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virulence genes and biofilm formation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526785/effects-of-arginine-on-growth-virulence-gene-expression-and-stress-tolerance-by-streptococcus-mutans
#1
Brinta Chakraborty, Robert A Burne
Streptococcus mutans is a common constituent of oral biofilms and a primary etiologic agent of human dental caries. The bacteria associated with dental caries have a potent ability to produce organic acids from dietary carbohydrates and to grow and metabolize in acidic conditions. In contrast, many commensal bacteria produce ammonia through the arginine deiminase system (ADS), which moderates the pH of oral biofilms. Arginine metabolism by the ADS is a significant deterrent to the initiation and progression of dental caries...
May 19, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525308/toxin-antitoxin-systems-implications-for-plant-disease
#2
T Shidore, L R Triplett
Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are gene modules that are ubiquitous in freeliving prokaryotes. Diverse in structure, cellular function, and fitness roles, TA systems are defined by the presence of a toxin gene that suppresses bacterial growth and a toxin-neutralizing antitoxin gene, usually encoded in a single operon. Originally viewed as DNA maintenance modules, TA systems are now thought to function in many roles, including bacterial stress tolerance, virulence, phage defense, and biofilm formation. However, very few studies have investigated the significance of TA systems in the context of plant-microbe interactions...
May 19, 2017: Annual Review of Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515790/comparative-genomic-analysis-reveals-genetic-features-related-to-the-virulence-of-bacillus-cereus-forc_013
#3
Hyun-Jin Koo, Sojin Ahn, Han Young Chung, Suyeon Kim, Kwondo Kim, Sangryeol Ryu, Ju-Hoon Lee, Sang Ho Choi, Heebal Kim
BACKGROUND: Bacillus cereus is well known as a gastrointestinal pathogen that causes food-borne illness. In the present study, we sequenced the complete genome of B. cereus FORC_013 isolated from fried eel in South Korea. To extend our understanding of the genomic characteristics of FORC_013, we conducted a comparative analysis with the published genomes of other B. cereus strains. RESULTS: We fully assembled the single circular chromosome (5,418,913 bp) and one plasmid (259,749 bp); 5511 open reading frames (ORFs) and 283 ORFs were predicted for the chromosome and plasmid, respectively...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510688/two-component-systems-required-for-virulence-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#4
V I Francis, E C Stevenson, S L Porter
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a versatile opportunistic pathogen capable of infecting a broad range of hosts, in addition to thriving in a broad range of environmental conditions outside of hosts. With this versatility comes the need to tightly regulate its genome to optimise its gene expression and behaviour to the prevailing conditions. Two-component systems (TCSs) comprising sensor kinases and response regulators, play a major role in this regulation. This minireview discusses the growing number of two-component systems that have been implicated in the virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, with a special focus on the emerging theme of multikinase networks, which are networks comprising multiple sensor kinases working together, sensing and integrating multiple signals to decide upon the best response...
May 16, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507246/the-pneumococcal-type-1-pilus-genes-are-thermoregulated-and-are-repressed-by-a-member-of-the-snf2-protein-family
#5
Alan Basset, Muriel Herd, Raecliffe Daly, Simon L Dove, Richard Malley
In Streptococcus pneumoniae, the type 1 pilus is involved in many steps of pathogenesis, including adherence to epithelial cells, mediation of inflammation, escape from macrophages, and the formation of biofilms. The type 1 pilus genes are expressed in a bistable fashion with cells switching between ON and OFF expression states. Bistable expression of these genes is due to their control by RlrA, a positive regulator subject to control by a positive feedback loop. The type 1 pilus genes are also thought to be negatively regulated by a large number of repressors...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505288/effect-of-different-antibiotics-on-biofilm-produced-by-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-children-with-urinary-tract-infection
#6
María José González, Luciana Robino, Victoria Iribarnegaray, Pablo Zunino, Paola Scavone
Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTI) occur frequently in children and women. Intracellular bacterial communities (IBC) and biofilm formation by Escherichia coli are risk factors for recurrence. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of different antibiotics on biofilms by E. coli strains isolated from children with UTI and to correlate virulence factors and IBC with biofilm formation. 116 E. coli strains were tested for biofilm formation using the crystal violet microplate technique. 58...
May 12, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494209/antibiotic-resistance-virulence-factors-and-biofilm-formation-ability-in-escherichia-coli-strains-isolated-from-chicken-meat-and-wildlife-in-the-czech-republic
#7
Silvie Pavlickova, Anja Klancnik, Magda Dolezalova, Sonja Smole Mozina, Ivan Holko
Attachment of pathogenic bacteria to food contact surfaces and the subsequent biofilm formation represent a serious threat for the food industry, since these bacteria are more resistant to antimicrobials or possess more virulence factors. The main aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between antibiotic resistance against 13 antibiotics, distribution of 10 virulence factors and biofilm formation in 105 Escherichia coli strains according to their origin. The high prevalence of antibiotic resistance that we have found in wildlife isolates could be acquired by horizontal transfer of resistance genes from human or domestic or farm animals...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487997/the-effectiveness-of-anti-biofilm-and-anti-virulence-properties-of-dihydrocelastrol-and-dihydrocelastryl-diacetate-in-fighting-against-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#8
Seung-Gyun Woo, So-Min Lee, So-Yeon Lee, Kyoung-Hee Lim, Eun-Ju Ha, Sa-Hyun Kim, Yong-Bin Eom
Human pathogens have readily been converted into multidrug-resistant pathogens, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), because of the long-term use of conventional antibiotics. In addition, the biofilms formed by S. aureus cells are especially problematic and are related to the persistence of chronic infections because they constitute a major mechanism of promoting tolerance to diverse antimicrobial agents. Hence, the inhibitions of biofilm formation and/or toxin production are accepted as alternative means of controlling S...
May 9, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487228/characterization-of-s-adenosylhomocysteine-methylthioadenosine-nucleosidase-on-secretion-of-ai-2-and-biofilm-formation-of-escherichia-coli
#9
Tian Han, Yanhua Li, Qiuli Shan, Wenjing Liang, Weiwei Hao, Yumei Li, Xiaojun Tan, Jinsong Gu
S-adenosylhomocysteine/Methylthioadenosine nucleosidase (SAHN E.C.3.2.2.9) does not exist in mammalian cells but is essential for methyl recycling in numerous bacterial and protozoan species. Inhibition of this enzyme could limit synthesis of autoinducers of bacterial quorum sensing (QS), and hence, causes reduction in biofilm formation and may attenuate virulence. In this study, sahn deletion mutant of E. coli MG1655, sahn-complemented strain, and SANH-overexpressing strain were established and used to identify the secretion of autoinducer-2 (AI-2) and biofilm formation...
May 6, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486995/antimicrobial-resistance-and-virulence-characterization-of-staphylococcus-aureus-and-coagulase-negative-staphylococci-from-imported-beef-meat
#10
Kamelia Osman, Avelino Alvarez-Ordóñez, Lorena Ruiz, Jihan Badr, Fatma ElHofy, Khalid S Al-Maary, Ihab M I Moussa, Ashgan M Hessain, Ahmed Orabi, Alaa Saad, Mohamed Elhadidy
BACKGROUND: The objectives of this study were to characterize the diversity and magnitude of antimicrobial resistance among Staphylococcus species recovered from imported beef meat sold in the Egyptian market and the potential mechanisms underlying the antimicrobial resistance phenotypes including harboring of resistance genes (mecA, cfr, gyrA, gyrB, and grlA) and biofilm formation. RESULTS: The resistance gene mecA was detected in 50% of methicillin-resistant non-Staphylococcus aureus isolates (4/8)...
May 10, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485524/streptococcus-gordonii-luxs-autoinducer-2-quorum-sensing-system-modulates-the-dual-species-biofilm-formation-with-streptococcus-mutans
#11
Xiao Wang, Xiaolan Li, Junqi Ling
Dental plaques are mixed-species biofilms that are related to the development of dental caries. Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) is an important cariogenic bacterium that forms mixed-species biofilms with Streptococcus gordonii (S. gordonii), an early colonizer of the tooth surface. The LuxS/autoinducer-2(AI-2) quorum sensing system is involved in the regulation of mixed-species biofilms, and AI-2 is proposed as a universal signal for the interaction between bacterial species. In this work, a S. gordonii luxS deficient strain was constructed to investigate the effect of the S...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484444/leaf-extracts-of-mangifera-indica-l-inhibit-quorum-sensing-regulated-production-of-virulence-factors-and-biofilm-in-test-bacteria
#12
Fohad M Husain, Iqbal Ahmad, Abdullah S Al-Thubiani, Hussein H Abulreesh, Ibrahim M AlHazza, Farrukh Aqil
Quorum sensing (QS) is a global gene regulatory mechanism in bacteria for various traits including virulence factors. Disabling QS system with anti-infective agent is considered as a potential strategy to prevent bacterial infection. Mangifera indica L. (mango) has been shown to possess various biological activities including anti-QS. This study investigates the efficacy of leaf extracts on QS-regulated virulence factors and biofilm formation in Gram negative pathogens. Mango leaf (ML) extract was tested for QS inhibition and QS-regulated virulence factors using various indicator strains...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473809/inll-from-listeria-monocytogenes-is-involved-in-biofilm-formation-and-adhesion-to-mucin
#13
Magdalena Popowska, Agata Krawczyk-Balska, Rafał Ostrowski, Mickaël Desvaux
The bacterial etiological agent of listeriosis, Listeria monocytogenes, is an opportunistic intracellular foodborne pathogen. The infection cycle of L. monocytogenes is well-characterized and involves several key virulence factors, including internalins A and B. While 35 genes encoding internalins have been identified in L. monocytogenes, less than half of them have been characterized as yet. Focusing on lmo2026, it was shown this gene encodes a class I internalin, InlL, exhibiting domains potentially involved in adhesion...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470089/contribution-of-the-csga-and-bcsa-genes-to-salmonella-enterica-serovar-pullorum-biofilm-formation-and-virulence
#14
Muhanad El Hag, Feng Zheng, Su Yangyang, Wang Xiao, Afrah Yassin, Chen Sujuan, Daxin Peng, Xiufan Liu
Salmonella biofilm formation is important to environmental stress resistance and virulence. However, the roles of the csgA and bcsA genes, which affect curli protein and cellulose production, respectively, in Salmonella enterica serovar Pullorum, are unknown. Here we constructed deletions in the csgA and bcsA genes in Salmonella enterica serovar Pullorum strain S6702 and evaluated several aspects of biofilm formation and virulence. ΔcsgA showed decreased production of curli fimbriae, while ΔbcsA had reduced cellulose production...
May 4, 2017: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469994/molecular-characteristics-of-staphylococcus-aureus-causing-bovine-mastitis-between-2014-and-2015
#15
Tianming Li, Huiying Lu, Xing Wang, Qianqian Gao, Yingxin Dai, Jun Shang, Min Li
Staphylococcus aureus is highly pathogenic and can cause diseases in both humans and domestic animals. In animal species, including ruminants, S. aureus may cause severe or sub-clinical mastitis. This study aimed to investigate the molecular profile, antimicrobial resistance, and genotype/phenotype correlation of 212 S. aureus isolates recovered from cases of bovine mastitis from 2014 to 2015 in the Shanghai and Zhejiang areas of China. Nineteen sequence types (STs) were determined by multi-locus sequence typing, while the dominant ST was ST97, followed by ST520, ST188, ST398, ST7, and ST9...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469253/identification-of-streptococcus-cristatus-peptides-that-repress-expression-of-virulence-genes-in-porphyromonas-gingivalis
#16
Meng-Hsuan Ho, Richard J Lamont, Hua Xie
Dental plaque is a complex multispecies biofilm, and is a direct precursor of periodontal disease. The virulence of periodontal pathogens, such as Porphyromonas gingivalis, is expressed in the context of this polymicrobial community. Previously, we reported an antagonistic relationship between Streptococcus cristatus and P. gingivalis, and identified arginine deiminase (ArcA) of S. cristatus as the signaling molecule to which P. gingivalis responds by repressing the expression and production of FimA protein...
May 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453568/baicalin-inhibits-biofilm-formation-attenuates-the-quorum-sensing-controlled-virulence-and-enhances-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-clearance-in-a-mouse-peritoneal-implant-infection-model
#17
Jing Luo, Biying Dong, Ke Wang, Shuangqi Cai, Tangjuan Liu, Xiaojing Cheng, Danqing Lei, Yanling Chen, Yanan Li, Jinliang Kong, Yiqiang Chen
The quorum sensing (QS) circuit plays a role in the precise regulation of genes controlling virulence factors and biofilm formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. QS-controlled biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in clinical settings has remained controversial due to emerging drug resistance; therefore, screening diverse compounds for anti-biofilm or anti-QS activities is important. This study demonstrates the ability of sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs) of baicalin, an active natural compound extracted from the traditional Chinese medicinal Scutellaria baicalensis, to inhibit the formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms and enhance the bactericidal effects of various conventional antibiotics in vitro...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446917/shoot-the-message-not-the-messenger-combating-pathogenic-virulence-in-plants-by-inhibiting-quorum-sensing-mediated-signaling-molecules
#18
REVIEW
Ganesh Alagarasan, Kumar S Aswathy
Immunity, virulence, biofilm formation, and survival in the host environment are regulated by the versatile nature of density dependent microbial cell signaling, also called quorum sensing (QS). The QS molecules can associate with host plant tissues and, at times, cause a change in its gene expression at the downstream level through inter-kingdom cross talking. Progress in controlling QS through fungicide/bactericide in pathogenic microscopic organisms has lead to a rise of antibiotic resistance pathogens. Here, we review the application of selective quorum quenching (QQ) endophytes to control phytopathogens that are shared by most, if not all, terrestrial plant species as well as aquatic plants...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443084/gene-expression-profiling-of-transcription-factors-of-helicobacter-pylori-under-different-environmental-conditions
#19
Miguel A De la Cruz, Miguel A Ares, Kristine von Bargen, Leonardo G Panunzi, Jessica Martínez-Cruz, Hilda A Valdez-Salazar, César Jiménez-Galicia, Javier Torres
Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative bacterium that colonizes the human gastric mucosa and causes peptic ulcers and gastric carcinoma. H. pylori strain 26695 has a small genome (1.67 Mb), which codes for few known transcriptional regulators that control bacterial metabolism and virulence. We analyzed by qRT-PCR the expression of 16 transcriptional regulators in H. pylori 26695, including the three sigma factors under different environmental conditions. When bacteria were exposed to acidic pH, urea, nickel, or iron, the sigma factors were differentially expressed with a particularly strong induction of fliA...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442545/peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-%C3%AE-agonists-attenuate-biofilm-formation-by-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#20
Brahmchetna Bedi, Nicholas M Maurice, Vincent T Ciavatta, K Sabrina Lynn, Zhihong Yuan, Samuel A Molina, Myungsoo Joo, William R Tyor, Joanna B Goldberg, Michael Koval, C Michael Hart, Ruxana T Sadikot
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a significant contributor to recalcitrant multidrug-resistant infections, especially in immunocompromised and hospitalized patients. The pathogenic profile of P. aeruginosa is related to its ability to secrete a variety of virulence factors and to promote biofilm formation. Quorum sensing (QS) is a mechanism wherein P. aeruginosa secretes small diffusible molecules, specifically acyl homo serine lactones, such as N-(3-oxo-dodecanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone (3O-C12-HSL), that promote biofilm formation and virulence via interbacterial communication...
April 25, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
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