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pathogenicity and biofilm formation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332258/photodynamic-antimicrobial-chemotherapy-pact-using-toluidine-blue-inhibits-both-growth-and-biofilm-formation-by-candida-krusei
#1
Bruna Graziele Marques da Silva, Moisés Lopes Carvalho, Isabela Bueno Rosseti, Stella Zamuner, Maricilia Silva Costa
Among non-albicans Candida species, the opportunistic pathogen Candida krusei emerges because of the high mortality related to infections produced by this yeast. The Candida krusei is an opportunistic pathogen presenting an intrinsic resistance to fluconazol. In spite of the reduced number of infections produced by C. krusei, its occurrence is increasing in some groups of patients submitted to the use of fluconazol for prophylaxis. Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) is a potential antimicrobial therapy that combines visible light and a nontoxic dye, known as a photosensitizer, producing reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can kill the treated cells...
January 13, 2018: Lasers in Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330184/microbiomes-in-dishwashers-analysis-of-the-microbial-diversity-and-putative-opportunistic-pathogens-in-dishwasher-biofilm-communities
#2
Prem Krishnan Raghupathi, Jerneja Zupančič, Asker Daniel Brejnrod, Samuel Jacquiod, Kurt Houf, Mette Burmølle, Nina Gunde-Cimerman, Søren J Sørensen
Extreme habitats are not only limited to natural environments, but also apply to man-made systems, for instance household appliances such as dishwashers. Limiting factors, such as high temperatures, high and low pH, high NaCl concentrations, presence of detergents and shear force from water during washing cycles define the microbial survival in this extreme system. Fungal and bacterial diversity in biofilms isolated from rubber seals of 24 different household dishwashers were investigated using next generation sequencing...
January 12, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325106/transcriptomic-profiling-of-interacting-nasal-staphylococci-species-reveals-global-changes-in-gene-and-non-coding-rna-expression
#3
Grith M M Hermansen, Pavelas Sazinas, Ditte Kofod, Andrew Millard, Paal Skytt Andersen, Lars Jelsbak
Interspecies interactions between bacterial pathogens and the commensal microbiota can influence disease outcome. In the nasal cavities, Staphylococcus epidermidis has been shown to be a determining factor for Staphylococcus aureus colonization and biofilm formation. However, the interaction between S. epidermidis and S. aureus has mainly been described by phenotypic analysis, and little is known about how this interaction modulates gene expression.This study aimed to determine the interactome of nasal S. aureus and S...
January 9, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322563/microfluidics-based-lc-ms-mrm-approach-for-the-relative-quantification-of-burkholderia-cenocepacia-secreted-virulence-factors
#4
Sofie Depluverez, Simon Daled, Stijn De Waele, Sören Planckaert, Jolien Schoovaerts, Dieter Deforce, Bart Devreese
Burkholderia cenocepacia is an opportunistic pathogen that is commonly isolated from patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Several virulence factors have been identified, including extracellular enzymes that are secreted by type II and type VI secretion systems. The activity of these secretion systems is modulated by quorum sensing. Apart from the classical acylhomoserine lactone quorum sensing, B. cenocepacia also uses the diffusible signal factor system (DSF) i.e. 2-undecenoic acid derivatives that are recognized by specific receptors resulting in changes in biofilm formation, motility and virulence...
January 11, 2018: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322006/attenuation-of-quorum-sensing-dependent-virulence-factors-and-biofilm-formation-by-medicinal-plants-against-antibiotic-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#5
P Sankar Ganesh, V Ravishankar Rai
Pseudomonas aeruginosa use small signaling molecules such as acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs), which play an important role in release virulence factors and toxin for further establishment of host infection. Thus, involving with the QS system would provide alternative ways of preventing the pathogenicity. In the present study, totally six medicinal plants (Terminalia bellerica, Celastrus paniculatus, Kingiodendron pinnatum, Schleichera oleosa, Melastoma malabathricum, Garcinia gummi-gutta) were screened for anti-QS activity using biomonitor strain of Chromobacterium violaceum CV12472...
January 2018: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321600/fis-is-a-global-regulator-critical-for-modulation-of-virulence-factor-production-and-pathogenicity-of-dickeya-zeae
#6
Mingfa Lv, Yufan Chen, Lisheng Liao, Zhibin Liang, Zurong Shi, Yingxin Tang, Sixuan Ye, Jianuan Zhou, Lianhui Zhang
Dickeya zeae is the causal agent of rice foot rot disease, which has recently become a great threat to rice planting countries and regions. The pathogen produces a family of phytotoxins named zeamines that is critical for bacterial virulence, but little is known about the signaling pathways and regulatory mechanisms that govern zeamine production. In this study, we showed that a conserved transcriptional regulator Fis is involved in the regulation of zeamine production in D. zeae strain EC1. Deletion mutants were markedly attenuated in the virulence against rice seed germination...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321257/the-antimicrobial-peptide-saap-148-combats-drug-resistant-bacteria-and-biofilms
#7
Anna de Breij, Martijn Riool, Robert A Cordfunke, Nermina Malanovic, Leonie de Boer, Roman I Koning, Elisabeth Ravensbergen, Marnix Franken, Tobias van der Heijde, Bouke K Boekema, Paulus H S Kwakman, Niels Kamp, Abdelouahab El Ghalbzouri, Karl Lohner, Sebastian A J Zaat, Jan W Drijfhout, Peter H Nibbering
Development of novel antimicrobial agents is a top priority in the fight against multidrug-resistant (MDR) and persistent bacteria. We developed a panel of synthetic antimicrobial and antibiofilm peptides (SAAPs) with enhanced antimicrobial activities compared to the parent peptide, human antimicrobial peptide LL-37. Our lead peptide SAAP-148 was more efficient in killing bacteria under physiological conditions in vitro than many known preclinical- and clinical-phase antimicrobial peptides. SAAP-148 killed MDR pathogens without inducing resistance, prevented biofilm formation, and eliminated established biofilms and persister cells...
January 10, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320462/unsaturated-fatty-acids-affect-quorum-sensing-communication-system-and-inhibit-motility-and-biofilm-formation-of-acinetobacter-baumannii
#8
Marion Nicol, Stéphane Alexandre, Jean-Baptiste Luizet, Malena Skogman, Thierry Jouenne, Suzana P Salcedo, Emmanuelle Dé
The increasing threat of Acinetobacter baumannii as a nosocomial pathogen is mainly due to the occurrence of multidrug-resistant strains that are associated with the real problem of its eradication from hospital wards. The particular ability of this pathogen to form biofilms contributes to its persistence, increases antibiotic resistance, and promotes persistent/device-related infections. We previously demonstrated that virstatin, which is a small organic compound known to decrease virulence of Vibrio cholera via an inhibition of T4-pili expression, displayed very promising activity to prevent A...
January 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319821/probiotic-potency-of-lactobacillus-plantarum-kx519413-and-kx519414-isolated-from-honey-bee-gut
#9
C Honey Chandran, T R Keerthi
The Indian honey bee-Apis cerana indica, which harbors an abundant and diverse range of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in their gut with beneficial effects was used as the source for the isolation of LAB. In the present study, two LAB isolates from honey bee gut were selected primarily based on their phenotypic and selective biochemical characterization, further PCR and identified using 16S rRNA sequencing as Lactobacillus plantarum and were registered in National Centre for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) under accession number KX519413 and KX519414...
January 8, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319523/temperature-ph-and-trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-are-potent-inhibitors-of-biofilm-formation-by-stenotrophomonas-maltophilia-clinical-isolates
#10
Marjan Biočanin, Haowa Madi, Zorica Vasiljević, Milan Kojić, Branko Jovčić, Jelena Lozo
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, an opportunistic pathogen usually connected with healthcare-associated infections, is an environmental bacterium. Intrinsic resistance to multiple antibiotics, with different virulence determinants in the last decade classified this bacterium in the group of global multiple drug resistant (MDR) organism. S. maltophilia clinical isolates, were collected from tertiary care pediatric hospital in Belgrade, Serbia to investigate influence of different factors on biofilm formation, kinetics of biofilm formation for strong biofilm producers and effect of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) on formed biofilm...
December 4, 2017: Polish Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318385/transcription-factor-network-efficiency-in-the-regulation-of-candida-albicans-biofilms-it-is-a-small-world
#11
Virginia E Glazier, Damian J Krysan
Complex biological processes are frequently regulated through networks comprised of multiple signaling pathways, transcription factors, and effector molecules. The identity of specific genes carrying out these functions is usually determined by single mutant genetic analysis. However, to understand how the individual genes/gene products function, it is necessary to determine how they interact with other components of the larger network; one approach to this is to use genetic interaction analysis. The human fungal pathogen Candida albicans regulates biofilm formation through an interconnected set of transcription factor hubs and is, therefore, an example of this type of complex network...
January 9, 2018: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317704/biofilm-formation-protects-salmonella-from-the-antibiotic-ciprofloxacin-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-in-the-mouse-model-of-chronic-carriage
#12
Juan F González, Halley Alberts, Joel Lee, Lauren Doolittle, John S Gunn
Typhoid fever is caused by the human-restricted pathogen Salmonella enterica sv. Typhi. Approximately 5% of people that resolve the disease become chronic carriers, with the gallbladder as the main reservoir of the bacteria. Of these, about 90% present with gallstones, on which Salmonella form biofilms. Because S. Typhi is a human-restricted pathogen, these carriers are the main source of dissemination of the disease; unfortunately, antibiotic treatment has shown to be an ineffective therapy. This is believed to be caused by the inherent antibiotic resistance conferred by Salmonella biofilms growing on gallstones...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316739/development-of-candida-albicans-biofilms-is-diminished-by-paeonia-lactiflora-through-obstruction-of-cell-adhesionand-cell-lysis
#13
Heung-Shick Lee, Younhee Kim
Candida albicans infections are problematic to treat often due to antifungal resistance, since most infections of the pathogen are associated with biofilms. The abilities of C. albicans to switch from budding yeast to filamentous hyphae, and adhere to host cells or various surfaces support biofilm formation. We previously reported that the ethanol extract from Paeonia lactiflora not only inhibits cell wall synthesis but also causes depolarization and permeabilization of cell membrane in C. albicans. In this study, we found that the P...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316701/the-effect-of-cryopreserved-human-placental-tissues-on-biofilm-formation-of-wound-associated-pathogens
#14
Yong Mao, Anya Singh-Varma, Tyler Hoffman, Sandeep Dhall, Alla Danilkovitch, Joachim Kohn
Biofilm, a community of bacteria, is tolerant to antimicrobial agents and ubiquitous in chronic wounds. In a chronic DFU (Diabetic Foot Ulcers) clinical trial, the use of a human cryopreserved viable amniotic membrane (CVAM) resulted in a high rate of wound closure and reduction of wound-related infections. Our previous study demonstrated that CVAM possesses intrinsic antimicrobial activity against a spectrum of wound-associated bacteria under planktonic culture conditions. In this study, we evaluated the effect of CVAM and cryopreserved viable umbilical tissue (CVUT) on biofilm formation of S...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315313/viable-adhered-staphylococcus-aureus-highly-reduced-on-novel-antimicrobial-sutures-using-chlorhexidine-and-octenidine-to-avoid-surgical-site-infection-ssi
#15
Andreas Obermeier, Jochen Schneider, Norbert Harrasser, Jutta Tübel, Heinrich Mühlhofer, Dominik Pförringer, Constantin von Deimling, Peter Foehr, Barbara Kiefel, Christina Krämer, Axel Stemberger, Matthias Schieker, Rainer Burgkart, Rüdiger von Eisenhart-Rothe
BACKGROUND: Surgical sutures can promote migration of bacteria and thus start infections. Antiseptic coating of sutures may inhibit proliferation of adhered bacteria and avoid such complications. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the inhibition of viable adhering bacteria on novel antimicrobially coated surgical sutures using chlorhexidine or octenidine, a critical factor for proliferation at the onset of local infections. The medical need, a rapid eradication of bacteria in wounds, can be fulfilled by a high antimicrobial efficacy during the first days after wound closure...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311281/cyclic-di-gmp-regulates-tfoy-in-vibrio-cholerae-to-control-motility-by-both-transcriptional-and-posttranscriptional-mechanisms
#16
Benjamin R Pursley, Michael M Maiden, Meng-Lun Hsieh, Nicolas Fernandez, Geoffrey B Severin, Christopher M Waters
Cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) is a bacterial second messenger molecule that is a key global regulator in Vibrio cholerae, but the molecular mechanisms by which this molecule regulates downstream phenotypes have not been fully characterized. One such regulatory factor that may respond to c-di-GMP is the Vc2 c-di-GMP-binding riboswitch that is hypothesized to control the expression of the downstream putative transcription factor TfoY. Although much is known about the physical and structural properties of the Vc2 riboswitch aptamer, the nature of its expression and function in V...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311080/mycobacterium-abscessus-smooth-and-rough-morpohotypes-form-antimicrobial-tolerant-biofilm-phenotypes-but-are-killed-by-acetic-acid
#17
Gillian Clary, Smitha Sasindran, Nathan Nesbitt, Laurel Mason, Sara Cole, Abul Azad, Karen McCoy, Larry S Schlesinger, Luanne Hall-Stoodley
Mycobacterium abscessus has emerged as an important pathogen in people with chronic inflammatory lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis, and recent reports suggest that it may be transmissible by fomites. M. abscessus exhibits two major colony morphology variants: a smooth morphotype (MaSm ) and a rough morphotype (MaRg ). Biofilm formation, prolonged intracellular survival, and colony variant diversity can each contribute to the persistence of M. abscessus and other bacterial pathogens in chronic pulmonary diseases...
January 8, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302998/the-effects-of-mucosal-media-on-some-pathogenic-traits-of-crohn-s-disease-associated-escherichia-coli-lf82
#18
Husamettin Aygun, Murat Karamese, Cem Ozic, Fikret Uyar
AIM: Adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) pathovar has been identified in intestinal mucosa of patients with Crohn's disease. Our aim was to compare the impact of sterile mucosal media (Muc-M) originated from different parts of the intestine on some pathogenic traits of AIEC LF82 strain. MATERIALS & METHODS: Muc-M composed of certain rates of cell culture medium or M63 minimal medium and mucosal contents obtained from different part of intestine were designed for cell-infection experiments and biofilm-formation assays...
January 5, 2018: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298396/bifidobacterium-breve-ipla20005-affects-in-vitro-the-expression-of-hly-and-luxs-genes-related-to-the-virulence-of-listeria-monocytogenes-lm23
#19
David Rios-Covian, Alicja Nogacka, Nuria Salazar, Ana Hernandez-Barranco, Isabel Cuesta, Miguel Gueimonde, Clara G de Los Reyes-Gavilan
Mechanistic features about the interaction and inhibition of the food borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes by members of the genus Bifidobacterium still remain unclear. In the present work we tried to shed light into the influence that co-cultivation of L. monocytogenes with Bifidobacterium breve may exert on both microorganisms and on the pathogen virulence. Production of acetate and lactate was measured by gas chromatography and HPLC respectively, bacterial counts were obtained by plate count, gene expression was determined by RT-qPCR and the hemolytic activity was analyzed against goat erythrocytes...
January 3, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298127/association-between-loss-of-type-iv-pilus-synthesis-ability-and-phenotypic-variation-in-the-cucurbit-pathogenic-bacterium-acidovorax-citrulli
#20
Tally Rosenberg, Bolaji Babajide Salam, Saul Burdman
Acidovorax citrulli is the causal agent of bacterial fruit blotch of cucurbits. We have shown that functional type IV pili (T4P) are required for full virulence of this bacterium. To identify A. citrulli genes required for T4P activity, we screened a library of about 10,000 transposon mutants of A. citrulli strain M6 for altered T4P-mediated twitching motility. This screen led to the identification of 50 mutants impaired in twitching ability due to transposon insertions into 20 different genes. Representative mutants with disruptions in these genes were further characterized...
January 3, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
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