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bacteria adhesion and biofilm formation

Mareike Klinger-Strobel, Oliwia Makarewicz, Mathias W Pletz, Andreas Stallmach, Christian Lautenschläger
Biofilm formation, also known as microfouling, on indwelling medical devices such as catheters or prosthetic joints causes difficult to treat and recurrent infections. It is also the initial step for biocorrosion of surfaces in aquatic environment. An efficient prevention of microfouling is preferable but the development of antibiofilm surfaces is enormously challenging. Therefore, soda-lime, aluminosilicate, and three borosilicate glasses with different TiO2 and ZnO compositions were investigated on their feasibility to prevent biofilm formation by standardized in vitro biofilm assays using different pathogenic bacteria...
December 2016: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
Elin Djurhuus Samuelsen, Nora Badawi, Ole Nybroe, Sebastian R Sørensen, Jens Aamand
Pesticide-polluted drinking water may be remediated by inoculating waterworks sand filters with specific degrading bacteria. However, degradation efficiency is often hampered by the poor adhesion behaviour of the introduced bacteria. The phenoxy acid herbicide 4-chloro-2-methyl-phenoxy-acetic acid (MCPA) is a widespread groundwater contaminant. The aim of this study was to investigate whether specific surface characteristics of MCPA-degrading bacteria could be linked to their degrading capabilities in sand filters...
October 12, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Jesús Arenas, Jan Tommassen
Extracellular DNA (eDNA) is an essential constituent of the extracellular matrix of biofilms of many microorganisms. In spite of many studies, it has long remained unclear how exactly eDNA exerts its role in biofilm formation. Here, we describe recent advances that have been made in understanding biofilm formation in the human pathogen Neisseria meningitidis. Several cell-surface-exposed proteins have been identified that bind DNA and other negatively charged polymers, such as heparin, by electrostatic interactions...
October 3, 2016: Trends in Microbiology
Shivali Jindal, Sanjeev Anand, Kang Huang, Julie Goddard, Lloyd Metzger, Jayendra Amamcharla
The development of bacterial biofilms on stainless steel (SS) surfaces poses a great threat to the quality of milk and other dairy products as the biofilm-embedded bacteria can survive thermal processing. Established biofilms offer cleaning challenges because they are resistant to most of the regular cleaning protocols. Sporeforming thermoduric organisms entrapped within biofilm matrix can also form heat-resistant spores, and may result in a long-term persistent contamination. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of different nonfouling coatings [AMC 18 (Advanced Materials Components Express, Lemont, PA), Dursan (SilcoTek Corporation, Bellefonte, PA), Ni-P-polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE, Avtec Finishing Systems, New Hope, MN), and Lectrofluor 641 (General Magnaplate Corporation, Linden, NJ)] on SS plate heat exchanger surfaces, to resist the formation of bacterial biofilms...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Monica Benincasa, Cristina Lagatolla, Lucilla Dolzani, Annalisa Milan, Sabrina Pacor, Gianfranco Liut, Alessandro Tossi, Paola Cescutti, Roberto Rizzo
Biofilm matrices of two Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates, KpTs101 and KpTs113, were investigated for their polysaccharide composition and protective effects against antimicrobial peptides. Both strains were good biofilm producers, with KpTs113 forming flocs with very low adhesive properties to supports. Matrix exopolysaccharides were isolated and their monosaccharide composition and glycosidic linkage types were defined. KpTs101 polysaccharide is neutral and composed only of galactose, in both pyranose and furanose ring configurations...
August 10, 2016: Microorganisms
W Blel, L Limousy, P Dutournié, A Ponche, A Boucher, M Le Fellic
Membrane separation processes find applications in an array of fields as they use far less energy and chemical agents than competing processes. However, a major drawback of membrane technology is that biofilm formation alters membrane performances. Preventing biofilm formation is thus a pivotal challenge for larger-scale development of membrane processes. Here, we studied the comparative antibacterial activities of different inorganic membranes (ceramic and zeolite-coated ceramic with or without copper exchange) using several bacterial strains (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis)...
September 28, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Silvana Petrocelli, Maite R Arana, Marcela N Cabrini, Adriana C Casabuono, Laura Moyano, Matías Beltramino, Leandro M Moreira, Alicia S Couto, Elena G Orellano
Type IV pili (Tfp) are widely distributed adhesins of bacterial surfaces. In plant pathogenic bacteria, Tfp are involved in host colonization and pathogenesis. Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc) is the phytopathogen responsible for citrus canker disease. In this work, three Tfp structural genes, fimA, fimA1, and pilA from Xcc were studied. A pilA mutant strain from Xcc (XccΔpilA) was constructed and differences in physiological features, such as motilities, adhesion, and biofilm formation, were observed...
December 2016: Current Microbiology
Gabriel Baracy Klafke, Gustavo Marçal Schmidt Garcia Moreira, Juliano Lacava Pereira, Patrícia Diaz Oliveira, Fabricio Rochedo Conceição, Rafael Guerra Lund, André Alex Grassmann, Odir Antonio Dellagostin, Luciano da Silva Pinto
Lectins are non-immune proteins that reversibly bind to carbohydrates in a specific manner. Bauhinia variegata lectin I (BVL-I) is a Gal/GalNAc-specific, single-chain lectin isolated from Bauhinia variegata seeds that has been implicated in the inhibition of bacterial adhesion and the healing of damaged skin. Since the source of the native protein (nBVL) is limited, this study aimed to produce recombinant BVL-I in Pichia pastoris (rBVL-Ip). The coding sequence for BVL-I containing preferential codons for P...
September 17, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Jialin Niu, Zibo Tang, Hua Huang, Jia Pei, Hua Zhang, Guangyin Yuan, Wenjiang Ding
Zn-based alloys have been viewed as new potential materials for biodegradable implants, such as cardiovascular stents, mainly in consideration of their lower corrosion rate when compared with that of Mg alloys. In this study we developed a new Zinc-4wt.%Copper (Zn-4Cu) alloy as a biodegradable material. Hot extrusion was applied to Zn-4Cu to refine the microstructure and consequently improve its mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. After extrusion, dendritic CuZn5 phases were broken and distributed along the extrusion direction...
December 1, 2016: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Jiaxing Wang, Jinhua Li, Geyong Guo, Qiaojie Wang, Jin Tang, Yaochao Zhao, Hui Qin, Tuerhongjiang Wahafu, Hao Shen, Xuanyong Liu, Xianlong Zhang
Titanium implants are widely used clinically, but postoperative implant infection remains a potential severe complication. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antibacterial activity of nano-silver(Ag)-functionalized Ti surfaces against epidemic Staphylococcus from the perspective of the regulation of biofilm-related genes and based on a bacteria-cell co-culture study. To achieve this goal, two representative epidemic Staphylococcus strains, Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis, RP62A) and Staphylococcus aureus (S...
2016: Scientific Reports
Yulong Tan, Matthias Leonhard, Doris Moser, Su Ma, Berit Schneider-Stickler
Mixed biofilms with fungi and bacteria are the leading cause for the failure of medical silicone devices, such as voice prostheses in laryngectomy. In this study, we determined the effect of carboxymethyl chitosan (CM-chitosan) on mixed biofilm formation of fungi and bacteria on silicone which is widely used for construction of medical devices. Mixed biofilm formations were inhibited 72.87% by CM-chitosan. Furthermore, CM-chitosan significantly decreased the metabolic activity of the biofilms using 2, 3-bis (2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfo-phenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5 carboxanilide (XTT) reduction assay...
August 31, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Wu Shuai-Cheng, Fu Ben-Dong, Chu Xiu-Ling, Su Jian-Qing, Fu Yun-Xing, Cui Zhen-Qiang, Xu Dao-Xiu, Wu Zong-Mei
Phloretin, a natural component of many fruits, exhibits anti-virulence effects and provides a new alternative to counter bacterial infection. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of subinhibitory concentrations of phloretin on the virulence of Salmonella typhimurium. At concentrations where growth of Salmonella was not inhibited, phloretin significantly inhibited bacteria biofilm formation and motility. Subinhibitory concentrations of phloretin repressed eight genes involved in the Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 and 3 genes involved in flagella production...
November 2016: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Maya Bar Dolev, Reut Bernheim, Shuaiqi Guo, Peter L Davies, Ido Braslavsky
Ice-binding proteins (IBPs) are typically small, soluble proteins produced by cold-adapted organisms to help them avoid ice damage by either resisting or tolerating freezing. By contrast, the IBP of the Antarctic bacterium Marinomonas primoryensis is an extremely long, 1.5 MDa protein consisting of five different regions. The fourth region, a 34 kDa domain, is the only part that confers ice binding. Bioinformatic studies suggest that this IBP serves as an adhesin that attaches the bacteria to ice to keep it near the top of the water column, where oxygen and nutrients are available...
August 2016: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Dan Xu, Wei Zhang, Bing Zhang, Chongbing Liao, Yongping Shao
Deficiency in biosynthesis of inner core of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) rendered a characteristic biofilm-forming phenotype in E. coli. The pathological implications of this new phenotype in Shigella flexneri, a highly contagious enteric Gram-negative bacteria that is closely related to E. coli, were investigated in this study. The ΔrfaC (also referred as waaC) mutant, with incomplete inner core of LPS due to deficiency in Hep biosynthesis, was characteristic of strong biofilm formation ability and exhibited much more pronounced adhesiveness and invasiveness to human epithelial cells than the parental strain and other LPS mutants, which also showed distinct pattern of F-actin recruitment...
2016: PeerJ
Rui Liu, Kaveh Memarzadeh, Bei Chang, Yumei Zhang, Zheng Ma, Robert P Allaker, Ling Ren, Ke Yang
Formation of bacterial biofilms on dental implant material surfaces (titanium) may lead to the development of peri-implant diseases influencing the long term success of dental implants. In this study, a novel Cu-bearing titanium alloy (Ti-Cu) was designed and fabricated in order to efficiently kill bacteria and discourage formation of biofilms, and then inhibit bacterial infection and prevent implant failure, in comparison with pure Ti. Results from biofilm based gene expression studies, biofilm growth observation, bacterial viability measurements and morphological examination of bacteria, revealed antimicrobial/antibiofilm activities of Ti-Cu alloy against the oral specific bacterial species, Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis...
2016: Scientific Reports
Katharina Doll, Katrin L Jongsthaphongpun, Nico S Stumpp, Andreas Winkel, Meike Stiesch
Biofilm-associated infections pose severe problems in modern implant medicine. Screening for new implant materials with antibacterial properties requires reliable quantification of colonizing bacteria. There are many different methods to quantify biofilms on solid surfaces in vitro, employing different (bio-)chemical/microbiological reference parameters. It is therefore difficult to compare studies with different quantification techniques. Here, we have evaluated commonly used microscopic, microbiologic and biochemical methods to quantify bacterial biofilms, in order to clarify their comparability and applicability...
November 2016: Journal of Microbiological Methods
Marina Davcheva-Chakar, Ana Kaftandzhieva, Beti Zafirovska
INTRODUCTION: Otitis media and rhinosinusitis are commonly encountered illnesses in pediatric population. Literature reports have documented the association between the occurrence of these two conditions and even their almost identical microbiological findings. Until recently, the key factor in the association of these two conditions was considered to be the hypertrophic adenoid tissue, but within the past few years there have been evidences in the literature about the presence of bacterial biofilms on the adenoids suggesting biofilms to be also responsible for both conditions, chronic otitis media with effusion and chronic rhinosinusitis...
2015: Prilozi (Makedonska Akademija Na Naukite i Umetnostite. Oddelenie za Medicinski Nauki)
Surekha K Satpute, Gauri R Kulkarni, Arun G Banpurkar, Ibrahim M Banat, Nishigandha S Mone, Rajendra H Patil, Swaranjit Singh Cameotra
Lactic acid bacteria are generally believed to have positive roles in maintaining good health and immune system in humans. A number of Lactobacilli spp. are known to produce important metabolites, among which biosurfactants in particular have shown antimicrobial activity against several pathogens in the intestinal tract and female urogenital tract partly through interfering with biofilm formation and adhesion to the epithelial cells surfaces. Around 46 reports are documented on biosurfactant production from Lactobacillus spp...
July 20, 2016: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Qing Tang, Kang Yin, Hongliang Qian, Youwen Zhao, Wen Wang, Shan-Ho Chou, Yang Fu, Jin He
Cyclic di-GMP is a ubiquitous second messenger that regulates diverse cellular processes in bacteria by binding to various protein or riboswitch effectors. In Bacillus thuringiensis BMB171, a c-di-GMP riboswitch termed Bc2 RNA resides in the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) of an mRNA that encodes a collagen adhesion protein (Cap). The expression of cap was strongly repressed in parent strain BMB171 because of the presence of Bc2 RNA but was significantly promoted in the Bc2 RNA markerless deletion mutant. Bc2 RNA acts as a genetic "on" switch, which forms an anti-terminator structure to promote cap read-through transcription upon c-di-GMP binding...
2016: Scientific Reports
C C Rossi, J F Santos-Gandelman, E M Barros, V M Alvarez, M S Laport, M Giambiagi-deMarval
UNLABELLED: Staphylococcus haemolyticus is an opportunistic human pathogen that usually gains entry into the host tissue in association with medical device contamination. Biofilm formation is a key factor for the establishment of this bacterium and its arrangement and dynamics can be influenced by the synthesis of biosurfactants. Biosurfactants are structurally diverse amphiphilic molecules with versatile biotechnological applications, but information on their production by staphylococci is still scarce...
September 2016: Letters in Applied Microbiology
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