brain-tumor
#16
REVIEW
Chen Kang, Yuan Sun, Jing Zhu, Wen Li, Aili Zhang, Tairong Kuang, Jing Xie, Zhaogang Yang
BACKGROUND: Malignant brain tumor is a highly challenging disease for diagnosis, treatment, and management. Cytotoxicity, distribution and the ability to cross blood brain barrier are some of the most significant issues for the chemotherapy of brain tumors. Nanotechnology has been widely exploited in drug delivery with great potential in improving the drug efficiency and efficacy. The advent of nanotechnology would greatly facilitate the early detection and treatment of brain tumors. This review will be primarily focused on current nano drug delivery system for brain cancer therapy...
2016: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27292970/harnessing-nanomedicine-for-therapeutic-intervention-in-glioblastoma
#17
REVIEW
Anna Gutkin, Zvi R Cohen, Dan Peer
Glioblastoma is a type of brain cancer arises from glial cells. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), a subtype of glioblastoma, is the most common and most aggressive primary brain tumor. Currently, GBM therapy includes surgery and post-operative high-doses of radiation and chemotherapy. This therapeutic strategy has a limited contribution in extending the survival rate of GBM patients. Areas covered: Herein, we focus on harnessing nanoscale drug delivery strategies to treat brain malignancies. Specifically, we briefly discuss the challenges facing GBM therapy such as restricted passage across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and low enhanced permeability and retention effect...
November 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27267840/evaluating-changes-to-blood-brain-barrier-integrity-in-brain-metastasis-over-time-and-after-radiation-treatment
#18
Donna H Murrell, Niloufar Zarghami, Michael D Jensen, Ann F Chambers, Eugene Wong, Paula J Foster
INTRODUCTION: The incidence of brain metastasis due to breast cancer is increasing, and prognosis is poor. Treatment is challenging because the blood-brain barrier (BBB) limits efficacy of systemic therapies. In this work, we develop a clinically relevant whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) plan to investigate the impact of radiation on brain metastasis development and BBB permeability in a murine model. We hypothesize that radiotherapy will decrease tumor burden and increase tumor permeability, which could offer a mechanism to increase drug uptake in brain metastases...
June 2016: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27023712/challenges-in-the-treatment-of-hormone-receptor-positive-her2-negative-metastatic-breast-cancer-with-brain-metastases
#19
REVIEW
Minetta C Liu, Javier Cortés, Joyce O'Shaughnessy
Brain metastases are a major cause of morbidity and mortality for women with hormone receptor (HR)-positive breast cancer, yet little is known about the optimal treatment of brain disease in this group of patients. Although these patients are at lower risk for brain metastases relative to those with HER2-positive and triple-negative disease, they comprise the majority of women diagnosed with breast cancer. Surgery and radiation continue to have a role in the treatment of brain metastases, but there is a dearth of effective systemic therapies due to the poor penetrability of many systemic drugs across the blood-brain barrier (BBB)...
June 2016: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26904576/concurrent-therapy-to-enhance-radiotherapeutic-outcomes-in-glioblastoma
#20
REVIEW
Divya Khosla
Glioblastoma is one of the most fatal and incurable human cancers characterized by nuclear atypia, mitotic activity, intense microvascular proliferation and necrosis. The current standard of care includes maximal safe surgical resection followed by radiation therapy (RT) with concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide (TMZ). The prognosis remains poor with median survival of 14.6 months with RT plus TMZ. Majority will have a recurrence within 2 years from diagnosis despite adequate treatment. Radiosensitizers, radiotherapy dose escalation and altered fractionation have failed to improve outcome...
February 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
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