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virulence genes and biofilm formation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437231/capsular-polysaccharide-types-and-virulence-related-traits-of-epidemic-kpc-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-isolates-in-a-chinese-university-hospital
#1
Yang Liu, Pan-Pan Liu, Lian-Hui Wang, Dan-Dan Wei, La-Gen Wan, Wei Zhang
Klebsiella pneumoniae is an important human pathogen associated with a variety of diseases and the prevalence of blaKPC carrying K. pneumoniae (KPC-Kp) is rapidly increasing. Capsule is an important virulence factor in K. pneumoniae. In this study, we determined to first systematically characterize capsular polysaccharide (CPS) and virulence traits in KPC-Kp strains. A total of 56 KPC-Kp isolates were recovered from clinical samples in a Chinese hospital, which were assigned to clonal lineages by multilocus sequence typing (MLST)...
February 24, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436329/molecular-mechanisms-underlying-the-function-diversity-of-arsr-family-metalloregulator
#2
Sai Ren, Qiming Li, Longxiang Xie, Jianping Xie
The ArsR family of transcriptional regulators are widespread among microorganisms and are involved in various important cellular events, such as metal ion homeostasis, biofilm formation, primary and secondary metabolism, symbiosis, response to adverse condition, and virulence. Its N-terminus contains a winged helix-turn-helix DNA-binding domain that can repress or activate transcription by binding to downstream target promoters. With the increasing number of members in this family identified over the past few decades, the ArsR family members have been intensively explored...
2017: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432491/anti-biofilm-activity-of-polyazolidinammonium-modified-with-iodine-hydrate-ions-against-microbial-biofilms-of-uropathogenic-coliform-bacteria
#3
O V Nechaeva, E I Tikhomirova, D A Zayarsky, N V Bespalova, E V Glinskaya, N F Shurshalova, B M Al Bayati, A I Babailova
The dynamics of microbial biofilm formation by standard strain and by clinical strains of uropathogenic coliform bacteria was investigated in vitro and the effect of sublethal concentrations of the polymer compound polyazolidinammonium modified with iodine hydrate ions on the initial stages of biofilm formation was assessed. Treatment of immunological plate wells with the polymeric compound prevented film formation, especially in case of clinical E. coli strain carrying FimH virulence gene.
April 21, 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421168/contribution-of-the-a-baumannii-a1s_0114-gene-to-the-interaction-with-eukaryotic-cells-and-virulence
#4
Soraya Rumbo-Feal, Astrid Pérez, Theresa A Ramelot, Laura Álvarez-Fraga, Juan A Vallejo, Alejandro Beceiro, Emily J Ohneck, Brock A Arivett, María Merino, Steven E Fiester, Michael A Kennedy, Luis A Actis, Germán Bou, Margarita Poza
Genetic and functional studies showed that some components of the Acinetobacter baumannii ATCC 17978 A1S_0112-A1S_0119 gene cluster are critical for biofilm biogenesis and surface motility. Recently, our group has shown that the A1S_0114 gene was involved in biofilm formation, a process related with pathogenesis. Confirming our previous results, microscopy images revealed that the ATCC 17978 Δ0114 derivative lacking this gene was unable to form a mature biofilm structure. Therefore, other bacterial phenotypes were analyzed to determine the role of this gene in the pathogenicity of A...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416858/study-on-e-coli-and-salmonella-biofilms-from-fresh-fruits-and-vegetables
#5
Balagopal Amrutha, Kothandapani Sundar, Prathapkumar Halady Shetty
Foodborne outbreaks associated with fresh fruits and vegetables are on the rise worldwide. Biofilm formation is one of the important traits of pathogens making them strongly attached to substrates as well as express virulence phenotypes. Present study investigates the biofilm forming ability of E. coli and Salmonella sp. isolated from fresh fruits and vegetables. A total of 53 strains, including 35 E. coli and 18 Salmonella sp. isolated from different fruit and vegetable samples were taken into account for the study...
April 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408270/transcriptional-organization-of-pneumococcal-psrp-secy2a2-and-impact-of-gtfa-and-gtfb-deletion-on-psrp-associated-virulence-properties
#6
Anel Lizcano, Ramya Akula Suresh Babu, Anukul T Shenoy, Alison Maren Saville, Nikhil Kumar, Adonis D'Mello, Cecilia A Hinojosa, Ryan P Gilley, Jesus Segovia, Timothy J Mitchell, Hervé Tettelin, Carlos J Orihuela
Pneumococcal serine-rich repeat protein (PsrP) is a glycoprotein that mediates Streptococcus pneumoniae attachment to lung cells and promotes biofilm formation. Herein, we investigated the transcriptional organization of psrP-secY2A2, the 37-kbp pathogenicity island encoding PsrP and its accessory genes. PCR amplification of cDNA and RNA-seq analysis found psrP-secY2A2 to be minimally composed of three operons: psrP-glyA, glyB, and glyC-asp5. Transcription of all three operons was greatest during biofilm growth and immunoblot analyses confirmed increased PsrP production by biofilm pneumococci...
April 10, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406615/redox-sensitive-marr-homologue-bifr-from-burkholderia-thailandensis-regulates-biofilm-formation
#7
Ashish Gupta, Stanley M Fuentes, Anne Grove
Biofilm formation by pathogenic Burkholderia species is a serious complication as it renders the bacteria resistant to antibiotics and host defenses. Using B. thailandensis, we report here a novel redox-sensitive member of the multiple antibiotic resistance regulator (MarR) protein family, BifR, which represses biofilm formation. BifR is encoded as part of the emrB-bifR operon; emrB-bifR is divergent to ecsC, which encodes a putative LasA protease. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, LasA has been implicated in virulence by contributing to cleavage of elastase...
April 21, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403796/riboswitches-as-potential-targets-for-the-development-of-anti-biofilm-drugs
#8
José A Reyes-Darias, Tino Krell
In nature, bacteria can exist as single motile cells or as sessile cellular community, known as microbial biofilms. Bacteria within biofilms are embedded in a self-produced extracellular matrix that makes them more resistant to antibiotic treatment and responses of the host immune system. Microbial biofilms are very important in medicine since they are associated with several human diseases such as dental caries, periodontitis, otitis media, infective endocarditis, infectious kidney stones, osteomyelitis or prostatitis...
April 7, 2017: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400767/the-periplasmic-chaperone-network-of-campylobacter-jejuni-evidence-that-salc-cj1289-and-ppid-cj0694-are-involved-in-maintaining-outer-membrane-integrity
#9
Aidan J Taylor, Shadi A I Zakai, David J Kelly
The outer membrane (OM) of Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria is a key structure in host-pathogen interactions that contains a plethora of proteins, performing a range of functions including adhesion, nutrient uptake, export of effectors and interaction with innate and adaptive components of the immune system. In addition, the OM can exclude drugs and thus contribute to antimicrobial resistance. The OM of the food-borne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni contains porins, adhesins and other virulence factors that must be specifically localized to this membrane, but the protein sorting mechanisms involved are only partially understood...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392838/global-gene-expression-in-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-the-diseased-ocular-surface-of-the-human-eye-with-a-potential-to-form-biofilm
#10
Konduri Ranjith, Kotakonda Arunasri, Gundlapally Sathyanarayana Reddy, HariKrishna Adicherla, Savitri Sharma, Sisinthy Shivaji
BACKGROUND: Escherichia coli, the gastrointestinal commensal, is also known to cause ocular infections such as conjunctivitis, keratitis and endophthalmitis. These infections are normally resolved by topical application of an appropriate antibiotic. But, at times these E. coli are resistant to the antibiotic and this could be due to formation of a biofilm. In this study ocular E. coli from patients with conjunctivitis, keratitis or endophthalmitis were screened for their antibiotic susceptibility and biofilm formation potential...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375520/global-gene-expression-profile-of-acinetobacter-baumannii-during-bacteremia
#11
Gerald L Murray, Kirill Tsyganov, Xenia P Kostoulias, Dieter M Bulach, David Powell, Darren J Creek, John D Boyce, Ian T Paulsen, Anton Y Peleg
Background.: Acinetobacter baumannii is a pathogen of major importance in intensive care units worldwide, with the potential to cause problematic outbreaks and acquire high-level resistance to antibiotics. There is an urgent need to understand the mechanisms of A. baumannii pathogenesis for the future development of novel targeted therapies. In this study we performed an in vivo transcriptomic analysis of A. baumannii isolated from a mammalian host with bacteremia. Methods...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371510/acuc-a-histone-deacetylase-contributes-to-the-pathogenicity-of-aeromonas-hydrophila
#12
Qingling Jiang, Wenbo Chen, Yingxue Qin, Lixing Huang, Xiaojin Xu, Lingmin Zhao, Qingpi Yan
The interactions of pathogens and phagocytes are complex. Our study demonstrated that Aeromonas hydrophila B11 can survive in the macrophagocytes of Tilapia mossambica. To explore the regulatory processes of A. hydrophila survival in the macrophagocytes, we used the mini-Tn10 transposon mutagenesis system to build a mutant library by mixing Escherichia coli Sm10 (pLOFKm) and A. hydrophila B11. In total, 102 mutant colonies were detected, and 11 of them showed reduced survival in macrophagocytes. The mutant with the most severe phenotype, AM73, was chosen for further research...
March 30, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367877/minocycline-inhibits-the-candida-albicans-budded-to-hyphal-form-transition-and-biofilm-formation
#13
Sanae Kurakado, Kazuhiko Takatori, Takashi Sugita
Candida albicans frequently causes bloodstream infections; the budded-to-hyphal-form transition (BHT) and biofilm formation are major contributors to virulence. In a survey of antibacterial compounds that inhibit C. albicans BHT, we found that the tetracycline derivative minocycline inhibited BHT and subsequent biofilm formation. Minocycline downregulates expression of the hypha-specific genes HWP1 and ECE1, and the adhesion factor gene ALS3 of C. albicans. In addition, minocycline decreases cell surface hydrophobicity and the extracellular β-glucan level in biofilms...
March 28, 2017: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361040/different-phenotypes-of-mature-biofilm-in-flavobacterium-psychrophilum-share-a-potential-for-virulence-that-differs-from-planktonic-state
#14
Héctor A Levipan, Ruben Avendaño-Herrera
Flavobacterium psychrophilum is the etiological agent of bacterial coldwater disease and the rainbow trout fry syndrome in salmonid aquaculture worldwide. However, there have been few studies into the capacity of F. psychrophilum to form biofilms and how these cellular accretions differ from planktonic cells or how they affect potential virulence. We evaluated the biofilm formation by three Chilean isolates of F. psychrophilum (LM-02-Fp, LM-06-Fp, and LM-13-Fp) and two non-Chilean strains (JIP02/86 and NCMB1947(T)), and compared biofilm and planktonic states to obtain insights into expression differences of virulence- and biofilm-related genes (VBRGs)...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358616/nucleotide-sequence-variations-in-autolysis-genes-of-st59-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates
#15
Lee-Chung Lin, Jwu-Ching Shu, Shih-Cheng Chang, Mao-Cheng Ge, Tsui-Ping Liu, Chien-Wei Chen, Jang-Jih Lu
Biofilm formation is a virulence factor of bacteria. The goal of this study was to understand the mechanisms of biofilm formation by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Whole-genome sequencing of eight MRSA strains was performed to identify sequence variations in genes related to biofilm formation. Thirty-one genes involved in MRSA biofilm formation were analyzed and 11 amino acid sequence variations in four genes related to autolysis were found. These variations include E121D and H387 N in ArlS; Q117K, T424S, K428T, A509S, V752E, A754V, and T771A in Atl; T184K in CidC; and D251N in CidR...
March 30, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348056/analysis-of-shigella-flexneri-resistance-biofilm-formation-and-transcriptional-profile-in-response-to-bile-salts
#16
Kourtney P Nickerson, Rachael B Chanin, Jeticia R Sistrunk, David A Rasko, Peter J Fink, Eileen M Barry, James P Nataro, Christina S Faherty
The Shigella species cause millions of cases of watery or bloody diarrhea each year, mostly in children in developing countries. While many aspects of Shigella colonic cell invasion are known, crucial gaps in knowledge remain regarding how the bacteria survive, transit, and regulate gene expression prior to infection. In this study, we define mechanisms of bile salts resistance and build on previous research highlighting induced virulence in S. flexneri strain 2457T following bile salts exposure. Typical growth patterns were observed within the physiological range of bile salts; however, growth was inhibited at higher concentrations...
March 27, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347271/the-st131-escherichia-coli-h22-subclone-from-human-intestinal-microbiota-comparison-of-genomic-and-phenotypic-traits-with-those-of-the-globally-successful-h30-subclone
#17
Marie-Hélène Nicolas-Chanoine, Marie Petitjean, Azucena Mora, Noémie Mayer, Jean-Philippe Lavigne, Olivier Boulet, Véronique Leflon-Guibout, Jorge Blanco, Didier Hocquet
BACKGROUND: In 2006, we found healthy subjects carrying ST131 Escherichia coli in their intestinal microbiota consisting of two populations: a subdominant population of fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli belonging to subclone H30 (H30-R or subclade C1), the current worldwide dominant ST131 subclone, and a dominant E. coli population composed of antibiotic-susceptible E. coli belonging to subclone H22 (clade B), the precursor of subclone H30. We sequenced the whole genome of fecal H22 strain S250, compared it to the genomes of ExPEC ST131 H30-Rx strain JJ1886 and commensal ST131 H41 strain SE15, sought the H22-H30 genomic differences in our fecal strains and assessed their phenotypic consequences...
March 27, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334141/distribution-of-antimicrobial-resistance-determinants-virulence-associated-factors-and-clustered-regularly-interspaced-palindromic-repeats-loci-in-isolates-of-enterococcus-faecalis-from-various-settings-and-genetic-lineages
#18
Iwona Gawryszewska, Katarzyna Malinowska, Alicja Kuch, Dorota Chrobak-Chmiel, Lucja Laniewska- Trokenheim, Waleria Hryniewicz, Ewa Sadowy
Enterococcus faecalis represents an important factor of hospital-associated infections (HAIs). The knowledge on its evolution from a commensal to an opportunistic pathogen is still limited; thus, we performed a study to characterise distribution of factors that may contribute to this adaptation. Using a collection obtained from various settings (hospitalised patients, community carriers, animals, fresh food, sewage, water), we investigated differences in antimicrobial susceptibility, distribution of antimicrobial resistance genes, virulence-associated determinants and phenotypes, and CRISPR loci in the context of the clonal relatedness of isolates...
March 1, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325850/phenotypic-diversity-and-genotypic-flexibility-of-burkholderia-cenocepacia-during-long-term-chronic-infection-of-cystic-fibrosis-lungs
#19
Amy Huei-Yi Lee, Stephane Flibotte, Sunita Sinha, Adrianna Paiero, Rachel L Ehrlich, Sergey Balashov, Garth D Ehrlich, James E A Zlosnik, Joshua Chang Mell, Corey Nislow
Chronic bacterial infections of the lung are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in cystic fibrosis patients. Tracking bacterial evolution during chronic infections can provide insights into how host selection pressures-including immune responses and therapeutic interventions-shape bacterial genomes. We carried out genomic and phenotypic analyses of 215 serially collected Burkholderia cenocepacia isolates from 16 cystic fibrosis patients, spanning a period of 2-20 yr and a broad range of epidemic lineages...
April 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320949/discovery-of-scmr-as-a-global-regulator-of-secondary-metabolism-and-virulence-in-burkholderia-thailandensis-e264
#20
Dainan Mao, Leah B Bushin, Kyuho Moon, Yihan Wu, Mohammad R Seyedsayamdost
Bacteria produce a diverse array of secondary metabolites that have been invaluable in the clinic and in research. These metabolites are synthesized by dedicated biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs), which assemble architecturally complex molecules from simple building blocks. The majority of BGCs in a given bacterium are not expressed under normal laboratory growth conditions, and our understanding of how they are silenced is in its infancy. Here, we have addressed this question in the Gram-negative model bacterium Burkholderia thailandensis E264 using genetic, transcriptomic, metabolomic, and chemical approaches...
April 4, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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