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pathogenicity and biofilm formation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225903/sphygmomanometers-and-thermometers-as-potential-fomites-of-staphylococcus-haemolyticus-biofilm-formation-in-the-presence-of-antibiotics
#1
Bruna Pinto Ribeiro Sued, Paula Marcele Afonso Pereira, Yuri Vieira Faria, Juliana Nunes Ramos, Vanessa Batista Binatti, Kátia Regina Netto Dos Santos, Sérgio Henrique Seabra, Raphael Hirata, Verônica Viana Vieira, Ana Luíza Mattos-Guaraldi, José Augusto Adler Pereira
BACKGROUND: The association between Staphylococcus haemolyticus and severe nosocomial infections is increasing. However, the extent to which fomites contribute to the dissemination of this pathogen through patients and hospital wards remains unknown. OBJECTIVES: In the present study, sphygmomanometers and thermometers were evaluated as potential fomites of oxacillin-resistant S. haemolyticus (ORSH). The influence of oxacillin and vancomycin on biofilm formation by ORSH strains isolated from fomites was also investigated...
March 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225897/sphygmomanometers-and-thermometers-as-potential-fomites-of-staphylococcus-haemolyticus-biofilm-formation-in-the-presence-of-antibiotics
#2
Bruna Pinto Ribeiro Sued, Paula Marcele Afonso Pereira, Yuri Vieira Faria, Juliana Nunes Ramos, Vanessa Batista Binatti, Kátia Regina Netto Dos Santos, Sérgio Henrique Seabra, Raphael Hirata, Verônica Viana Vieira, Ana Luíza Mattos-Guaraldi, José Augusto Adler Pereira
BACKGROUND: The association between Staphylococcus haemolyticus and severe nosocomial infections is increasing. However, the extent to which fomites contribute to the dissemination of this pathogen through patients and hospital wards remains unknown. OBJECTIVES: In the present study, sphygmomanometers and thermometers were evaluated as potential fomites of oxacillin-resistant S. haemolyticus (ORSH). The influence of oxacillin and vancomycin on biofilm formation by ORSH strains isolated from fomites was also investigated...
February 16, 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218655/taste-receptors-mediate-sinonasal-immunity-and-respiratory-disease
#3
REVIEW
Jennifer E Douglas, Noam A Cohen
The bitter taste receptor T2R38 has been shown to play a role in the pathogenesis of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), where the receptor functions to enhance upper respiratory innate immunity through a triad of beneficial immune responses. Individuals with a functional version of T2R38 are tasters for the bitter compound phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) and exhibit an anti-microbial response in the upper airway to certain invading pathogens, while those individuals with a non-functional version of the receptor are PTC non-tasters and lack this beneficial response...
February 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216386/serotonin-disturbs-colon-epithelial-tolerance-of-commensal-e-coli-by-increasing-nox-2-derived-superoxide
#4
Suhrid Banskota, Sushil Chandra Regmi, Jaya Gautam, Pallavi Gurung, Yu-Jeong Lee, Sae Kwang Ku, Jin-Hyung Lee, Jintae Lee, Hyeun Wook Chang, Sang Joon Park, Jung-Ae Kim
Adherent-invasive E. coli colonization and Toll-like receptor (TLR) expression are increased in the gut of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. However, the underlying mechanism of such changes has not been determined. In the current study, it was examined whether gut serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) can induce adherent-invasive E. coli colonization and increase TLR expression. In a co-culture system, commensal E. coli strain (BW25113, BW) adhered minimally to colon epithelial cells, but this was significantly enhanced by 5-HT to the level of a pathogenic strain (EDL933)...
February 16, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214735/rna-based-control-mechanisms-of-clostridium-difficile
#5
REVIEW
Olga Soutourina
Clostridium difficile (CD)-associated diarrhoea is currently the most prevalent nosocomial diarrhoea worldwide. Many characteristics of CD pathogenicity remain poorly understood. Recent data strongly indicate the importance of an RNA network for the control of gene expression in CD. More than 200 regulatory RNAs have been identified by deep sequencing and targeted approaches, including Hfq-dependent trans riboregulators, cis-antisense RNAs, CRISPR RNAs, and c-di-GMP-responsive riboswitches. These regulatory RNAs are involved in the control of major processes in the CD infection cycle, for example motility, biofilm formation, adhesion, sporulation, stress response, and defence against bacteriophages...
February 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213018/pathogen-biofilm-formation-on-cantaloupe-surface-and-its-impact-on-the-antibacterial-effect-of-lauroyl-arginate-ethyl
#6
Yezhi Fu, Amanda J Deering, Arun K Bhunia, Yuan Yao
Pathogen biofilm at fruit surface may pose a particular risk to food safety. In this study, the biofilms of Listeria monocytogenes V7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ATCC 13311 on cantaloupe fruit surface were visualized, and the resistance of biofilms against lauroyl arginate ethyl (LAE, an antibacterial compound) was evaluated. Each bacterium was inoculated on isolated cantaloupe rind surfaces at 10(5)-10(6) CFU/cm(2) and after incubation for 2, 12, 24, and 48 h, the surfaces were imaged using cryo-scanning electron microscopy (Cryo-SEM)...
June 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211844/a-tool-named-iris-for-versatile-high-throughput-phenotyping-in-microorganisms
#7
George Kritikos, Manuel Banzhaf, Lucia Herrera-Dominguez, Alexandra Koumoutsi, Morgane Wartel, Matylda Zietek, Athanasios Typas
Advances in our ability to systematically introduce and track controlled genetic variance in microorganisms have, in the past decade, fuelled high-throughput reverse genetics approaches. When coupled to quantitative readouts, such approaches are extremely powerful at elucidating gene function and providing insights into the underlying pathways and the overall cellular network organization. Yet, until now, all efforts to quantify microbial macroscopic phenotypes have been restricted to monitoring growth in a small number of model microorganisms...
February 17, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210244/assessment-of-the-antimicrobial-activity-of-olive-leaf-extract-against-foodborne-bacterial-pathogens
#8
Yanhong Liu, Lindsay C McKeever, Nasir S A Malik
Olive leaf extract (OLE) has been used traditionally as a herbal supplement since it contains polyphenolic compounds with beneficial properties ranging from increasing energy levels, lowering blood pressure, and supporting the cardiovascular and immune systems. In addition to the beneficial effects on human health, OLE also has antimicrobial properties. The aim of this work was to investigate the antimicrobial effect of OLE against major foodborne pathogens, including Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Salmonella Enteritidis...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205337/should-the-biofilm-mode-of-life-be-taken-into-consideration-for-microbial-biocontrol-agents
#9
REVIEW
Caroline Pandin, Dominique Le Coq, Alexis Canette, Stéphane Aymerich, Romain Briandet
Almost one-third of crop yields are lost every year due to microbial alterations and diseases. The main control strategy to limit these losses is the use of an array of chemicals active against spoilage and unwanted pathogenic microorganisms. Their massive use has led to extensive environmental pollution, human poisoning and a variety of diseases. An emerging alternative to this chemical approach is the use of microbial biocontrol agents. Biopesticides have been used with success in several fields, but a better understanding of their mode of action is necessary to better control their activity and increase their use...
February 16, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204863/influence-of-twitching-and-swarming-motilities-on-biofilm-formation-in-pseudomonas-strains
#10
Letícia Muner Otton, Marina da Silva Campos, Karine Lena Meneghetti, Gertrudes Corção
The genus Pseudomonas mainly includes opportunistic pathogens that rely on type IV pili as an important virulence factor, which is associated with adherence and biofilm formation. Pseudomonas infections are well known to be persistent and resilient in nature largely because of the tendency of the species to form biofilms. This study aimed at analyzing environmental strains of Pseudomonas genus with respect to their ability to execute twitching and swarming motilities as well as with respect to their ability to form biofilms both in the presence as well as in the absence of furanone, a substance that has the potential to prevent the formation of biofilms...
February 15, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202392/sophisticated-regulation-of-transcriptional-factors-by-the-bacterial-phosphoenolpyruvate-sugar-phosphotransferase-system
#11
REVIEW
Anne Galinier, Josef Deutscher
The phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) is a carbohydrate transport and phosphorylation system present in bacteria of all different phyla and in archaea. It is usually composed of three proteins or protein complexes, enzyme I, HPr and enzyme II, which are phosphorylated at histidine or cysteine residues. However, in many bacteria, HPr can also be phosphorylated at a serine residue. The PTS functions not only as carbohydrate transporter, but also regulates numerous cellular processes by either phosphorylating its target proteins or by interacting with them in a phosphorylation-dependent manner...
February 12, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199190/filamentous-hemagglutinin-adhesin-fhab-limits-a-baumannii-biofilm-formation
#12
Shakiba Darwish Alipour Astaneh, Iraj Rasooli, Seyed Latif Mousavi Gargari
Increased resistance and survival, as well as immune evasion, play a significant role in the pathogenicity of Acinetobacter baumannii. Here, we report on the adhesion of the bacterium to epithelial cells and formation of biofilm on abiotic surfaces. We identificed autotransporter (AT) genes that encode homologues (Fha-like) of the two-partner secretion system (TPS) in A.baumannii (ATCC19606) which we designate as FhaB (exoprotein) and FhaC (transporter) and demonstrate that these novel genes, are under the control of distinct regulatable promoters within either the same (FhaBC) or two distinct (FhaB and FhaC) cells...
March 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199146/morphological-change-and-decreasing-transfer-rate-of-biofilm-featured-listeria-monocytogenes-egde
#13
Yuejia Lee, Chinling Wang
Listeria monocytogenes , a lethal foodborne pathogen, has the ability to resist the hostile food processing environment and thus frequently contaminates ready-to-eat foods during processing. It is commonly accepted that the tendency of L. monocytogenes ' to generate biofilms on various surfaces enhances its resistance to the harshness of the food processing environment. However, the role of biofilm formation in the transferability of L. monocytogenes EGDe remains controversial. We examined the growth of Listeria biofilms on stainless steel surfaces and their effect on the transferability of L...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198348/down-regulation-of-pe11-a-cell-wall-associated-esterase-enhances-the-biofilm-growth-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-and-reduces-cell-wall-virulence-lipid-levels
#14
Shivangi Rastogi, Amit Kumar Singh, Garima Pant, Kalyan Mitra, Koneni V Sashidhara, Manju Y Krishnan
PE11 (Rv1169c or LipX) is a cell wall associated esterase/lipase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Evidences suggest that PE11 is expressed by Mtb both in vitro and in vivo. Previous studies have shown that PE11 leads to modification in cell wall lipid content and enhanced virulence when expressed in the non-pathogenic surrogate Mycobacterium smegmatis. Since cell wall lipids often play different roles in pathogenic and non-pathogenic mycobacteria, we investigated the role of PE11 in its host, Mtb. Mtb with lowered expression of PE11 (PE11 knock-down) displayed significant changes in colony morphology and cell wall lipid profile, confirming the role of PE11 in cell wall architecture...
January 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196974/the-efficacy-of-different-anti-microbial-metals-at-preventing-the-formation-of-and-eradicating-bacterial-biofilms-of-pathogenic-indicator-strains
#15
Natalie Gugala, Joe A Lemire, Raymond J Turner
The emergence of multidrug-resistant pathogens and the prevalence of biofilm-related infections have generated a demand for alternative anti-microbial therapies. Metals have not been explored in adequate detail for their capacity to combat infectious disease. Metal compounds can now be found in textiles, medical devices and disinfectants-yet, we know little about their efficacy against specific pathogens. To help fill this knowledge gap, we report on the anti-microbial and antibiofilm activity of seven metals: silver, copper, titanium, gallium, nickel, aluminum and zinc against three bacterial strains, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194111/syringa-oblata-lindl-aqueous-extract-is-a-potential-biofilm-inhibitor-in-s-suis
#16
Jingwen Bai, Yanbei Yang, Shuai Wang, Lingfei Gao, Jianqing Chen, Yongzhi Ren, Wenya Ding, Ishfaq Muhammad, Yanhua Li
Streptococcus suis (S. suis) is a zoonotic pathogen that causes severe disease symptoms in pigs and humans. Syringa oblata Lindl. distributed in the middle latitudes of Eurasia and North America were proved as the most development potential of Chinese Medicine. In this study, biofilm formation by S. suis decreased after growth with 1/2 MIC, 1/4 MIC, or 1/8 MIC of Syringa oblata Lindl. aqueous extract and rutin. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed the potential effect of Syringa oblata Lindl. aqueous extract and rutin against biofilm formation by S...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193570/live-and-heat-killed-lactobacillus-spp-interfere-with-streptococcus-mutans-and-streptococcus-oralis-during-biofilm-development-on-titanium-surface
#17
E Ciandrini, R Campana, W Baffone
OBJECTIVES: This research investigates the ability of live and heat-killed (HK) Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) to interfere with Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175 and Streptococcus oralis ATCC 9811 during biofilm formation. DESIGN: Eight Lactobacillus spp. and two oral colonizers, pathogenic Streptococcus mutans and resident Streptococcus oralis, were characterized for their aggregation abilities, cell surface properties and biofilm formation ability on titanium surface...
February 4, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188831/lipoteichoic-acid-synthesis-inhibition-in-combination-with-antibiotics-abrogates-growth-of-multidrug-resistant-enterococcus-faecium
#18
Fernanda L Paganelli, Tim van de Kamer, Ellen C Brouwer, Helen L Leavis, Neil Woodford, Marc J M Bonten, Rob J L Willems, Antoni P A Hendrickx
Enterococcus faecium is a multidrug-resistant (MDR) nosocomial pathogen causing significant morbidity in debilitated patients. New antimicrobials are needed to treat antibiotic-resistant E. faecium infections in hospitalised patients. E. faecium incorporates lipoteichoic acid (LTA) (1,3-polyglycerol-phosphate linked to glycolipid) in its cell wall. The small-molecule inhibitor 1771 [2-oxo-2-(5-phenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-ylamino)ethyl 2-naphtho[2,1-b]furan-1-ylacetate] specifically blocks the activity of Staphylococcus aureus LtaS synthase, which polymerises 1,3-glycerolphosphate into LTA polymers...
February 7, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178428/effect-of-histophilus-somni-on-heart-and-brain-microvascular-endothelial-cells
#19
D O'Toole, R Hunter, T Allen, B Zekarias, J Lehmann, K S Kim, D Grab, L B Corbeil
Histophilus somni is a pathogenic gram-negative bacterium responsible for pneumonia and septicemia in cattle. Sequelae include infectious thrombotic meningoencephalitis (ITME), myocarditis, arthritis, and abortion. These syndromes are associated with widespread vasculitis and thrombosis, implicating a role for endothelium in pathogenesis. Histopathologic and immunohistochemical investigation of 10 natural cases of bovine H. somni myocarditis and 1 case of ITME revealed intravascular H. somni in large biofilm-like aggregates adherent to the luminal surface of microvascular endothelium...
January 1, 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178381/comparison-of-the-antimicrobial-and-sanitizer-resistance-of-salmonella-isolates-from-chicken-slaughter-processes-in-korea
#20
So Youn Youn, Ok Mi Jeong, Byung Kook Choi, Suk Chan Jung, Min Su Kang
Salmonella is a foodborne pathogen worldwide. Outbreaks of Salmonella are commonly associated with consumption of contaminated foods such as poultry products. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the occurrence, biofilm formation, antibiotic resistance, and sanitizer resistance of Salmonella enterica isolated from chicken carcasses. A total of 318 samples were collected from 15 chicken slaughterhouses in 8 provinces of Korea. They were then examined for Salmonella contamination. S. enterica isolates were tested for their susceptibilities to 15 antimicrobials by broth microdilution method...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Food Science
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