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pathogenicity and biofilm formation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771975/development-and-characterization-of-an-oral-multispecies-biofilm-implant-flow-chamber-model
#1
Nadine Kommerein, Katharina Doll, Nico S Stumpp, Meike Stiesch
Peri-implant infections are the most common cause of implant failure in modern dental implantology. These are caused by the formation of biofilms on the implant surface and consist of oral commensal and pathogenic bacteria, which harm adjacent soft and hard tissues and may ultimately lead to implant loss. In order to improve the clinical situation, there has to be a better understanding of biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces. Therefore, we successfully developed a system to cultivate an oral multispecies biofilm model in a flow chamber system, optimized for the evaluation of biofilm formation on solid materials by direct microscopic investigation...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771309/identification-of-a-specific-domain-of-porphyromonas-gingivalis-hgp44-responsible-for-adhesion-to-treponema-denticola
#2
Kouki Yoshikawa, Yuichiro Kikuchi, Eitoyo Kokubu, Kentaro Imamura, Atsushi Saito, Kazuyuki Ishihara
Interaction between two periodontal pathogens, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Treponema denticola, contributes to plaque biofilm formation. P. gingivalis forms aggregates with T. denticola through its adhesion/hemagglutinin domain (Hgp44). In this study, we investigated the specific domain of P. gingivalis Hgp44 responsible for adhesion to T. denticola using expression vectors harboring P. gingivalis Hgp44 DNA sequences encoding amino acid residues 1-419. Six plasmids harboring fragments in this region were generated by PCR amplification and self-ligation, and recombinant proteins r-Hgp44 (residues 1-419), r-Hgp441 (residues 1-124), r-Hgp442 (1-199), r-Hgp443 (1-316), r-Hgp444 (199-419), r-Hgp445 (124-198), and r-Hgp446 (199-316) were produced, as confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting...
May 16, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767954/development-of-molecularly-imprinted-polymers-to-block-quorum-sensing-and-inhibit-bacterial-biofilm-formation
#3
Luyao Ma, Shaolong Feng, Cesar de la Fuente-Nunez, Robert E W Hancock, Xiaonan Lu
Bacterial biofilms are responsible for most clinical infections and show increased antimicrobial resistance. In this study, molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) were developed to specifically capture prototypical quorum sensing autoinducers [i.e., N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C12AHL)], interrupt quorum sensing, and subsequently inhibit biofilm formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an important human nosocomial pathogen. The synthesis of MIPs was optimized by considering the amount and type of the functional monomers itaconic acid (IA) and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA)...
May 16, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767946/highly-stable-graphene-based-nanocomposite-go-pei-ag-with-broad-spectrum-long-term-antimicrobial-activity-and-antibiofilm-effects
#4
Rongtao Zhao, Wen Kong, Mingxuan Sun, Yi Yang, Wanying Liu, Min Lv, Shiping Song, Lihua Wang, Hongbin Song, Rongzhang Hao
Various silver nanoparticle (AgNP)-decorated graphene oxide (GO) nanocomposites (GO-Ag) have received increasing attention owing to their antimicrobial activity and biocompatibility; however, their aggregation in physiological solutions and the generally complex synthesis methods warrant improvement. This study aimed to synthesize a polyethyleneimine (PEI)-modified and AgNP-decorated GO nanocomposite (GO-PEI-Ag) through a facile approach through microwave irradiation without any extra reductants and surfactants; its antimicrobial activity was investigated on Gram-negative/-positive bacteria (including drug-resistant bacteria) and fungi...
May 16, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765621/biofilm-inhibition-and-pathogenicity-attenuation-in-bacteria-by-proteus-mirabilis
#5
Shichen Yu, Xiaoshan Zhu, Jin Zhou, Zhonghua Cai
Biofilms play an important role in the antibiotic resistance of encased bacteria, and biofilm formation is regulated by quorum sensing (QS). Inhibiting the QS system may, therefore, degrade the integrity of a biofilm and expose the bacterial pathogens within it to the deleterious effects of molecules such as antibiotics. Moreover, the use of QS inhibitors (QSIs) may provide a novel approach for treating bacterial infections of aquacultures. In the present study, the bacterium Proteus mirabilis was identified as a potential producer of QSIs...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760548/silver-nanoparticles-induced-alterations-in-multiple-cellular-targets-which-are-critical-for-drug-susceptibilities-and-pathogenicity-in-fungal-pathogen-candida-albicans
#6
Venkatraman Srinivasan Radhakrishnan, Mohana Krishna Reddy Mudiam, Manish Kumar, Surya Prakash Dwivedi, Surinder Pal Singh, Tulika Prasad
Purpose: A significant increase in the incidence of fungal infections and drug resistance has been observed in the past decades due to limited availability of broad-spectrum antifungal drugs. Nanomedicines have shown significant antimicrobial potential against various drug-resistant microbes. Silver nanoparticles (AgNps) are known for their antimicrobial properties and lower host toxicity; however, for clinical applications, evaluation of their impact at cellular and molecular levels is essential...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760209/complex-control-of-a-genomic-island-governing-biofilm-and-rugose-colony-development-in-vibrio-vulnificus
#7
Daniel M Chodur, Dean A Rowe-Magnus
V. vulnificus is a potent opportunistic human pathogen that contaminates the human food-chain by asymptomatically colonizing seafood. Expression of the 9-gene brp exopolysaccharide locus mediates surface adherence and is controlled by the secondary signaling molecule c-di-GMP and the regulator BrpT. Here, we show that c-di-GMP and BrpT also regulate the expression of an adjacent 5-gene cluster that includes the cabABC operon, brpT and another VpsT-like transcriptional regulator, brpS The expression of the 14 genes spanning the region increased with elevated intracellular c -di-GMP levels in a BrpT-dependent manner, save brpS , which was positively regulated by c-di-GMP and repressed by BrpT...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760208/rpon-dependent-direct-regulation-of-quorum-sensing-and-the-type-vi-secretion-system-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-pao1
#8
Xiaolong Shao, Xiaoning Zhang, Yingchao Zhang, Miao Zhu, Pan Yang, Jian Yuan, Yingpeng Xie, Tianhong Zhou, Wei Wang, Sheng Chen, Haihua Liang, Xin Deng
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen of humans, particularly those with cystic fibrosis. As a global regulator, RpoN controls a group of virulence-related factors and quorum sensing (QS) genes in P. aeruginosa To further gain insights into the direct targets of RpoN in vivo , the present study focused on identifying the direct targets of RpoN regulation in QS and the type VI secretion system (T6SS). We performed a chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled to high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) assay that identified 1,068 binding sites of RpoN, mostly including metabolic genes, a group of genes in QS ( lasI , rhlI and pqsR ) and the T6SS ( hcpA and hcpB )...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758533/antimicrobial-resistance-biofilm-formation-and-virulence-reveal-actinobacillus-pleuropneumoniae-strains-pathogenicity-complexity
#9
Monalessa Fábia Pereira, Ciro César Rossi, Larissa Eler Seide, Sebastião Martins Filho, Cláudia de Melo Dolinski, Denise Mara Soares Bazzolli
Porcine pleuropneumonia is an important cause of lowered productivity and economic loss in the pig industry worldwide, associated primarily with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infection. Its colonization and persistence within the upper respiratory tract of affected pigs depends upon interactions between a number of genetically controlled virulence factors, such as pore-forming repeats-in-toxin exoproteins, biofilm formation, and antimicrobial resistance. This study investigated correlations between biofilm-forming capacity, antimicrobial resistance, and virulence of A...
May 7, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757931/in-vitro-human-microbiota-response-to-exposure-to-silver-nanoparticles-biosynthesized-with-mushroom-extract
#10
Emanuel Vamanu, Mihaela Ene, Bogdan Biță, Cristina Ionescu, Liviu Crăciun, Ionela Sârbu
The ability to orally administer silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in enteric capsules implies a direct interaction with the colon microbiota. The in vitro effect provides a portrayal of the functional properties under in vivo conditions. The purpose of this study was to describe a green AgNP synthesis process, using aqueous extract from Lactarius piperatus mushroom, and to characterize the nanomaterial. We determined its antimicrobial and antioxidant effects in vitro in the microbiota of healthy individuals via the GIS1 system-a colon transit simulator...
May 14, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755435/analysis-of-phylogenetic-variation-of-stenotrophomonas-maltophilia-reveals-human-specific-branches
#11
Joerg Steinmann, Uwe Mamat, Ebrahim M Abda, Lisa Kirchhoff, Wolfgang R Streit, Ulrich E Schaible, Stefan Niemann, Thomas A Kohl
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is a non-fermenting Gram-negative bacterium that is ubiquitous in the environment. In humans, this opportunistic multi-drug-resistant pathogen is responsible for a plethora of healthcare-associated infections. Here, we utilized a whole genome sequencing (WGS)-based phylogenomic core single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) approach to characterize S. maltophilia subgroups, their potential association with human infection, and to detect any possible transmission events. In total, 89 isolates (67 clinical and 22 environmental) from Germany were sequenced...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754156/-innovative-application-of-small-molecules-to-influence-pathogenicity-of-dental-plaque
#12
M M Janus, C M C Volgenant, B P Krom
Current preventive measures against infectious oral diseases are mainly focussed on plaque removal and promoting a healthy lifestyle. This in vitro study investigated a third preventive method: maintaining healthy dental plaque with the use of small molecules. As a model of dental plaque, in vitro biofilms were cultivated under conditions that induce pathogenic characteristics. The effect of erythritol and other small molecules on the pathogenic characteristics and bacterial composition of the biofilm was evaluated...
May 2018: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Tandheelkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753132/prevention-of-eskape-pathogen-biofilm-formation-by-antimicrobial-peptides-wlbu2-and-ll37
#13
Qiao Lin, Berthony Deslouches, Ronald C Montelaro, Y Peter Di
OBJECTIVES: Bacterial biofilm-dependent infections (e.g., cystic fibrosis, surgical sites, and medical implants) are associated with enhanced drug-resistance and thus difficult to eradicate. The goal of this study was to systematically compare three distinct classes of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) that include the clinically used antibiotic colistin, the natural AMP LL37, the engineered cationic-AMP WLBU2, and four commonly used antibiotics with different bactericidal mechanisms (tobramycin, ciprofloxacin, ceftazidime and vancomycin) for biofilm prevention properties...
May 9, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752963/ses-proteins-as-possible-targets-for-vaccine-development-against-staphylococcus-epidermidis-infections
#14
Dorien Hofmans, Laleh Khodaparast, Ladan Khodaparast, Els Vanstreels, Mohammad Shahrooei, Johan Van Eldere, Lieve Van Mellaert
OBJECTIVES: The opportunistic pathogen Staphylococcus epidermidis is progressively involved in device-related infections. Since these infections involve biofilm formation, antibiotics are not effective. Conversely, a vaccine can be advantageous to prevent these infections. In view of vaccine development, predicted surface proteins were evaluated on their potential as a vaccine target. METHODS: Immunoglobulins directed against S. epidermidis surface proteins SesB, M, O, Q and R, were used to firstly affirm their surface location...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746596/the-hyr1-protein-from-the-fungus-candida-albicans-is-a-cross-kingdom-immunotherapeutic-target-for-acinetobacter-bacterial-infection
#15
Priya Uppuluri, Lin Lin, Abdullah Alqarihi, Guanpingsheng Luo, Eman G Youssef, Sondus Alkhazraji, Nannette Y Yount, Belal A Ibrahim, Michael Anthony Bolaris, John E Edwards, Marc Swidergall, Scott G Filler, Michael R Yeaman, Ashraf S Ibrahim
Different pathogens share similar medical settings and rely on similar virulence strategies to cause infections. We have previously applied 3-D computational modeling and bioinformatics to discover novel antigens that target more than one human pathogen. Active and passive immunization with the recombinant N-terminus of Candida albicans Hyr1 (rHyr1p-N) protect mice against lethal candidemia. Here we determine that Hyr1p shares homology with cell surface proteins of the multidrug resistant Gram negative bacterium, Acinetobacter baumannii including hemagglutinin (FhaB) and outer membrane protein A (OmpA)...
May 10, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745728/aspergillus-ochraceopetaliformis-ssp13-modulates-quorum-sensing-regulated-virulence-and-biofilm-formation-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-pao1
#16
Subhaswaraj Pattnaik, Tanveer Ahmed, Sampath Kumar Ranganathan, Dinakara Rao Ampasala, V Venkateswara Sarma, Siddharha Busi
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic nosocomial pathogen causing the majority of acute and persistent infections in human beings. The ability to form biofilm adds a new dimension to its resistance to conventional therapeutic agents. In the present study, down-regulation of quorum sensing regulated virulence and biofilm development resulting from exposure to Aspergillus ochraceopetaliformis SSP13 extract was investigated. The in vitro results inferred impairment in the production of LasA protease, LasB elastase, chitinase, pyocyanin, exopolysaccharides and rhamnolipids...
May 10, 2018: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745213/-bacterial-quorum-sensing-cooperation-and-cheating
#17
Bai Min Lai, Mei Zhen Wang, Dong Sheng Shen
Quorum sensing (QS), a cell-to-cell communication, regulates a variety of social beha-viors, such as biofilm formation, public goods produce and gene horizontal transfer of bacteria. In the process of quorum sensing, public goods could be utilized by any members in the population, which was termed as cooperation. Notably, public goods also could be shared by the individuals who could not produce them, which was termed as cheating. Once cheaters come up, they possibly maintain equilibrium with cooperators, meanwhile they also possibly induce the collapse of population due to their rapid growth and shortage of public goods...
May 18, 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745132/monitoring-metabolic-reactions-in-staphylococcus-epidermidis-exposed-to-silicon-nitride-using-in-situ-time-lapse-raman-spectroscopy
#18
Francesco Boschetto, Tetsuya Adachi, Satoshi Horiguchi, Danny Fainozzi, Fulvio Parmigiani, Elia Marin, Wenliang Zhu, Bryan McEntire, Toshiro Yamamoto, Narisato Kanamura, Osam Mazda, Eriko Ohgitani, Giuseppe Pezzotti
Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) is one of the leading nosocomial pathogens, particularly associated with periprosthetic infections of biomedical implants. Silicon nitride (Si3N4), a nonoxide biomaterial widely used in spinal implants, has shown bacteriostatic effects against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria; however, the physicochemical interactions between Si3N4 and bacteria yet remain conspicuously unexplored. In situ time-lapse Raman spectroscopic experiments were conducted by exposing S...
May 2018: Journal of Biomedical Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744214/comparison-of-biofilm-formation-and-migration-of-streptococcus-mutans-on-tooth-roots-and-titanium-miniscrews
#19
Kittipong Laosuwan, Don Jeevanie Epasinghe, Zhaoming Wu, Wai Keung Leung, David William Green, Han Sung Jung
Periodontitis and peri-implantitis are inflammatory diseases caused by periodontal pathogenic bacteria leading to destruction of supporting periodontal/peri-implant tissue. However, the progression of inflammatory process of these two diseases is different. The bacterial biofilm is the source of bacteria during the inflammatory process. As the bacteria migrate down the surface of tooth or titanium implant, the inflammation spreads along with it. Streptococcus mutans has an important role in oral bacterial biofilm formation in early stage biofilm before the microbiota shift to late stage and become more virulent...
April 2018: Clinical and Experimental Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741243/antibacterial-potential-of-phytochemicals-alone-or-in-combination-with-antimicrobials-against-fish-pathogenic-bacteria
#20
G Bandeira Junior, F J Sutili, L T Gressler, V L Ely, B P Silveira, C Tasca, M Reghelin, L B Matter, A P C Vargas, B Baldisserotto
AIMS: This study investigated the antibacterial activity of five phytochemicals (carvacrol, citral, eugenol, linalool, and thymol) alone or in combination with florfenicol or oxytetracycline against bacteria isolated from silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen). We also analyzed the potential of these compounds to inhibit biofilm formation and hemolysis caused by the bacteria. METHODS AND RESULTS: Bacteria were tested with antimicrobials to calculate the multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR)...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
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