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bacteria adhesion and biofilm formation

Venkataseshan Jagannathan, Pragasam Viswanathan
Struvite or infection stones are one of the major clinical burdens among urinary tract infection, which occur due to the interaction between microbes and urine mineral components. Numerous urinary tract infection (UTI) causing microbes regulate through biofilm formation for survival from host defense, it is often found difficult in its eradication with simple anti-microbial agents and also the chance of recurrence and resistance development is significantly high. Cranberry consumption and maintenance of urinary tract health have been supported by clinical, epidemiological, and mechanistic studies...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Basic Microbiology
A Perrin, P Herbelin, F P A Jorand, S Skali-Lami, L Mathieu
The present study was aimed at designing and optimizing a rotating disk reactor simulating high hydrodynamic shear rates (γ), which are representative of cooling circuits. The characteristics of the hydrodynamic conditions in the reactor and the complex approach used to engineer it are described. A 60 l tank was filled with freshwater containing free-living amoebae (FLA) and bacteria. Adhesion of the bacteria and formation of a biofilm on the stainless steel coupons were observed. FLA were able to establish in these biofilms under γ as high as 85,000 s-1 ...
May 10, 2018: Biofouling
Carla Renata Arciola, Davide Campoccia, Lucio Montanaro
Medical device-associated infections account for a large proportion of hospital-acquired infections. A variety of opportunistic pathogens can cause implant infections, depending on the type of the implant and on the anatomical site of implantation. The success of these versatile pathogens depends on rapid adhesion to virtually all biomaterial surfaces and survival in the hostile host environment. Biofilm formation on implant surfaces shelters the bacteria and encourages persistence of infection. Furthermore, implant-infecting bacteria can elude innate and adaptive host defences as well as biocides and antibiotic chemotherapies...
May 2, 2018: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
Xiucheng Hu, Ruogu Xu, Xiaolin Yu, Jianyu Chen, Shuangquan Wan, Jianglin Ouyang, Feilong Deng
Selective laser melting (SLM) has promising prospects in manufacturing customized implants, however the rough surface of SLM titanium can facilitate bacterial adherence and biofilm formation, which is a risk to implant success. Therefore, surface modification is required to enhance its antibacterial efficacy. Sandblasting, anodization and electrochemical deposition were applied to construct a novel composite nanostructure of nanophase calcium phosphate embedded to TiO<sub>2</sub> nanotubes on microrough SLM substrates (NTN)...
May 1, 2018: Biomedical Materials
Harsh Mathur, Des Field, Mary C Rea, Paul D Cotter, Colin Hill, R Paul Ross
Biofilms are sessile communities of bacteria typically embedded in an extracellular polymeric matrix. Bacterial cells embedded in biofilms are inherently recalcitrant to antimicrobials, compared to cells existing in a planktonic state, and are notoriously difficult to eradicate once formed. Avenues to tackle biofilms thus far have largely focussed on attempting to disrupt the initial stages of biofilm formation, including adhesion and maturation of the biofilm. Such an approach is advantageous as the concentrations required to inhibit formation of biofilms are generally much lower than removing a fully established biofilm...
2018: NPJ Biofilms and Microbiomes
Eloa Ramalho de Camargo, Jonas Bitencourt Canalle, Rodriguo Capozzoli, Tanila Wood Dos Santos, Margareth Bulhman Ballini, Lucio Fabio Caldas Ferraz, Thaís Manzano Parisotto, Michelle Darrieux
BACKGROUND: Many factors contribute to caries development in humans, such as diet, host factors - including different saliva components - and the presence of acidogenic bacteria in the dental biofilm, particularly Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans). Despite the influence of S. mutans in caries, this bacterium is also prevalent among healthy individuals, suggesting the contribution of genetic variation on the cariogenic potential. Based on this hypothesis, the present work investigated the influence of S...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry
Federico Dorati, Glyn A Barrett, Maria Sanchez-Contreras, Tanya Arseneault, Mateo San José, David J Studholme, Jesús Murillo, Primitivo Caballero, Nicholas R Waterfield, Dawn L Arnold, Liz J Shaw, Robert W Jackson
Understanding the molecular mechanisms underpinning the ecological success of plant pathogens is critical to develop strategies for controlling diseases and protecting crops. Recent observations have shown that plant pathogenic bacteria, particularly Pseudomonas , exist in a range of natural environments away from their natural plant host e.g., water courses, soil, non-host plants. This exposes them to a variety of eukaryotic predators such as nematodes, insects and amoebae present in the environment. Nematodes and amoeba in particular are bacterial predators while insect herbivores may act as indirect predators, ingesting bacteria on plant tissue...
April 21, 2018: Microorganisms
Karkowska-Kuleta Justyna, Dominika Bartnicka, Marcin Zawrotniak, Gabriela Zielinska, Anna Kieronska, Oliwia Bochenska, Izabela Ciaston, Joanna Koziel, Jan Potempa, Zbigniew Baster, Zenon Rajfur, Maria Rapala-Kozik
Porphyromonas gingivalis, an anaerobic Gram-negative bacterium critically involved in the development of human periodontitis, belongs to the late colonizers of the oral cavity. The success of this pathogen in the host colonization and infection results from the presence of several virulence factors, including extracellular peptidylarginine deiminase (PPAD), an enzyme that converts protein arginine residues to citrullines. A common opportunistic fungal pathogen of humans, Candida albicans, is also frequently identified among microorganisms that reside at subgingival sites...
April 12, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
K A Beauchemin
Many early studies laid the foundation for our understanding of the mechanics of chewing, the physiological role of chewing for the cow, and how chewing behavior is affected by dietary characteristics. However, the dairy cow has changed significantly over the past decades, as have the types of diets fed and the production systems used. The plethora of literature published in recent years provides new insights on eating and ruminating activity of dairy cows. Lactating dairy cows spend about 4.5 h/d eating (range: 2...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Shivali Jindal, Sanjeev Anand
The attachment of aerobic spore-forming bacteria and their spores to the surfaces of dairy processing equipment leads to biofilm formation. Although sporeformers may differ in the degree of attachment, various surface modifications are being studied in order to develop a surface that is least vulnerable to attachment. This study was conducted to compare the extent of adhesion of spores and vegetative cells of the thermotolerant sporeformer Bacillus licheniformis and the high-heat-resistant sporeformers Geobacillus stearothermophilus and Bacillus sporothermodurans on both native and modified stainless steel surfaces...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Susanne Bierbaum, Susan Mulansky, Eszter Bognár, Imre Kientzl, Péter Nagy, Nihal Engin Vrana, Miklós Weszl, Elke Boschke, Dieter Scharnweber, Cornelia Wolf-Brandstetter
The study aim was to assess the impact of different surface nanofeatures on otherwise smooth titanium surfaces on bacterial adhesion as well as on their osteogenic potential. Bacterial adhesion was assessed in the presence of saliva under static and dynamic conditions to approximate both sub- and supragingival conditions in the oral cavity as the gingival seal will be affected by implantation. The ultimate goal was to develop a surface that will reduce biofilm formation but still support osseointegration in vivo...
March 28, 2018: Biomaterials Science
Kevin Bartlet, Sanli Movafaghi, Lakshmi Prasad Dasi, Arun K Kota, Ketul C Popat
Bacterial infections are a serious issue for many implanted medical devices. Infections occur when bacteria colonize the surface of an implant and form a biofilm, a barrier which protects the bacterial colony from antibiotic treatments. Further, the anti-bacterial treatments must also be tailored to the specific bacteria that is causing the infection. The inherent protection of bacteria in the biofilm, differences in bacteria species (gram-positive vs. gram-negative), and the rise of antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria makes device-acquired infections difficult to treat...
March 17, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Laura V Blanton, Lawrence T Wang, Jennifer Hofmann, Joshua DuBow, Alexander Lafrance, Stephen Kwak, Levi Bowers, Mandara A Levine, Charles O Hale, Philip M Meneely, Iruka N Okeke
Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) bacteria are exceptional colonizers that are associated with diarrhea. The genome of EAEC strain 042, a diarrheal pathogen validated in a human challenge study, encodes multiple colonization factors. Notable among them are aggregative adherence fimbriae (AAF/II) and a secreted antiaggregation protein (Aap). Deletion of aap is known to increase adherence, autoaggregation, and biofilm formation, so it was proposed that Aap counteracts AAF/II-mediated interactions. We hypothesized that Aap sterically masks heat-resistant agglutinin 1 (Hra1), an integral outer membrane protein recently identified as an accessory colonization factor...
March 2018: MSphere
Jacek Dutkiewicz, Violetta Zając, Jacek Sroka, Bernard Wasiński, Ewa Cisak, Anna Sawczyn, Anna Kloc, Angelina Wójcik-Fatla
<i>Streptococcus suis</i> is a re-emerging zoonotic pathogen that may cause severe disease, mostly meningitis, in pigs and in humans having occupational contact with pigs and pork, such as farmers, slaughterhose workers and butchers. The first stage of the pathogenic process, similar in pigs and humans, is adherence to and colonisation of mucosal and/or epithelial surface(s) of the host. The second stage is invasion into deeper tissue and extracellular translocation of bacterium in the bloodstream, either free in circulation or attached to the surface of monocytes...
March 14, 2018: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
Hengye Jing, Endalkachew Sahle-Demessie, George A Sorial
There is an increased interest in incorporating multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) into polymer matrices to control the adhesion of bacteria to surfaces and the subsequent formation of biofilm growth on the surface of water pipes, food packages, and medical devices. Microbial interactions with carbon nanotube-polymer composites in the environment are not well understood. The growth of Pseudomonas fluorescens (gram-negative) and Mycobacterium smegmatis (gram-positive) biofilms on copper, polyethylene (PE), polyvinyl chloride, and stainless steel was compared with growth on MWCNT-PE composites in order to gain insight into the effect of the surface properties of nanomaterials on the attachment and proliferation of microorganism which could result in the engineering of better, non-fouling materials...
March 21, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Dalal Asker, Tarek S Awad, Perrin Baker, P Lynne Howell, Benjamin D Hatton
Bacterial colonization and biofilm formation on surfaces are typically mediated by the deposition of exopolysaccharides and conditioning protein layers. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a nosocomial opportunistic pathogen that utilizes strain-specific exopolysaccharides such as Psl, Pel or alginate for both initial surface attachment and biofilm formation. To generate surfaces that resist P. aeruginosa colonization, we covalently bound a Psl-specific glycoside hydrolase (PslGh ) to several, chemically-distinct surfaces using amine functionalization (APTMS) and glutaraldehyde (GDA) linking...
March 14, 2018: Biomaterials
N Laube, F Bernsmann, C Fisang
Urological implants in the urinary tract are routinely used to ensure urine flow. However, the morbidities are numerous concerning long-term derivations. Especially with the ureteral stents, failure can have considerable consequences. Since the surfaces of all urological implants are more or less ideal substrates for microorganisms, the formation of bacterial biofilms is a regularly observed and often serious complication, which in many cases forces early implant replacement. The burden on the patient and the health system are enormous...
March 20, 2018: Der Urologe. Ausg. A
Benoit Couvigny, Saulius Kulakauskas, Nicolas Pons, Benoit Quinquis, Anne-Laure Abraham, Thierry Meylheuc, Christine Delorme, Pierre Renault, Romain Briandet, Nicolas Lapaque, Eric Guédon
Biofilm formation is crucial for bacterial community development and host colonization by Streptococcus salivarius , a pioneer colonizer and commensal bacterium of the human gastrointestinal tract. This ability to form biofilms depends on bacterial adhesion to host surfaces, and on the intercellular aggregation contributing to biofilm cohesiveness. Many S. salivarius isolates auto-aggregate, an adhesion process mediated by cell surface proteins. To gain an insight into the genetic factors of S. salivarius that dictate host adhesion and biofilm formation, we developed a screening method, based on the differential sedimentation of bacteria in semi-liquid conditions according to their auto-aggregation capacity, which allowed us to identify twelve mutations affecting this auto-aggregation phenotype...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Hitesh Pingle, Peng-Yuan Wang, Helmut Thissen, Peter Kingshott
Micro- and nanotopographies can interfere with bacteria attachment, however, the interplay existing between surface chemistry and topography remains unclear. Here, self-assembled spherical micrometer- silica and nanometer poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)-sized particles are used to make binary colloidal crystal (BCC) topographical patterns to study bacterial attachment. A uniform surface chemistry of allylamine plasma polymer (AAMpp) is coated on the top of the BCCs to study only the topography effects. The uncoated and coated BCCs are exposed to Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and the surfaces and bacteria are characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and fluorescence microscopy...
April 2018: Small
Beatrice Gutt, Qun Ren, Irmgard Hauser-Gerspach, Piotr Kardas, Stefan Stübinger, Monika Astasov-Frauenhoffer, Tuomas Waltimo
Periodontitis is a very common health problem caused by formation of pathogenic bacterial biofilm that triggers inflammation resulting in either reversible gingivitis or irreversible periodontal hard and soft tissue damages, leading to loss of teeth when left untreated. Commensal bacteria play an important role in oral health in many aspects. Mainly by colonizing oral tissues, they (i) contribute to maturation of immune response, and (ii) foreclose attachment of pathobiont and, therefore, prevent from infection...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
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