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virulence genes and biofilm formation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808205/farnesol-inhibits-development-of-caries-by-augmenting-oxygen-sensitivity-and-suppressing-virulence-associated-gene-expression-instreptococcus-mutans
#1
Li Cao, Zhen-Zhen Zhang, Shuang-Bo Xu, Ming Ma, Xin Wei
Streptococcus mutans is a primary etiological agent of dental caries. Farnesol, as a potential antimicrobial agent, inhibits the development ofS. mutans biofilm. In this study, we hypothesized that farnesol inhibits caries development in vitro and interferes with biofilm formation by regulating virulence-associated gene expression. The inhibitory effects of farnesol to S. mutans biofilms on enamel surfaces were investigated by determining micro-hardness and calcium measurements. Additionally, the morphological changes ofS...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808131/intercellular-communication-via-the-comx-inducing-peptide-xip-of-streptococcus-mutans
#2
Justin Kaspar, Simon A M Underhill, Robert C Shields, Adrian Reyes, Suzanne Rosenzweig, Stephen J Hagen, Robert A Burne
Gram-positive bacteria utilize exported peptides to coordinate genetic and physiological processes required for biofilm formation, stress responses and ecological competitiveness. One example is activation of natural genetic competence by ComR and the comX-inducing peptide (XIP) in Streptococcus mutans Although the competence pathway can be activated by addition of synthetic XIP in defined medium, the hypothesis that XIP is able to function as an intercellular signal molecule has not been rigorously tested...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800709/the-major-outer-membrane-protein-mopb-is-required-for-twitching-movement-and-affects-biofilm-formation-and-virulence-in-two-xylella-fastidiosa-strains
#3
Hongyu Chen, Prem Prasad Kandel, Luisa Fernanda Cruz, Paul Anthony Cobine, Leonardo De La Fuente
MopB is a major outer membrane protein in Xylella fastidiosa, a bacterial plant pathogen that causes losses on many economically important crops. Based on in silico analysis, the uncharacterized MopB protein of X. fastidiosa contains a β-barrel structure with an OmpA-like domain and a predicted calcium-binding motif. Here, MopB function was studied by mutational analysis taking advantage of the natural competence of X. fastidiosa. Mutants of mopB were constructed in two different X. fastidiosa strains, the type strain 'Temecula' and the more virulent 'WM1-1'...
August 11, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799693/the-small-rna-real-a-novel-regulatory-element-embedded-in-the-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-quorum-sensing-networks
#4
Sara Carloni, Raffaella Macchi, Sara Sattin, Silvia Ferrara, Giovanni Bertoni
The small RNA ReaL of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been characterized. Our results indicate that ReaL contributes to P. aeruginosa virulence. In the Galleria mellonella infection model, reaL gene deletion resulted in decreased virulence, while ReaL overexpression resulted in a hyper-virulent phenotype. We also demonstrate that ReaL is embedded in the P. aeruginosa quorum sensing (QS) with the role of linking las to pqs systems. We show that ReaL is negatively regulated by the las regulator LasR and impacts positively the synthesis of the pqs quinolone signal PQS by a positive post-transcriptional effect on the pqsC gene...
August 11, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798903/anti-quorum-sensing-and-anti-biofilm-activity-of-delftia-tsuruhatensis-extract-by-attenuating-the-quorum-sensing-controlled-virulence-factor-production-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#5
Vijay K Singh, Avinash Mishra, Bhavanath Jha
Multidrug-resistance bacteria commonly use cell-to-cell communication that leads to biofilm formation as one of the mechanisms for developing resistance. Quorum sensing inhibition (QSI) is an effective approach for the prevention of biofilm formation. A Gram-negative bacterium, Delftia tsuruhatensis SJ01, was isolated from the rhizosphere of a species of sedge (Cyperus laevigatus) grown along the coastal-saline area. The isolate SJ01 culture and bacterial crude extract showed QSI activity in the biosensor plate containing the reference strain Chromobacterium violaceum CV026...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797828/gene-expression-profiling-of-fima-gene-encoding-fimbriae-among-clinical-isolates-of-porphyromonas-gingivalis-in-response-to-photo-activated-disinfection-therapy
#6
Maryam Pourhajibagher, Abbas Bahador
BACKGROUND: The endodontic infection therapy majorly aims to eradicate the microbial pathogens. Photo-activated disinfection (PAD), also known as antimicrobial photodynamic therapy, is an alternative antimicrobial modality used to control the microorganisms causing endodontic infections. Notably, microorganisms may be exposed to sub-lethal doses of PAD (sPAD), influencing microbial virulence. The present study assessed the effects of sPAD on expression profiling of the gene associated with the biofilm formation being the most essential virulence factor in Porphyromonas gingivalis strain cells that survive the photodynamic reatment in vivo...
August 7, 2017: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792229/eugenol-exhibits-anti-virulence-properties-by-competitively-binding-to-quorum-sensing-receptors
#7
Prasanth Rathinam, H S Vijay Kumar, Pragasam Viswanathan
The primary objective of this study was to ascertain the anti-biofilm and anti-virulence properties of sub-minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) levels of eugenol against the standard strain PAO1 and two multi-drug resistant P. aeruginosa clinical isolates utilizing quorum sensing inhibition (QSI). Eugenol at 400 μM significantly reduced biofilm formation on urinary catheters and the virulence factors (VF) including extracellular polysaccharides, rhamnolipid, elastase, protease, pyocyanin, and pyoverdine (p < 0...
August 9, 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791824/anti-enterococcal-activities-of-pentacyclic-triterpenes
#8
Dorota Wojnicz, Dorota Tichaczek-Goska, Kamila Korzekwa, Marta Kicia, Andrzej Hendrich
BACKGROUND: Asiatic (AA) and ursolic (UA) acids are widely studied phytochemicals, but their antimicrobial properties are still poorly understood. Therefore our research has focused on their activity against uropathogenic Enterococcus faecalis strains. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this research was to determine the influence of AA and UA on the growth, cell morphology, virulence factors and biofilm formation by E. faecalis strains. MATERIAL AND METHODS: AA and UA were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich...
May 2017: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767643/bow-tie-signaling-in-c-di-gmp-machine-learning-in-a-simple-biochemical-network
#9
Jinyuan Yan, Maxime Deforet, Kerry E Boyle, Rayees Rahman, Raymond Liang, Chinweike Okegbe, Lars E P Dietrich, Weigang Qiu, Joao B Xavier
Bacteria of many species rely on a simple molecule, the intracellular secondary messenger c-di-GMP (Bis-(3'-5')-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate), to make a vital choice: whether to stay in one place and form a biofilm, or to leave it in search of better conditions. The c-di-GMP network has a bow-tie shaped architecture that integrates many signals from the outside world-the input stimuli-into intracellular c-di-GMP levels that then regulate genes for biofilm formation or for swarming motility-the output phenotypes...
August 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763494/global-assessment-of-small-rnas-reveals-a-non-coding-transcript-involved-in-biofilm-formation-and-attachment-in-acinetobacter-baumannii-atcc-17978
#10
Laura Álvarez-Fraga, Soraya Rumbo-Feal, Astrid Pérez, Manuel J Gómez, Carmen Gayoso, Juan A Vallejo, Emily J Ohneck, Jaione Valle, Luis A Actis, Alejandro Beceiro, Germán Bou, Margarita Poza
Many strains of Acinetobacter baumannii have been described as being able to form biofilm. Small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) control gene expression in many regulatory circuits in bacteria. The aim of the present work was to provide a global description of the sRNAs produced both by planktonic and biofilm-associated (sessile) cells of A. baumannii ATCC 17978, and to compare the corresponding gene expression profiles to identify sRNAs molecules associated to biofilm formation and virulence. sRNA was extracted from both planktonic and sessile cells and reverse transcribed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760455/association-between-virulence-profile-biofilm-formation-and-phylogenetic-groups-of-escherichia-coli-causing-urinary-tract-infection-and-the-commensal-gut-microbiota-a-comparative-analysis
#11
Zahra Hashemizadeh, Davood Kalantar-Neyestanaki, Shahla Mansouri
Variety of virulence factors are involved in the pathogenicity of Escherichia coli, the common cause of the urinary tract infections (UTIs). The aim of this study was to determine some virulence factors involved in the pathogenicity and the phylogenetic grouping of E. coli from UTIs compared with the E. coli isolates from gut microbiota (fecal flora). The isolates were tested for biofilm formation, haemagglutination, cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH), hemolysin production, phylogenetic grouping and the distribution of 6 known virulence genes...
July 29, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752292/effect-of-amikacin-on-cell-wall-glycopeptidolipid-synthesis-in-mycobacterium-abscessus
#12
So-Young Lee, Hee-Youn Kim, Byoung-Jun Kim, Hong Kim, Seung-Hyeok Seok, Bum-Joon Kim, Yoon-Hoh Kook
Cultivation of the smooth colony Mycobacterium abscessus at the sub-minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of amikacin changed its growth pattern including its colony morphology (smooth to rough) and cell arrangement (dispersed to cord formation). In addition, reduced sliding motility and biofilm formation were observed. The amount of glycogpetidolipid (GPL) and mRNA expression of key genes involved in GPL synthesis were decreased in the amikacin-treated M. abscessus strain. An in vitro infection assay revealed that the amikacin-treated smooth M...
August 2017: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744275/staphylococcus-aureus-quorum-regulator-sara-targeted-compound-2-methylamino-methyl-phenol-inhibits-biofilm-and-down-regulates-virulence-genes
#13
P Balamurugan, V Praveen Krishna, D Bharath, Raajaraam Lavanya, Pothiappan Vairaprakash, S Adline Princy
Staphylococcus aureus is a widely acknowledged Gram-positive pathogen for forming biofilm and virulence gene expressions by quorum sensing (QS), a cell to cell communication process. The quorum regulator SarA of S. aureus up-regulates the expression of many virulence factors including biofilm formation to mediate pathogenesis and evasion of the host immune system in the late phases of growth. Thus, inhibiting the production or blocking SarA protein might influence the down-regulation of biofilm and virulence factors...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733286/the-regulator-ldhr-and-the-d-lactate-dehydrogenase-ldha-of-burkholderia-multivorans-play-a-role-in-carbon-overflow-and-in-planktonic-cellular-aggregates-formation
#14
Inês N Silva, Marcelo J Ramires, Lisa A Azevedo, Ana R Guerreiro, Andreia C Tavares, Jörg D Becker, Leonilde M Moreira
LysR-type transcriptional regulators (LTTR) are the most commonly found regulators in Burkholderia cepacia complex, comprising opportunistic pathogens causing chronic respiratory infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Despite LTTRs being global regulators of pathogenicity in several bacteria, few have been characterized in Burkholderia Here, we showed that gene ldhR of B. multivorans encoding a LTTR is co-transcribed with ldhA encoding a d-lactate dehydrogenase, and evaluate their implication in virulence traits like exopolysaccharide (EPS) synthesis and biofilm formation...
July 21, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732463/common-and-phylogenetically-widespread-coding-for-peptides-by-bacterial-small-rnas
#15
Robin C Friedman, Stefan Kalkhof, Olivia Doppelt-Azeroual, Stephan A Mueller, Martina Chovancová, Martin von Bergen, Benno Schwikowski
BACKGROUND: While eukaryotic noncoding RNAs have recently received intense scrutiny, it is becoming clear that bacterial transcription is at least as pervasive. Bacterial small RNAs and antisense RNAs (sRNAs) are often assumed to be noncoding, due to their lack of long open reading frames (ORFs). However, there are numerous examples of sRNAs encoding for small proteins, whether or not they also have a regulatory role at the RNA level. METHODS: Here, we apply flexible machine learning techniques based on sequence features and comparative genomics to quantify the prevalence of sRNA ORFs under natural selection to maintain protein-coding function in 14 phylogenetically diverse bacteria...
July 21, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731269/biofilm-formation-and-antibiotic-resistance-in-klebsiella-pneumoniae-urinary-strains
#16
Claudia Vuotto, Francesca Longo, Chiara Pascolini, Gianfranco Donelli, Maria Pia Balice, Maria Francesca Libori, Valentina Tiracchia, Antonino Salvia, Pietro Emanuele Varaldo
AIMS: Multi-drug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae has become a relevant healthcare-associated pathogen. Capsule, type 1 and 3 fimbriae (mrkA gene), type 2 quorum-sensing system (luxS), synthesis of D-galactan I (wbbM), LPS transport (wzm) and poly-beta-1,6-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (pgaA) seem involved in K. pneumoniae biofilm. Non-enzymatic antibiotic resistance is related to non-expression or mutation of porins (OmpK35 and OmpK36), and efflux pump (acrB) over-expression. The aim of this study was to analyse some virulence factors of K...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720810/biofilm-formation-in-enterococci-genotype-phenotype-correlations-and-inhibition-by-vancomycin
#17
Yomna A Hashem, Heba M Amin, Tamer M Essam, Aymen S Yassin, Ramy K Aziz
Enterococci are nosocomial pathogens that can form biofilms, which contribute to their virulence and antibiotic resistance. Although many genes involved in biofilm formation have been defined, their distribution among enterococci has not been comprehensively studied on a genome scale, and their diagnostic ability to predict biofilm phenotypes is not fully established. Here, we assessed the biofilm-forming ability of 90 enterococcal clinical isolates. Major patterns of virulence gene distribution in enterococcal genomes were identified, and the differentiating virulence genes were screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 31 of the clinical isolates...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719346/virulence-genes-in-biofilm-producer-enterococcus-faecalis-isolates-from-root-canal-infections
#18
M Akbari Aghdam, M H Soroush Barhaghi, M Aghazadeh, F Jafari, M Beomide Hagh, M Haghdoost, M Y Memar, M Ahangarzadeh Rezaee, H Samadi Kafil
Enterococcus faecalis is occurring in opportunistic infections involving the oral cavity. This study aimed to evaluate the presence of E. faecalis virulence genes in dental root canal isolates recovered from advanced chronic periodontitis patients. One hundred E. faecalis isolated from dental root canal during July 2015 to Oct 2016. After analysis of biofilm formation by the semi-quantitative determination in 96-well flat bottom polystyrene plates, the presence of asa, esp, efaA, ace, ebpR, gel and hyl gene were studied by PCR...
May 20, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715477/the-rhlr-quorum-sensing-receptor-controls-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-pathogenesis-and-biofilm-development-independently-of-its-canonical-homoserine-lactone-autoinducer
#19
Sampriti Mukherjee, Dina Moustafa, Chari D Smith, Joanna B Goldberg, Bonnie L Bassler
Quorum sensing (QS) is a bacterial cell-to-cell communication process that relies on the production, release, and response to extracellular signaling molecules called autoinducers. QS controls virulence and biofilm formation in the human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. P. aeruginosa possesses two canonical LuxI/R-type QS systems, LasI/R and RhlI/R, which produce and detect 3OC12-homoserine lactone and C4-homoserine lactone, respectively. Here, we use biofilm analyses, reporter assays, RNA-seq studies, and animal infection assays to show that RhlR directs both RhlI-dependent and RhlI-independent regulons...
July 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714256/a1s_2811-a-chea-y-like-hybrid-two-component-regulator-from-acinetobacter%C3%A2-baumannii-atcc17978-is-involved-in-surface-motility-and-biofilm-formation-in-this-bacterium
#20
Rong Chen, Ruichen Lv, Lisheng Xiao, Min Wang, Zongmin Du, Yafang Tan, Yujun Cui, Yanfeng Yan, Yanping Luo, Ruifu Yang, Yajun Song
Two-component systems in Acinetobacter baumannii are associated with its virulence, drug resistance, motility, biofilm formation, and other characteristics. In this study, we used RecAb , a genetic engineering method, to investigate the function of A1S_2811 in A. baumannii strain ATCC17978. A1S_2811, a hypothetical hybrid sensor histidine kinase/response regulator, has four histidine-containing phosphotransfer domains, a CheA-like regulatory domain, and a CheY-like receiver domain at its C terminus. Compared with the ATCC17978 strain, both surface motility and biofilm formation at the gas-liquid interface decreased significantly in the A1S_2811 knock-out strain...
July 17, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
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