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virulence genes and biofilm formation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771915/inactivation-of-bpsl1039-1040-atp-binding-cassette-transporter-reduces-intracellular-survival-in-macrophages-biofilm-formation-and-virulence-in-the-murine-model-of-burkholderia-pseudomallei-infection
#1
Peechanika Pinweha, Pornpan Pumirat, Jon Cuccui, Niramol Jitprasutwit, Veerachat Muangsombut, Varintip Srinon, Usa Boonyuen, Parameth Thiennimitr, Paiboon Vattanaviboon, Felipe Cia, Sam Willcocks, Gregory J Bancroft, Brendan W Wren, Sunee Korbsrisate
Burkholderia pseudomallei, a gram-negative intracellular bacillus, is the causative agent of a tropical infectious disease called melioidosis. Bacterial ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters import and export a variety of molecules across bacterial cell membranes. At present, their significance in B. pseudomallei pathogenesis is poorly understood. We report here characterization of the BPSL1039-1040 ABC transporter. B. pseudomallei cultured in M9 medium supplemented with nitrate, demonstrated that BPSL1039-1040 is involved in nitrate transport for B...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763730/virtual-screening-of-plant-compounds-and-nonsteroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-for-inhibition-of-quorum-sensing-and-biofilm-formation-in-salmonella
#2
Felipe Alves de Almeida, Erika Lorena Giraldo Vargas, Deisy Guimarães Carneiro, Uelinton Manoel Pinto, Maria Cristina Dantas Vanetti
Salmonella belongs to the Enterobacteriaceae family which is widely distributed in the environment due to its adaptive capacity to stress conditions. In addition, Salmonella is able to perform a type of cell-to-cell communication called quorum sensing, which leads to differential gene expression. The quorum sensing system mediated by AI-1, acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs), is incomplete in Salmonella because the luxI homolog gene, which encodes for AI-1 synthase, is missing in the genome. However, a homologue of LuxR, known as SdiA, is present and allows the detection of signaling molecules produced by other species of bacteria, leading to regulation of gene expression, mainly related to virulence and biofilm formation...
May 12, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762495/role-of-sdia-on-biofilm-formation-by-atypical-enteropathogenic-escherichia-coli
#3
Hebert F Culler, Samuel C F Couto, Juliana S Higa, Renato M Ruiz, Min J Yang, Vanessa Bueris, Marcia R Franzolin, Marcelo P Sircili
Atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli are capable to form biofilm on biotic and abiotic surfaces, regardless of the adherence pattern displayed. Several E. coli mechanisms are regulated by Quorum sensing (QS), including virulence factors and biofilm formation. Quorum sensing is a signaling system that confers bacteria with the ability to respond to chemical molecules known as autoinducers. Suppressor of division inhibitor (SdiA) is a QS receptor present in atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC) that detects acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) type autoinducers...
May 15, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760208/rpon-dependent-direct-regulation-of-quorum-sensing-and-the-type-vi-secretion-system-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-pao1
#4
Xiaolong Shao, Xiaoning Zhang, Yingchao Zhang, Miao Zhu, Pan Yang, Jian Yuan, Yingpeng Xie, Tianhong Zhou, Wei Wang, Sheng Chen, Haihua Liang, Xin Deng
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen of humans, particularly those with cystic fibrosis. As a global regulator, RpoN controls a group of virulence-related factors and quorum sensing (QS) genes in P. aeruginosa To further gain insights into the direct targets of RpoN in vivo , the present study focused on identifying the direct targets of RpoN regulation in QS and the type VI secretion system (T6SS). We performed a chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled to high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) assay that identified 1,068 binding sites of RpoN, mostly including metabolic genes, a group of genes in QS ( lasI , rhlI and pqsR ) and the T6SS ( hcpA and hcpB )...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758033/phylogenetic-relationships-biofilm-formation-motility-antibiotic-resistance-and-extended-virulence-genotypes-among-escherichia-coli-strains-from-women-with-community-onset-primitive-acute-pyelonephritis
#5
Arianna Pompilio, Valentina Crocetta, Vincenzo Savini, Dezemona Petrelli, Marta Di Nicola, Silvia Bucco, Luigi Amoroso, Mario Bonomini, Giovanni Di Bonaventura
The present work set out to search for a virulence repertoire distinctive for Escherichia coli causing primitive acute pyelonephritis (APN). To this end, the virulence potential of 18 E. coli APN strains was genotypically and phenotypically assessed, comparatively with 19 strains causing recurrent cystitis (RC), and 16 clinically not significant (control, CO) strains. Most of the strains belong to phylogenetic group B1 (69.8%; p<0.01), and APN strains showed unique features, which are the presence of phylogroup A, and the absence of phylogroup B2 and non-typeable strains...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748556/regulatory-protein-srpa-controls-phage-infection-and-core-cellular-processes-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#6
Jiajia You, Li Sun, Xiaojing Yang, Xuewei Pan, Zhiwei Huang, Xixi Zhang, Mengxin Gong, Zheng Fan, Lingyan Li, Xiaoli Cui, Zhaoyuan Jing, Shouguang Jin, Zhiming Rao, Weihui Wu, Hongjiang Yang
Our understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind bacteria-phage interactions remains limited. Here we report that a small protein, SrpA, controls core cellular processes in response to phage infection and environmental signals in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We show that SrpA is essential for efficient genome replication of phage K5, and controls transcription by binding to a palindromic sequence upstream of the phage RNA polymerase gene. We identify potential SrpA-binding sites in 66 promoter regions across the P...
May 10, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740895/discovery-of-potent-polyphosphate-kinase-1-ppk1-inhibitors-using-structure-based-exploration-of-ppk1pharmacophoric-space-coupled-with-docking-analyses
#7
Rasha M Bashatwah, Mohammad A Khanfar, Sanaa K Bardaweel
Inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) is present in all living forms of life. Studied mainly in prokaryotes, polyP and its associated enzymes are vital in diverse metabolic activities, in some structural functions, and most importantly in stress responses. Bacterial species, including many pathogens, encode a homolog of a major polyP synthesis enzyme, Poly Phosphate Kinase (PPK) with 2 different genes coding for PPK1 and PPK2. Genetic deletion of the ppk1 gene leads to reduced polyP levels and the consequent loss of virulence and stress adaptation responses...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Molecular Recognition: JMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739668/whole-genome-comparison-of-high-and-low-virulent-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-inducing-implant-associated-bone-infections
#8
Gopala Krishna Mannala, Julian Koettnitz, Walid Mohamed, Ursula Sommer, Katrin Susanne Lips, Cathrin Spröer, Boyke Bunk, Jörg Overmann, Torsten Hain, Christian Heiss, Eugen Domann, Volker Alt
Staphylococcus aureus can cause wide range of infections from simple soft skin infections to severe endocarditis, bacteremia, osteomyelitis and implant associated bone infections (IABI). The focus of the present investigation was to study virulence properties of S. aureus isolates from acute and chronic IABI by means of their in vivo lethality, in vitro osteoblasts invasion, biofilm formation and subsequently whole genome comparison between high and low virulent strains. Application of insect infection model Galleria mellonella revealed high, intermediate and low virulence phenotypes of these clinical isolates, which showed good correlation with osteoblast invasion and biofilm formation assays...
April 25, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735842/role-of-insertion-sequence-element-is-256-as-a-virulence-marker-and-its-association-with-biofilm-formation-among-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-epidermidis-from-hospital-and-community-settings-in-chennai-south-india
#9
Saravanan Murugesan, Stalin Mani, Indhumathy Kuppusamy, Padma Krishnan
The objective of this study was to detect the association of biofilm formation with IS256 among clinical and carrier isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE). A total of 71 MRSE isolates were included in this study. Phenotypic detection of biofilm formation was done by Congo red agar method. Detection of genes associated with biofilm formation (icaAD, aap and atlE) and insertion sequence IS256 was done by polymerase chain reaction. Of the 71 MRSE isolates,19/40 (47.5%) clinical isolates from hospital settings and 11/31 (35...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726925/ca-endozoicomonas-cretensis-a-novel-fish-pathogen-characterised-by-genome-plasticity
#10
Weihong Qi, Maria Chiara Cascarano, Ralph Schlapbach, Pantelis Katharios, Lloyd Vaughan, Helena M B Seth-Smith
Endozoicomonas bacteria are generally beneficial symbionts of diverse marine invertebrates including reef-building corals, sponges, sea squirts, sea slugs, molluscs and Bryozoans. In contrast, the recently reported Ca. Endozoicomonas cretensis was identified as a vertebrate pathogen, causing epitheliocystis in fish larvae resulting in massive mortality. Here we described the Ca. E. cretensis draft genome, currently undergoing genome decay as evidenced by massive insertion sequence (IS element) expansion and pseudogene formation...
May 3, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726301/identification-and-characterization-of-orf19-1725-a-novel-gene-contributing-to-the-white-cell-pheromone-response-and-virulence-associated-functions-in-candida-albicans
#11
Fu-Sheng Deng, Ching-Hsuan Lin
An epigenetic transition between white cells and opaque cells influences several properties of Candida albicans biology, including cellular morphology, biofilm formation, virulence, and sexual mating. In particular, these two cell types exhibit marked differences in their ability to undergo sex. A previous study identified the transcriptional regulator of pheromone response in both the white and opaque states as Cph1 because deletion of this gene abolished both pheromone-induced cell adhesion in white cells and sexual mating in opaque cells...
December 31, 2018: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725253/anti-biofilm-and-anti-virulence-efficacy-of-celastrol-against-stenotrophomonas-maltophilia
#12
Hye-Rim Kim, Dongsup Lee, Yong-Bin Eom
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is a multi-drug resistant opportunistic pathogen that causes nosocomial infections in immunocompromised patients. This pathogen is difficult to treat owing to its intrinsic multidrug resistance and ability to form antimicrobial-tolerant biofilms. In the present study, we aimed to assess the potential use of celastrol as a novel anti-biofilm and/or anti-virulence agent against S. maltophilia . Results showed that celastrol at its sub-inhibitory doses decreased biofilm formation and disrupt the established biofilms produced by S...
2018: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718957/sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim-represses-csgd-but-maintains-virulence-genes-at-30%C3%A2-c-in-a-clinical-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-isolate
#13
Gaylen A Uhlich, Elisa Andreozzi, Bryan J Cottrell, Erin R Reichenberger, Xinmin Zhang, George C Paoli
The high frequency of prophage insertions in the mlrA gene of clinical serotype O157:H7 isolates renders such strains deficient in csgD-dependent biofilm formation but prophage induction may restore certain mlrA properties. In this study we used transcriptomics to study the effect of high and low sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SMX-TM) concentrations on prophage induction, biofilm regulation, and virulence gene expression in strain PA20 under environmental conditions following 5-hour and 12-hour exposures in broth or on agar...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712730/pulmonary-surfactant-promotes-virulence-gene-expression-and-biofilm-formation-in-klebsiella-pneumoniae
#14
Graham G Willsey, Sebastian Ventrone, Kristin C Schutz, Aaron M Wallace, John W Ribis, Benjamin T Suratt, Matthew J Wargo
The interactions between K lebsiella pneumoniae and the host environment at the site of infection largely unknown. Pulmonary surfactant serves as an initial point of contact for inhaled bacteria entering the lung and is thought to contain molecular cues that aid colonization and pathogenesis. To gain insight into this ecological transition, we characterized the transcriptional response of K. pneumoniae MGH 78578 to purified pulmonary surfactant. This work revealed changes within the K. pneumoniae transcriptome that likely contribute to host colonization, adaptation, and virulence in vivo Notable transcripts expressed under these conditions include genes involved in capsule synthesis, LPS modification, antibiotic resistance, biofilm formation, and metabolism...
April 30, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709604/ex-vivo-assessment-of-synergic-effect-of-chlorhexidine-for-enhancing-antimicrobial-photodynamic-therapy-efficiency-on-expression-patterns-of-biofilm-associated-genes-of-enterococcus-faecalis
#15
Behnam Bolhari, Maryam Pourhajibagher, Farzaneh Bazarjani, Nasim Chiniforush, Mehdi Rostami Rad, Salma Pirmoazen, Abbas Bahador
BACKGROUND: It has clearly demonstrated that Enterococcus faecalis, as a persistent microorganism is the major agent in the etiopatogeny of endodontic infections. Recently, the limitations of conventional endodontic therapy have given rise to many attempts to introduce antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) as an alternative treatment. The aim of this study was to analyze the ex vivo effect of aPDT in combination with 2.0 % chlorhexidine (CHX) as a conventional therapy on colony count and expression patterns of genes associated with biofilm formation of E...
April 27, 2018: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707662/molecular-analysis-of-immune-evasion-cluster-iec-genes-and-intercellular-adhesion-gene-cluster-ica-among-methicillin-resistant-and-methicillin-sensitive-isolates-of-staphylococcus-aureus
#16
R Ahmadrajabi, S Layegh-Khavidaki, D Kalantar-Neyestanaki, Y Fasihi
Introduction: Resistance to antibiotics and presence of virulence factors play an important role in increased mortality associated with infection due to Staphylococcus aureus. In this study, we determine antibiotic resistance pattern, presence of the icaADBC locus as well as biofilm formation and distribution and diversity the immune evasion cluster (IEC) genes in clinical isolate of S. aureus from Kerman, Iran. Materials and methods: During 15 months, 100 clinical isolates S...
December 2017: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698142/contribution-of-streptococcus-mutans-virulence-factors-and-saliva-agglutinating-capacity-to-caries-susceptibility-in-children-a-preliminary-study
#17
Eloa Ramalho de Camargo, Jonas Bitencourt Canalle, Rodriguo Capozzoli, Tanila Wood Dos Santos, Margareth Bulhman Ballini, Lucio Fabio Caldas Ferraz, Thaís Manzano Parisotto, Michelle Darrieux
BACKGROUND: Many factors contribute to caries development in humans, such as diet, host factors - including different saliva components - and the presence of acidogenic bacteria in the dental biofilm, particularly Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans). Despite the influence of S. mutans in caries, this bacterium is also prevalent among healthy individuals, suggesting the contribution of genetic variation on the cariogenic potential. Based on this hypothesis, the present work investigated the influence of S...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692772/stringent-response-and-aggr-dependent-virulence-regulation-in-the-enteroaggregative-escherichia-coli-strain-042
#18
Mário Hüttener, Alejandro Prieto, Joan Espelt, Manuel Bernabeu, Antonio Juárez
Virulence expression in the enteroaggregative Escherichia coli strain 042 requires the transcriptional activator AggR. We show in this report that, as reported for other virulence factors, the nucleotide second messenger (p)ppGpp is needed for a high expression level of AggR. As expected from these findings, expression of AggR-activated genes such as the AafA pilin subunit is downregulated in the absence of (p)ppGpp. Considering the fact that biofilm formation in strain 042 requires the AafA protein, biofilm development in strain 042 is impaired in derivatives that lack either the AggR protein, the virulence plasmid that encodes AggR (pAA2) or the ability to synthesize (p)ppGpp...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691368/a-novel-sigb-q225p-mutation-in-staphylococcus-aureus-retains-virulence-but-promotes-biofilm-formation
#19
Hui Liu, Weilong Shang, Zhen Hu, Ying Zheng, Jizhen Yuan, Qiwen Hu, Huagang Peng, Xinyu Cai, Li Tan, Shu Li, Junmin Zhu, Ming Li, Xiaomei Hu, Renjie Zhou, Xiancai Rao, Yi Yang
Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen that produces abundant virulence factors, which cause various diseases that burden human health worldwide. The stress response regulon called sigma factor B (SigB) is a well-characterized global regulator that is involved in the regulation of S. aureus virulence, pigmentation, and biofilm formation. However, the regulatory network upon SigB in S. aureus is incompletely described. Here, we identified a novel substitution mutation, SigB(Q225P), which contributed the nonpigmented phenotype of S...
April 25, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691334/forward-genetic-dissection-of-biofilm-development-by-fusobacterium-nucleatum-novel-functions-of-cell-division-proteins-ftsx-and-envc
#20
Chenggang Wu, Abu Amar Mohamed Al Mamun, Truc Thanh Luong, Bo Hu, Jianhua Gu, Ju Huck Lee, Melissa D'Amore, Asis Das, Hung Ton-That
Fusobacterium nucleatum is a key member of the human oral biofilm. It is also implicated in preterm birth and colorectal cancer. To facilitate basic studies of fusobacterial virulence, we describe here a versatile transposon mutagenesis procedure and a pilot screen for mutants defective in biofilm formation. Out of 10 independent biofilm-defective mutants isolated, the affected genes included the homologs of the Escherichia coli cell division proteins FtsX and EnvC, the electron transport protein RnfA, and four proteins with unknown functions...
April 24, 2018: MBio
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