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pathogenicity and biofilm formation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326308/infection-sources-of-a-common-non-tuberculous-mycobacterial-pathogen-mycobacterium-avium-complex
#1
REVIEW
Yukiko Nishiuchi, Tomotada Iwamoto, Fumito Maruyama
Numerous studies have revealed a continuous increase in the worldwide incidence and prevalence of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) diseases, especially pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) diseases. Although it is not clear why NTM diseases have been increasing, one possibility is an increase of mycobacterial infection sources in the environment. Thus, in this review, we focused on the infection sources of pathogenic NTM, especially MAC. The environmental niches for MAC include water, soil, and dust...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325766/staphylococcal-%C3%AE-toxin-modulates-human-aortic-endothelial-cell-and-platelet-function-through-sphingomyelinase-and-biofilm-ligase-activities
#2
Alfa Herrera, Katarina Kulhankova, Vijay K Sonkar, Sanjana Dayal, Aloysius J Klingelhutz, Wilmara Salgado-Pabón, Patrick M Schlievert
Staphylococcus aureus causes many infections, such as skin and soft tissue, pneumonia, osteomyelitis, and infective endocarditis (IE). IE is an endovascular infection of native and prosthetic valves and the lining of the heart; it is characterized by the formation of cauliflower-like "vegetations" composed of fibrin, platelets, other host factors, bacteria, and bacterial products. β-Toxin is an S. aureus virulence factor that contributes to the microorganism's ability to cause IE. This cytolysin has two enzymatic activities: sphingomyelinase (SMase) and biofilm ligase...
March 21, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323149/the-effect-of-tobramycin-incorporated-with-bismuth-ethanedithiol-loaded-on-niosomes-on-the-quorum-sensing-and-biofilm-formation-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#3
Faeze Mahdiun, Shahla Mansouri, Payam Khazaeli, Rasoul Mirzaei
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen, enable of causing infections especially in immunocompromised patients. Recently many isolates developed multiple drug resistance, resulting in treatment failure in serious infections. In this study, the effect of tobramycin incorporated with bismuth-ethanedithiol loaded on niosomes on the quorum sensing and biofilm production by P. aeruginosa was evaluated. Thin layer hydration method with cholesterol (30%), Span 40 and Tween 40 were used to make niosomes...
March 18, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322293/tea-polyphenols-inhibit-the-growth-and-virulence-properties-of-fusobacterium-nucleatum
#4
Amel Ben Lagha, Bruno Haas, Daniel Grenier
Fusobacterium nucleatum plays a key role in creating the pathogenic subgingival biofilm that initiates destructive periodontitis. It is also a common resident of the human gastrointestinal tract and has been associated with inflammatory bowel disease. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of green and black tea extracts as well as two of their bioactive components, EGCG and theaflavins, on the growth and virulence properties of F. nucleatum. The tea extracts and components displayed various degrees of antibacterial activity that may involve damage to the bacterial cell membrane and the chelation of iron...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321991/atomic-layer-deposition-of-a-silver-nanolayer-on-advanced-titanium-orthopedic-implants-inhibits-bacterial-colonization-and-supports-vascularized-de-novo-bone-ingrowth
#5
Aine Devlin-Mullin, Naomi M Todd, Zahra Golrokhi, Hua Geng, Moritz A Konerding, Nigel G Ternan, John A Hunt, Richard J Potter, Chris Sutcliffe, Eric Jones, Peter D Lee, Christopher A Mitchell
Joint replacement surgery is associated with significant morbidity and mortality following infection with either methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or Staphylococcus epidermidis. These organisms have strong biofilm-forming capability in deep wounds and on prosthetic surfaces, with 10(3) -10(4) microbes resulting in clinically significant infections. To inhibit biofilm formation, we developed 3D titanium structures using selective laser melting and then coated them with a silver nanolayer using atomic layer deposition...
March 21, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320713/antimicrobial-percutaneous-nephrostomy-catheters-for-the-prevention-of-renal-infections-in-vitro-studies
#6
Nylev Vargas-Cruz, Ruth A Reitzel, Joel Rosenblatt, Mohamed Jamal, Ariel D Szvalb, Anne-Marie Chaftari, Ray Hachem, Issam Raad
Purpose - Percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN) catheters are the primary method for draining ureters obstructed by malignancy and preventing a decline of the renal function. However, PCN-related infections such as pyelonephritis and urosepsis remain a significant concern. Currently no antimicrobial PCNs are available for preventing infectious complications. Vascular catheters impregnated with Minocycline/Rifampin (M/R) and M/R with Chlorhexidine coating (M/R+CHD) have previously demonstrated antimicrobial activity...
March 20, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319869/biofilm-inhibition-formation-of-clinical-strains-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-mutans-photocatalytic-activity-of-azo-dye-and-gc-ms-analysis-of-leaves-of-lagerstroemia-speciosa
#7
V Sai Saraswathi, Neethu Kamarudheen, K V Bhaskara Rao, K Santhakumar
The investigation was conducted to analyse the bioactive compounds from the leaf extracts of L. speciosa by GC-MS. The extracts were screened for antibacterial and antibiofilm activities against potential clinical strains. The bioactive compounds from the leaves of L. speciosa were extracted by soxhlet continuous extraction method and their chemical composition was analysed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS). The antibacterial activity was evaluated against clinical strain like Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, P...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303897/synergistic-efficacy-of-bisbenzimidazole-and-carbonyl-cyanide-3-chlorophenylhydrazone-combination-against-mdr-bacterial-strains
#8
Devapriya Sinha, Stuti Pandey, Raja Singh, Vinod Tiwari, Kirti Sad, Vibha Tandon
Activation of efflux systems and the formation of biofilm are majorly adapted by microbes to resist antimicrobial agents. PPEF (bisbenzimidazole) targeting topoisomerase IA is observed to be an effective bactericidal agent against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains and thus can be developed as potent broad-spectrum antibiotic against MDR strains. PPEF treatment did not cause target specific mutation instead it leads to up-regulation of efflux gene in E. coli K12 as a mechanism of resistance...
March 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296935/peptide-modification-results-in-the-formation-of-a-dimer-with-a-60-fold-enhanced-antimicrobial-activity
#9
Amal Thamri, Myriam Létourneau, Alex Djoboulian, David Chatenet, Eric Déziel, Annie Castonguay, Jonathan Perreault
Cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs) occur naturally in numerous organisms and are considered as a class of antibiotics with promising potential against multi-resistant bacteria. Herein, we report a strategy that can lead to the discovery of novel small CAMPs with greatly enhanced antimicrobial activity and retained antibiofilm potential. We geared our efforts towards i) the N-terminal cysteine functionalization of a previously reported small synthetic cationic peptide (peptide 1037, KRFRIRVRV-NH2), ii) its dimerization through a disulfide bond, and iii) a preliminary antimicrobial activity assessment of the newly prepared dimer against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cenocepacia, pathogens responsible for the formation of biofilms in lungs of individuals with cystic fibrosis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296382/human-%C3%AE-defensin-6-a-small-peptide-that-self-assembles-and-protects-the-host-by-entangling-microbes
#10
Phoom Chairatana, Elizabeth M Nolan
Human α-defensin 6 (HD6) is a 32-residue cysteine-rich peptide that contributes to innate immunity by protecting the host at mucosal sites. This peptide is produced in small intestinal Paneth cells, stored as an 81-residue precursor peptide named proHD6 in granules, and released into the lumen. One unusual feature of HD6 is that it lacks the broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity observed for other human α-defensins, including the Paneth cell peptide human α-defensin 5 (HD5). HD6 exhibits unprecedented self-assembly properties, which confer an unusual host-defense function...
March 15, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294433/transcriptional-regulation-of-adhesive-properties-of-bacillus-subtilis-to-extracellular-matrix-proteins-through-the-fibronectin-binding-protein-yloa
#11
Facundo Rodriguez Ayala, Carlos Bauman, Marco Bartolini, Ester Saball, Marcela Salvarrey, Cecilia Leñini, Sebastián Cogliati, Mark Strauch, Roberto Grau
Bacterial adherence to extracellular matrix proteins (ECMp) plays important roles during host-pathogen interaction, however its genetic regulation remains poorly understood. yloA of the model bacterium Bacillus subtilis shows high homology to genes encoding fibronectin-binding proteins of Gram-positive pathogens. Here, we characterized the regulatory network of YloA-dependent adhesive properties of the probiotic B. subtilis natto (Bsn). YloA-proficient, but not YloA-deficient, Bsn specifically bound to ECMp in a concentration-dependent manner and were proficient in biofilm formation...
March 13, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289407/a-novel-antimicrobial-endolysin-lyspa26-against-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#12
Mingquan Guo, Chunyan Feng, Jie Ren, Xuran Zhuang, Yan Zhang, Yongzhang Zhu, Ke Dong, Ping He, Xiaokui Guo, Jinhong Qin
The global increase in multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria has led to phage therapy being refocused upon. A novel endolysin, LysPA26, containing a lysozyme-like domain, was screened against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in this study. It had activity against MDR P. aeruginosa without pretreatment with an outer-membrane permeabilizer. LysPA26 could kill up to 4 log units P. aeruginosa in 30 min. In addition, temperature and pH effect assays revealed that LysPA26 had good stability over a broad range of pH and temperatures...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289081/light-modulates-metabolic-pathways-and-other-novel-physiological-traits-in-the-human-pathogen-acinetobacter-baumannii
#13
Gabriela L Müller, Marisel Tuttobene, Matías Altilio, Maitena Martinez Amezaga, Meaghan Nguyen, P Pamela Cribb, Larisa E Cybulski, María Soledad Ramírez, Silvia Altabe, María Alejandra Mussi
Light sensing in chemotrophic bacteria has been relatively recently ascertained. In the human pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii, light modulates motility, biofilm formation and virulence through the BLUF photoreceptor BlsA. In addition, light can induce reduction in susceptibility to certain antibiotics such as minocycline and tigecycline in a photoreceptor-independent manner. In this work we identified new traits whose expression are modulated by light in this pathogen, which comprise not only important determinants related to pathogenicity and antibiotic resistance, but also metabolic pathways, which represents a novel concept for chemotrophic bacteria...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286870/d-amino-acids-do-not-inhibit-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-biofilm-formation
#14
Wee Tin K Kao, Mitchell Frye, Patricia Gagnon, Joseph P Vogel, Richard Chole
OBJECTIVE: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a known biofilm-forming organism, is an opportunistic pathogen that plays an important role in chronic otitis media, tracheitis, cholesteatoma, chronic wounds, and implant infections. Eradication of biofilm infections has been a challenge because the biofilm phenotype provides bacteria with a protective environment from the immune system and antibiotics; thus, there has been great interest in adjunctive molecules that may inhibit biofilm formation or cause biofilm dispersal...
February 2017: Laryngoscope Investigative Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286116/biatriosporin-d-displays-anti-virulence-activity-through-decreasing-the-intracellular-camp-levels
#15
Ming Zhang, Wenqiang Chang, Hongzhuo Shi, Yanhui Zhou, Sha Zheng, Ying Li, Lin Li, Hongxiang Lou
Candidiasis has long been a serious human health problem, and novel antifungal approaches are greatly needed. During both superficial and systemic infection, C. albicans relies on a battery of virulence factors, such as adherence, filamentation, and biofilm formation. In this study, we found that a small phenolic compound, Biatriosporin D (BD), isolated from an endolichenic fungus, Biatriospora sp., displayed anti-virulence activity by inhibiting adhesion, hyphal morphogenesis and biofilm formation of C. albicans...
March 9, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282938/listeria-monocytogenes-in-fresh-produce-outbreaks-prevalence-and-contamination-levels
#16
Qi Zhu, Ravi Gooneratne, Malik Altaf Hussain
Listeria monocytogenes, a member of the genus Listeria, is widely distributed in agricultural environments, such as soil, manure and water. This organism is a recognized foodborne pathogenic bacterium that causes many diseases, from mild gastroenteritis to severe blood and/or central nervous system infections, as well as abortion in pregnant women. Generally, processed ready-to-eat and cold-stored meat and dairy products are considered high-risk foods for L. monocytogenes infections that cause human illness (listeriosis)...
March 9, 2017: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280743/nicotine-enhances-interspecies-relationship-between-streptococcus-mutans-and-candida-albicans
#17
Shiyu Liu, Wei Qiu, Keke Zhang, Xuedong Zhou, Biao Ren, Jinzhi He, Xin Xu, Lei Cheng, Mingyun Li
Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans are common microorganisms in the human oral cavity. The synergistic relationship between these two species has been deeply explored in many studies. In the present study, the effect of alkaloid nicotine on the interspecies between S. mutans and C. albicans is explored. We developed a dual-species biofilm model and studied biofilm biomass, biofilm structure, synthesis of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS), and expression of glucosyltransferases (Gtfs). Biofilm formation and bacterial and fungal cell numbers in dual-species biofilms increased in the presence of nicotine...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280492/mitochondrial-complex-v-%C3%AE-subunit-is-critical-for-candida-albicans-pathogenicity-through-modulating-multiple-virulence-properties
#18
Shui-Xiu Li, Yan-Jun Song, Yi-Shan Zhang, Hao-Tian Wu, Hui Guo, Kun-Ju Zhu, Dong-Mei Li, Hong Zhang
The α subunit (ATP1) is a vital component of mitochondrial complex V which counts for the majority of cellular ATP production in a living organism. Nevertheless, how the α subunit influences other cellular processes such as pathogenicity in Candida albicans remains poorly understood. To address this question, ATP1 mutant (atp1Δ/Δ) and the gene-reconstituted strain (atp1Δ/ATP1) have been constructed in this study and their pathogenicity-related traits are compared to those of wild type (WT). In a murine model of disseminated candidiasis, atp1Δ/Δ infected mice have a significantly higher survival rate and experience a lower fungal burden in tissues...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280487/candida-albicans-mycofilms-support-staphylococcus-aureus-colonization-and-enhances-miconazole-resistance-in-dual-species-interactions
#19
Ryan Kean, Ranjith Rajendran, Jennifer Haggarty, Eleanor M Townsend, Bryn Short, Karl E Burgess, Sue Lang, Owain Millington, William G Mackay, Craig Williams, Gordon Ramage
Polymicrobial inter-kingdom biofilm infections represent a clinical management conundrum. The presence of co-isolation of bacteria and fungi complicates the ability to routinely administer single antimicrobial regimens, and synergy between the microorganisms influences infection severity. We therefore investigated the nosocomial pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans with respect to antimicrobial intervention. We characterized the interaction using biofilm assays and evaluated the effect of miconazole treatment using in vitro and in vivo assays...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278272/additional-regulatory-activities-of-mrkh-for-the-transcriptional-expression-of-the-klebsiella-pneumoniae-mrk-genes-antagonist-of-h-ns-and-repressor
#20
Miguel A Ares, José L Fernández-Vázquez, Sabino Pacheco, Verónica I Martínez-Santos, Ma Dolores Jarillo-Quijada, Javier Torres, María D Alcántar-Curiel, Jorge A González-Y-Merchand, Miguel A De la Cruz
Klebsiella pneumoniae is a common opportunistic pathogen causing nosocomial infections. One of the main virulence determinants of K. pneumoniae is the type 3 pilus (T3P). T3P helps the bacterial interaction to both abiotic and biotic surfaces and it is crucial for the biofilm formation. T3P is genetically organized in three transcriptional units: the mrkABCDF polycistronic operon, the mrkHI bicistronic operon and the mrkJ gene. MrkH is a regulatory protein encoded in the mrkHI operon, which positively regulates the mrkA pilin gene and its own expression...
2017: PloS One
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