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bacteria adhesion and biofilm formation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447965/perspectives-of-using-of-aseptic-drains-for-abdominal-drainage
#1
Merab Kiladze, Paata Tutberidze, Maka Gogoladze, David Tugushi, Ramaz Katsarava, Tsismari Gatenadze
AIM: Aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of using different types of drain tubes to prevent and reduce the drain-associated infection rate of abdominal drainage procedures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 80 cases of used so called "standard", "coladerm" and "chlorhexidine" drain tubes for abdominal drainage were analysed. "Standard" drain tubes were used 35 times and "coladerm" and "chlorhexidine" tubes - 20 and 25 times respectively. There were adopted in different elective and emergency so called "clean", "potentially contaminated" and "contaminated" abdominal surgical procedures...
2017: Annali Italiani di Chirurgia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416278/ai-2-quorum-sensing-negatively-regulates-rbf-expression-and-biofilm-formation-in-staphylococcus-aureus
#2
Ronghua Ma, Shuwan Qiu, Qiu Jiang, Haipeng Sun, Ting Xue, Gang Cai, Baolin Sun
Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen that is capable of forming biofilms on biomaterial surfaces to cause biofilm-associated infections. Autoinducer 2 (AI-2), a universal language for interspecies communication, is involved in a variety of physiological activities, although its exact role in Gram-positive bacteria, especially in S. aureus, is not yet thoroughly characterized. Herein we demonstrate that inactivation of luxS, which encodes AI-2 synthase, resulted in increased biofilm formation and higher polysaccharide intercellular adhesion (PIA) production compared with the wild-type strain in S...
April 6, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414439/mitigation-of-thin-film-composite-membrane-biofouling-via-immobilizing-nano-sized-biocidal-reservoirs-in-the-membrane-active-layer
#3
Alireza Zirehpour, Ahmad Rahimpour, Ahmad Arabi Shamsabadi, Mohammad Sharifian Gh, Masoud Soroush
This work investigates the use of a silver-based metal-organic framework (MOF) for mitigating biofouling in forward-osmosis thin-film composite (TFC) membranes. This is the first study of the use of MOFs for biofouling control in membranes. MOF nanocrystals were immobilized in the active layer of the membranes via dispersion in the organic solution used for interfacial polymerization. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) characterization results showed the presence of the MOF nanocrystals in the active layer of the membranes...
April 27, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403648/consumption-of-apple-boysenberry-beverage-decreases-salivary-actinomyces-naeslundii-and-their-adhesion-in-a-multi-species-biofilm-model
#4
S G Parkar, S Eady, M Cabecinha, M A Skinner
We hypothesised that consumption of beverage rich in both fibre and polyphenols, rather than each bioactive alone, will modulate populations of selected salivary bacteria, and their adhesion characteristics and that some of these effects may be due to the anti-microbial activity of the beverage bioactives. We investigated the effect of 4 weeks' consumption of beverages, rich in apple fibre, boysenberry polyphenols, or both on salivary bacteria in healthy subjects. In this placebo-controlled crossover study, saliva samples were collected at the beginning and end of each treatment period, and used for qPCR quantitation of Lactobacillus spp...
April 13, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400767/the-periplasmic-chaperone-network-of-campylobacter-jejuni-evidence-that-salc-cj1289-and-ppid-cj0694-are-involved-in-maintaining-outer-membrane-integrity
#5
Aidan J Taylor, Shadi A I Zakai, David J Kelly
The outer membrane (OM) of Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria is a key structure in host-pathogen interactions that contains a plethora of proteins, performing a range of functions including adhesion, nutrient uptake, export of effectors and interaction with innate and adaptive components of the immune system. In addition, the OM can exclude drugs and thus contribute to antimicrobial resistance. The OM of the food-borne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni contains porins, adhesins and other virulence factors that must be specifically localized to this membrane, but the protein sorting mechanisms involved are only partially understood...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364672/efficacy-of-a-mouthrinse-based-on-hydroxyapatite-to-reduce-initial-bacterial-colonisation-in-situ
#6
A Kensche, C Holder, S Basche, N Tahan, C Hannig, M Hannig
OBJECTIVE: The present in situ - investigation aimed to specify the impact of pure hydroxyapatite microclusters on initial bioadhesion and bacterial colonization at the tooth surface. DESIGN: Pellicle formation was carried out in situ on bovine enamel slabs (9 subjects). After 1min of pellicle formation rinses with 8ml of hydroxyapatite (HA) microclusters (5%) in bidestilled water or chlorhexidine 0.2% were performed. As negative control no rinse was adopted. In situ biofilm formation was promoted by the intraoral slab exposure for 8h overnight...
March 23, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362216/strategies-for-combating-bacterial-biofilms-a-focus-on-anti-biofilm-agents-and-their-mechanisms-of-action
#7
Ranita Roy, Monalisa Tiwari, Gianfranco Donelli, Vishvanath Tiwari
Biofilm refers to the complex, sessile communities of microbes found either attached to a surface or buried firmly in an extracellular matrix as aggregates. The biofilm matrix surrounding bacteria makes them tolerant to harsh conditions and resistant to antibacterial treatments. Moreover, the biofilms are responsible for causing a broad range of chronic diseases and due to the emergence of antibiotic resistance in bacteria it has really become difficult to treat them with efficacy. Furthermore, the antibiotics available till date are ineffective for treating these biofilm related infections due to their higher values of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), which may result in in-vivo toxicity...
March 31, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361145/substrate-effects-on-cell-envelope-deformation-during-early-stage-staphylococcus-aureus-biofilm-formation
#8
Jiahua Gu, Antonio Valdevit, Tseng-Ming Chou, Matthew Libera
Bacterial adhesion to a surface is the first step in biofilm formation, and adhesive forces between the surface and a bacterium are believed to give rise to planktonic-to-biofilm phenotypic changes. Here we use Focused-Ion-Beam (FIB) tomography with backscattered scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to image Staphyolococcus aureus (S. aureus) biofilms grown on Au-coated polystyrene (PS) and Au-coated PS modified by mixed thiols of triethylene glycol mono-11-mercaptoundecyl ether (EG3) and 1-dodecanethiol (CH3)...
April 19, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352177/lipase-degradation-of-plasticized-polyvinyl-chloride-endotracheal-tube-surfaces-to-create-nanoscale-features
#9
Mary C Machado, Thomas J Webster
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) endotracheal tubes (ETTs) nanoetched with a fungal lipase have been shown to reduce bacterial growth and biofilm formation and could be an inexpensive solution to the complex problem of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Although bacterial growth and colonization on these nanoetched materials have been well characterized, little is known about the mechanism by which the fungal lipase degrades the PVC and, thus, alters its properties to minimize bacteria functions. This study used X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) to better describe the surface chemistry of both unetched and lipase nanoetched PVC ETT...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343672/effect-of-titanium-and-zirconia-dental-implant-abutments-on-a-cultivable-polymicrobial-saliva-community
#10
Erica D de Avila, Carlos Eduardo Vergani, Francisco A Mollo Junior, Miguel Jafelicci Junior, Wenyuan Shi, Renate Lux
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: Periimplantitis is considered the most important biological complication responsible for late implant failure. The physical chemical properties intrinsic to each material can affect the first step to biofilm development and is an important precursor to the adaptive behavior of pathogenic bacteria species. PURPOSE: The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of 2 commercially available implant abutment materials on the adhesion phase and biofilm formation...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341674/interbacterial-adhesion-networks-within-the-early-oral-biofilm-of-individual-human-hosts
#11
Robert J Palmer, Nehal Shah, Alex Valm, Bruce Paster, Floyd Dewhirst, Taichi Inui, John O Cisar
Specific interbacterial adhesion, termed coaggregation, is well established for three early colonizers of the plaque biofilm: streptococci, actinomyces, and veillonellae. However, little is known about interactions of other early colonizers, and about the extent of interactions within the bacterial community from a single host. To address these gaps, subject-specific culture collections from two individuals were established using an intra-oral biofilm retrieval device. Molecular taxonomy (Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray: HOMIM) of biofilm samples corroborated integrity and completeness of the collections...
March 24, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339597/compositional-differences-in-multi-species-biofilms-formed-on-various-orthodontic-adhesives
#12
Jung-Sub An, Kyungsun Kim, Soha Cho, Bum-Soon Lim, Sug-Joon Ahn
Objectives: To investigate the aspects of multi-species biofilm formation on various orthodontic adhesives with different surface characteristics. Methods: Multi-species biofilms using 13 bacterial species were grown on the surfaces of composite, compomer, and resin-modified glass-ionomer cement (RMGI). The changes in Streptococcus mutans (Sm), Streptococcus sobrinus (Ss), Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa), and total bacteria were determined at day 1 (T1) and day 4 (T2) using real-time polymerase chain reaction...
January 25, 2017: European Journal of Orthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325767/cohesive-properties-of-the-caulobacter-crescentus-holdfast-adhesin-are-regulated-by-a-novel-c-di-gmp-effector-protein
#13
Kathrin S Sprecher, Isabelle Hug, Jutta Nesper, Eva Potthoff, Mohamed-Ali Mahi, Matteo Sangermani, Volkhard Kaever, Torsten Schwede, Julia Vorholt, Urs Jenal
When encountering surfaces, many bacteria produce adhesins to facilitate their initial attachment and to irreversibly glue themselves to the solid substrate. A central molecule regulating the processes of this motile-sessile transition is the second messenger c-di-GMP, which stimulates the production of a variety of exopolysaccharide adhesins in different bacterial model organisms. In Caulobacter crescentus, c-di-GMP regulates the synthesis of the polar holdfast adhesin during the cell cycle, yet the molecular and cellular details of this control are currently unknown...
March 21, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325766/staphylococcal-%C3%AE-toxin-modulates-human-aortic-endothelial-cell-and-platelet-function-through-sphingomyelinase-and-biofilm-ligase-activities
#14
Alfa Herrera, Katarina Kulhankova, Vijay K Sonkar, Sanjana Dayal, Aloysius J Klingelhutz, Wilmara Salgado-Pabón, Patrick M Schlievert
Staphylococcus aureus causes many infections, such as skin and soft tissue, pneumonia, osteomyelitis, and infective endocarditis (IE). IE is an endovascular infection of native and prosthetic valves and the lining of the heart; it is characterized by the formation of cauliflower-like "vegetations" composed of fibrin, platelets, other host factors, bacteria, and bacterial products. β-Toxin is an S. aureus virulence factor that contributes to the microorganism's ability to cause IE. This cytolysin has two enzymatic activities: sphingomyelinase (SMase) and biofilm ligase...
March 21, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295372/surface-charge-modification-decreases-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-adherence-in-vitro-and-bacterial-persistence-in-an-in-vivo-implant-model
#15
W Katherine Kao, Patricia M Gagnon, Joseph P Vogel, Richard A Chole
OBJECTIVE: Chronic, persistent infections complicate otologic procedures utilizing implantable devices such as cochlear implants or tympanostomy tubes. These infections are thought to be due to the establishment of microbial biofilms on implant surfaces. To address this issue, we hypothesized that surface charge modification may inhibit the formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms on implant surfaces in vitro and in vivo. STUDY DESIGN: We evaluated the effect of surface charge modification on bacterial biofilm formation by assessing the effect of the surface charge on bacterial adhesion in vitro and bacterial persistence in vivo...
March 14, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291321/nanoengineered-superhydrophobic-surfaces-of-aluminum-with-extremely-low-bacterial-adhesivity
#16
Ferdi Hizal, Natthakan Rungraeng, Junghoon Lee, Soojin Jun, Henk J Busscher, Henny C van der Mei, Chang-Hwan Choi
Bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation on surfaces are troublesome in many industrial processes. Here, nanoporous and nanopillared aluminum surfaces were engineered by anodizing and postetching processes and made hydrophilic (using the inherent oxide layer) or hydrophobic (applying a Teflon coating) with the aim of discouraging bacterial adhesion. Adhesion of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 12600 (Gram-positive, spherically shaped) and Escherichia coli K-12 (Gram-negative, rod-shaped) was evaluated to the nanoengineered surfaces under both static and flow conditions (fluid shear rate of 37 s(-1))...
March 27, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289087/reoxidation-of-the-thiol-disulfide-oxidoreductase-mdba-by-a-bacterial-vitamin-k-epoxide-reductase-in-the-biofilm-forming-actinobacterium-actinomyces-oris
#17
Truc Thanh Luong, Melissa E Reardon-Robinson, Sara D Siegel, Hung Ton-That
Post-translocational protein folding in the Gram-positive biofilm-forming actinobacterium Actinomyces oris is mediated by a membrane-bound thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase named MdbA, which catalyzes oxidative folding of nascent polypeptides transported by the Sec translocon. Reoxidation of MdbA involves a bacterial Vitamin K Epoxide Reductase (VKOR)-like protein that contains four cysteine residues C93/C101 and C175/C178 with the latter forming a canonical CXXC thioredoxin-like motif; however, the mechanism of VKOR-mediated reoxidation of MdbA is not known...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280487/candida-albicans-mycofilms-support-staphylococcus-aureus-colonization-and-enhances-miconazole-resistance-in-dual-species-interactions
#18
Ryan Kean, Ranjith Rajendran, Jennifer Haggarty, Eleanor M Townsend, Bryn Short, Karl E Burgess, Sue Lang, Owain Millington, William G Mackay, Craig Williams, Gordon Ramage
Polymicrobial inter-kingdom biofilm infections represent a clinical management conundrum. The presence of co-isolation of bacteria and fungi complicates the ability to routinely administer single antimicrobial regimens, and synergy between the microorganisms influences infection severity. We therefore investigated the nosocomial pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans with respect to antimicrobial intervention. We characterized the interaction using biofilm assays and evaluated the effect of miconazole treatment using in vitro and in vivo assays...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267427/prevention-of-biomaterial-infection-by-pre-operative-incubation-with-human-cells
#19
Ramón Pérez-Tanoira, Antti A Aarnisalo, Kari K Eklund, Xia Han, Antti Soininen, Veli-Matti Tiainen, Jaime Esteban, Teemu J Kinnari
BACKGROUND: Cells of tissues and biofilm forming bacteria compete for the living space on the surface of an implant. We hypothesized the incubation of the implant (titanium, polydimethylsiloxane, and polystyrene surface) with human cells before implantation as a strategy to prevent bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation. METHODS: After 24 hours of incubation with human osteogenic sarcoma SaOS-2 cells (1 × 10(5) cells/mL), the materials were incubated for 4...
April 2017: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259957/photodynamic-inactivation-of-fibroblasts-and-inhibition-of-staphylococcus%C3%A2-epidermidis-adhesion-and-biofilm-formation-by-toluidine-blue-o
#20
Xin Li, Zizhong Liu, Houfang Liu, Xi Chen, Yue Liu, Honglue Tan
Treating skin and soft tissue infections of severe limb traumas can be challenging. Crucial concerns focus on inhibiting biofilm formation by antibiotic‑resistant bacteria, and preventing scar formation by fibroblastic hyperproliferation. The local use of toluidine blue O (TBO)‑mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT) may be a promising strategy for treating such lesions. The present study used Staphylococcus epidermidis (strain ATCC 35984) to assess the effects of TBO‑PDT on bacterial adherence and biofilm formation, using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), tissue culture plating (TCP) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)...
April 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
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