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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919900/n-acetyl-l-cysteine-and-cysteamine-new-strategies-against-mixed-biofilms-of-non-encapsulated-streptococcus-pneumoniae-and-non-typeable-haemophilus-influenzae
#1
Mirian Domenech, Ernesto García
Acute otitis media, a polymicrobial disease of the middle ear cavity of children, is a significant public health problem worldwide. It is most frequently caused by encapsulated Streptococcus pneumoniae and non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae, although the widespread use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines is apparently producing an increase in carriage of non-encapsulated S. pneumoniae Frequently, pneumococci and H. influenzae live together in the human nasopharynx forming a self-produced biofilm. Biofilms represent a global medical challenge since the inherent antibiotic resistance of their producers demands the use of high doses of antibiotics over prolonged periods...
December 5, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679782/adjuvant-role-of-pseudomonas-flagellin-for-acinetobacter-baumannii-biofilm-associated-protein
#2
Mozhgan Derakhshan Sefidi, Iraj Rasooli, Parviz Owlia, Daryush Talei, Shakiba Darvish Alipour Astaneh, Shahram Nazarian
AIM: To study immunogenicity of Pseudomonas N terminal flagellin as an adjuvant for Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) biofilm associated protein (Bap). METHODS: The N terminal flagellin gene was amplified. The pET28a (+) and polymerase chain reaction products were digested with HindIII and EcoR I. The ligation of N terminal flagellin into pET28a (‏+) was performed using T4 DNA ligase and was then transformed into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) as a suitable expression host...
September 26, 2016: World Journal of Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27669900/biofilm-forming-potential-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-newly-emerged-western-australian-bordetella-pertussis-clinical-isolates
#3
Dorji Dorji, Ross M Graham, Peter Richmond, Anthony Keil, Trilochan K Mukkur
Whooping cough caused by Bordetella pertussis is increasing in several countries despite high vaccine coverage. One potential reason for the resurgence is the emergence of genetic variants of the bacterium. Biofilm formation has recently been associated with the pathogenesis of B. pertussis. Biofilm formation of 21 Western Australian B. pertussis clinical isolates was investigated. All isolates formed thicker biofilms than the reference vaccine strain Tohama I while retaining susceptibility to ampicillin, erythromycin, azithromycin and streptomycin...
October 2016: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27629411/combining-in-vitro-protein-detection-and-in-vivo-antibody-detection-identifies-potential-vaccine-targets-against-staphylococcus-aureus-during-osteomyelitis
#4
P Martijn den Reijer, Marjan Sandker, Susan V Snijders, Mehri Tavakol, Antoni P A Hendrickx, Willem J B van Wamel
Currently, little is known about the in vivo human immune response against Staphylococcus aureus during a biofilm-associated infection, such as osteomyelitis, and how this relates to protein production in biofilms in vitro. Therefore, we characterized IgG responses in 10 patients with chronic osteomyelitis against 50 proteins of S. aureus, analyzed the presence of these proteins in biofilms of the infecting isolates on polystyrene (PS) and human bone in vitro, and explored the relation between in vivo and in vitro data...
September 14, 2016: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27546876/the-bcg%C3%AE-bcg1419c-strain-which-produces-more-pellicle-in-vitro-improves-control-of-chronic-tuberculosis-in-vivo
#5
César Pedroza-Roldán, Carolina Guapillo, Jorge Barrios-Payán, Dulce Mata-Espinosa, Michel de Jesús Aceves-Sánchez, Brenda Marquina-Castillo, Rogelio Hernández-Pando, Mario Alberto Flores-Valdez
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) has been a threat to humans since ancient times, and it is the main causative agent of tuberculosis (TB). Until today, the only licensed vaccine against Mtb is the live attenuated M. bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), which has variable levels of protection against the pulmonary form of infection. The quest for a new vaccine is a priority given the rise of multidrug-resistant Mtb around the world, as well as the tremendous burden imposed by latent TB. The objective of this study was to evaluate the immunogenicity and capacity of protection of a modified BCG strain (BCGΔBCG1419c) lacking the c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase gene BCG1419c, in diverse mice models...
September 14, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27537839/evaluation-of-a-salmonella-strain-lacking-the-secondary-messenger-c-di-gmp-and-rpos-as-a-live-oral-vaccine
#6
Cristina Latasa, Maite Echeverz, Begoña García, Carmen Gil, Enrique García-Ona, Saioa Burgui, Noelia Casares, Sandra Hervás-Stubbs, Juan José Lasarte, Iñigo Lasa, Cristina Solano
Salmonellosis is one of the most important bacterial zoonotic diseases transmitted through the consumption of contaminated food, with chicken and pig related products being key reservoirs of infection. Although numerous studies on animal vaccination have been performed in order to reduce Salmonella prevalence, there is still a need for an ideal vaccine. Here, with the aim of constructing a novel live attenuated Salmonella vaccine candidate, we firstly analyzed the impact of the absence of cyclic-di-GMP (c-di-GMP) in Salmonella virulence...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27514610/heterologous-expression-of-antigenic-peptides-in-bacillus-subtilis-biofilms
#7
Cédric M Vogt, Elisabeth M Schraner, Claudio Aguilar, Catherine Eichwald
BACKGROUND: Numerous strategies have been developed for the display of heterologous proteins in the surface of live bacterial carriers, which can be used as vaccines, immune-modulators, cancer therapy or bioremediation. Bacterial biofilms have emerged as an interesting approach for the expression of proteins of interest. Bacillus subtilis is a well-described, endospore-forming organism that is able to form biofilms and also used as a probiotic, thus making it a suitable candidate for the display of heterologous proteins within the biofilm...
2016: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27508518/host-pathogen-interactions-of-nontypeable-haemophilus-influenzae-from-commensal-to-pathogen
#8
REVIEW
Benjamin Luke Duell, Yu-Ching Su, Kristian Riesbeck
Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a commensal microbe often isolated from the upper and lower respiratory tract. This bacterial species can cause sinusitis, acute otitis media in preschool children, exacerbations in patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, as well as conjunctivitis and bacteremia. Since the introduction of a vaccine against H. influenzae serotype b in the 1990s, the burden of H. influenzae-related infections has been increasingly dominated by NTHi. Understanding the ability of NTHi to cause infection is currently an expanding area of study...
November 2016: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27427517/protective-effect-of-pilin-protein-with-alum-naloxone-adjuvant-against-acute-pulmonary-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-infection
#9
Abbas Zare Banadkoki, Morteza Keshavarzmehr, Zahra Afshar, Neda Aleyasin, Mohammad Javad Fatemi, Bahador Behrouz, Farhad B Hashemi
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important opportunistic human pathogen that causes a wide variety of severe nosocomial infections. Type IV pili of P. aeruginosa are made up of polymerized pilin that aids in bacterial adhesion, biofilm formation and twitching motility. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of alum and naloxone (alum+NLX) as an adjuvant for P. aeruginosa recombinant PilA (r-PilA) as a vaccine candidate in the improvement of humoral and cellular immunity. Primary immunization with r-PilA in combination with alum+NLX followed by two booster shots was sufficient to generate robust cellular and humoral responses, which were Th1 and Th2 type responses consisting of IgG1 and IgG2a subtypes...
September 2016: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27392114/flagellin-rpac-vaccine-inhibits-biofilm-formation-but-not-proliferation-of-s-mutans
#10
Ying Sun, Yi Yang, Dihan Zhou, Yuan Cao, Jie Yu, Bali Zhao, Maohua Zhong, Yaoming Li, Jingyi Yang, Huimin Yan
As the main etiologic bacterium of dental caries, Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) has been considered as the primary object of vaccine research. We previously constructed a recombinant flagellin-rPAc fusion protein (KF-rPAc) that consists of an alanine-rich region to proline-rich region fragment of PAc (rPAc) from S. mutans and flagellin KF from E.coli K12 strain. Intranasal (i.n) immunization of KF-rPAc could induce high level of rPAc-specific antibody responses and offer robust protection against dental caries...
November 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27386013/biological-and-immunogenicity-property-of-igy-anti-s-mutans-comd
#11
E W Bachtiar, B M Bachtiar, R D Soejoedono, I W Wibawan, A Afdhal
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to elucidate the effect of IgY anti ComD on the biological properties of Streptococcus mutans. (S. mutans) ComD is an interspecies quorum-sensing signaling receptor that plays an important role in biofilm formation by S. mutans. MATERIALS AND METHODOLOGY: Egg yolk IgY was produced by the immunization of chickens with a DNA vaccine containing the ComD DNA coding region. We evaluated the effect of the antibody on biofilm formation by S. mutans isolated from subjects with or without dental caries...
2016: Open Dentistry Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27321680/genetically-modified-bacteriophages-in-applied-microbiology
#12
REVIEW
P Bárdy, R Pantůček, M Benešík, J Doškař
Bacteriophages represent a simple viral model of basic research with many possibilities for practical application. Due to their ability to infect and kill bacteria, their potential in the treatment of bacterial infection has been examined since their discovery. With advances in molecular biology and gene engineering, the phage application spectrum has been expanded to various medical and biotechnological fields. The construction of bacteriophages with an extended host range or longer viability in the mammalian bloodstream enhances their potential as an alternative to conventional antibiotic treatment...
September 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27265456/probing-vaccine-antigens-against-bovine-mastitis-caused-by-streptococcus-uberis
#13
Rosa Collado, Antoni Prenafeta, Luis González-González, Josep Antoni Pérez-Pons, Marta Sitjà
Streptococcus uberis is a worldwide pathogen that causes intramammary infections in dairy cattle. Because virulence factors determining the pathogenicity of S. uberis have not been clearly identified so far, a commercial vaccine is not yet available. Different S. uberis strains have the ability to form biofilm in vitro, although the association of this kind of growth with the development of mastitis is unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential use as vaccine antigens of proteins from S...
July 19, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27259829/the-serine-protease-autotransporter-tsh-contributes-to-the-virulence-of-edwardsiella-tarda
#14
Yong-Hua Hu, Hai-Zhen Zhou, Qian-Wen Jin, Jian Zhang
The temperature-sensitive hemagglutinin (Tsh), identified as serine protease autotransporters of the Enterobacteriaceae (SPATEs) proteins, is an important virulence factor for avian-pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) and uropathogenic E. coli. However, little is known about the role of Tsh as a virulence factor in Edwardsiella tarda, a severe fish pathogen. In this study, we characterized the Tsh of E. tarda (named TshEt) and examined its function and vaccine potential. TshEt is composed of 1224 residues and has three functional domains typical for autotransporters...
June 30, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27175154/evaluation-of-humoral-immunity-and-protective-efficacy-of-biofilm-producing-staphylococcus-aureus-bacterin-toxoid-prepared-from-a-bovine-mastitis-isolate-in-rabbit
#15
Raza A, Muhammad G, Rahman S U, Rashid I, Hanif K, Atta A, Sharif S
Mastitis is a one of the major diseases of dairy animals. Staphylococcus aureus is the most common microorganism associated with this dairy scourge. Cure rates of mastitis associated with this pathogen are appallingly low. Biofilm is an important virulence factor and immunogenic structure of S. aureus that makes it resistant to phagocytosis and antibiotics. Reports on the efficacy of vaccine prepared from a biofilm producing S. aureus are infrequent. The present study was designed to evaluate the role of a bacterin-toxoid prepared from a strong biofilm producing S...
2015: Iranian journal of veterinary research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27106696/an-immunological-assay-for-identification-of-potential-biofilm-associated-antigens-of-staphylococcus-aureus
#16
Charlene Babra Waryah, Jully Gogoi-Tiwari, Kelsi Wells, Trilochan Mukkur
Attachment of bacterial pathogens to the niche tissue in the host is the first step in biofilm formation leading to colonization and establishment of infection in the host. While the most common method used for determining the potential role of a bacterial antigen in biofilm formation has been demonstration of loss of this property using specific knockout mutants, it is an expensive and a laborious procedure. This study describes an alternative immunological assay for identification of attachment antigens of Staphylococcus aureus, potentially important in the development of an effective vaccine against infections caused by this pathogen...
April 22, 2016: Folia Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27100072/moist-heat-disinfection-and-revisiting-the-a0-concept
#17
Patrick J McCormick, Michael J Schoene, Matthew A Dehmler, Gerald McDonnell
Moist heat is employed in the medical device, pharmaceutical, and food processing industries to render products and goods safe for use and human consumption. Applications include its use to pasteurize a broad range of foods and beverages, the control of microbial contamination of blood products, and treatment of bone tissue transplants and vaccines. In the pharmaceutical industry, water heated to 65°C to 80°C is used to sanitize high-purity water systems. In healthcare, it has been employed for decades to disinfect patient care items ranging from bedpans to anesthesia equipment...
April 2, 2016: Biomedical Instrumentation & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27089967/identification-and-characterization-of-a-streptococcus-equi-ssp-zooepidemicus-immunogenic-groel-protein-involved-in-biofilm-formation
#18
Li Yi, Yang Wang, Zhe Ma, Hui-Xing Lin, Bin Xu, Daniel Grenier, Hong-Jie Fan, Cheng-Ping Lu
Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus (S. equi spp. zooepidemicus) is an opportunistic pathogen that causes major economic losses in the swine industry in China and is also a threat for human health. Biofilm formation by this bacterium has been previously reported. In this study, we used an immunoproteomic approach to search for immunogenic proteins expressed by biofilm-grown S. equi spp. zooepidemicus. Seventeen immunoreactive proteins were found, of which nine common immunoreactive proteins were identified in planktonic and biofilm-grown bacteria...
2016: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27086363/microbiology-of-chronic-rhinosinusitis
#19
REVIEW
I Brook
Most sinus infections are viral and only a small percentage develop bacterial infection. Rhino-, influenza, and para-influenza viruses are the most frequent viral causes of sinusitis. The most common bacterial isolates from children and adult patients with community-acquired acute bacterial sinusitis are Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Streptococcus pyogenes. Staphylococcus aureus and anaerobic organisms (Prevotella and Porphyromonas, Fusobacterium, and Peptostreptococcus spp...
July 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27044626/type-iv-pilus-expression-is-upregulated-in-nontypeable-haemophilus-influenzae-biofilms-formed-at-the-temperature-of-the-human-nasopharynx
#20
Elaine M Mokrzan, Michael O Ward, Lauren O Bakaletz
UNLABELLED: Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI), a commensal of the human nasopharynx (hNP), is a common cause of biofilm-associated diseases of the respiratory tract. However, NTHI biofilm biology at the average hNP temperature, i.e., 34°C, has not been well studied. Here we grew NTHI biofilms at 34°C and 37°C, to evaluate relative biofilm growth, expression, and function of the type IV pilus (Tfp), a critical adhesin important for NTHI biofilm formation. The kinetics and regulation of Tfp expression in NTHI biofilms are unclear, especially at 34°C...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
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