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pathogenicity and biofilm formation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088288/a-novel-mouse-model-of-staphylococcus-aureus-vascular-graft-infection-noninvasive-imaging-of-biofilm-development-in%C3%A2-vivo
#1
Hélène Van de Vyver, Philipp R Bovenkamp, Verena Hoerr, Katrin Schwegmann, Lorena Tuchscherr, Silke Niemann, Laura Kursawe, Christina Grosse, Annette Moter, Uwe Hansen, Ute Neugebauer, Michael T Kuhlmann, Georg Peters, Sven Hermann, Bettina Löffler
Staphylococcus aureus causes very serious infections of vascular grafts. Knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of this disease is largely lacking because of the absence of representable models. Therefore, the aim of this study was to set up a mouse model of vascular graft infections that closely mimics the human situation. A catheter was inserted into the right carotid artery of mice, which acted as a vascular graft. Mice were infected i.v. using 8 different S. aureus strains, and development of the infection was followed up...
January 4, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087612/biofilm-formation-and-antimicrobial-resistance-genes-of-coagulase-negative-staphylococci-isolated-from-cows-with-mastitis-in-argentina
#2
Mariela E Srednik, Yannick D N Tremblay, Josée Labrie, Marie Archambault, Mario Jacques, Fernández Cirelli Alicia, Elida R Gentilini
Mastitis affects the health and welfare of dairy cows worldwide. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are known to form biofilms and are increasingly recognized as a cause of persistent bovine intramammary infections. A total of 90 CNS isolated from cows with clinical and subclinical mastitis in Argentina from 2008-2014 were identified by PCR-RFLP using the gap gene. Standard microtiter plate assays were used to assess CNS biofilm formation and Staphylococcus haemolyticus species formed the strongest biofilms...
January 12, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087484/inhibition-of-bacterial-adhesion-and-biofilm-formation-by-dual-functional-textured-and-nitric-oxide-releasing-surfaces
#3
Li-Chong Xu, Yaqi Wo, Mark E Meyerhoff, Christopher A Siedlecki
: In separate prior studies, physical topographic surface modification or nitric oxide (NO) release has been demonstrated to each be an effective approach to inhibit and control bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation on polymeric surfaces. Such approaches can prevent biomaterial-associated infection without causing the antibiotic resistance of the strain. In this work, both techniques were successfully integrated and applied to a polyurethane (PU) biomaterial surface that bears ordered pillar topographies (400/400 nm and 500/500 nm patterns) at the top surface and a S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP, NO donor) doped sub-layer in the middle, via a soft lithography two-stage replication process...
January 10, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081265/the-plasmin-sensitive-protein-pls-in-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa-is-a-glycoprotein
#4
Isabelle Bleiziffer, Julian Eikmeier, Gottfried Pohlentz, Kathryn McAulay, Guoqing Xia, Muzaffar Hussain, Andreas Peschel, Simon Foster, Georg Peters, Christine Heilmann
Most bacterial glycoproteins identified to date are virulence factors of pathogenic bacteria, i.e. adhesins and invasins. However, the impact of protein glycosylation on the major human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus remains incompletely understood. To study protein glycosylation in staphylococci, we analyzed lysostaphin lysates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains by SDS-PAGE and subsequent periodic acid-Schiff's staining. We detected four (>300, ∼250, ∼165, and ∼120 kDa) and two (>300 and ∼175 kDa) glycosylated surface proteins with strain COL and strain 1061, respectively...
January 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077265/a-smart-aminoglycoside-hydrogel-with-tunable-gel-degradation-on-demand-drug-release-and-high-antibacterial-activity
#5
Jingjing Hu, Yanchun Quan, Yuping Lai, Zhao Zheng, Zhiqi Hu, Xinyu Wang, Tianjiao Dai, Qiang Zhang, Yiyun Cheng
Aminoglycosides are a family of critically important antibiotics for the treatment of serious infections including multidrug-resistant pathogens. However, clinical use of aminoglycoside antibiotics is compromised by bacterial biofilm formation at subinhibitory concentrations or adverse side effects such as ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity at high antibiotic doses. Preparation of aminoglycoside formulation that allows on-demand drug delivery is a solution to this sticky issue. Here, we designed a new type of aminoglycoside hydrogels by cross-linking oxidized polysaccharides such as dextran, carboxymethyl cellulose, alginate, and chondroitin using aminoglycosides as cross-linkers...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076372/bad-to-the-bone-on-in-vitro-and-ex-vivo-microbial-biofilm-ability-to-directly-destroy-colonized-bone-surfaces-without-participation-of-host-immunity-or-osteoclastogenesis
#6
Adam Junka, Patrycja Szymczyk, Grzegorz Ziółkowski, Ewa Karuga-Kuzniewska, Danuta Smutnicka, Iwona Bil-Lula, Marzenna Bartoszewicz, Susan Mahabady, Parish Paymon Sedghizadeh
Bone infections are a significant public health burden associated with morbidity and mortality in patients. Microbial biofilm pathogens are the causative agents in chronic osteomyelitis. Research on the pathogenesis of osteomyelitis has focused on indirect bone destruction by host immune cells and cytokines secondary to microbial insult. Direct bone resorption by biofilm pathogens has not yet been seriously considered. In this study, common osteomyelitis pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, and Streptococcus mutans) were grown as biofilms in multiple in vitro and ex vivo experiments to analyze quantitative and qualitative aspects of bone destruction during infection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073812/the-conserved-hypothetical-protein-pspto_3957-is-essential-for-virulence-in-the-plant-pathogen-pseudomonas-syringae-pv-tomato-dc3000
#7
Katherine D'Amico, Melanie J Filiatrault
The plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae accounts for substantial crop losses and is considered an important agricultural issue. To better manage disease in the field, it is important to have an understanding of the underlying genetic mechanisms that mediate virulence. There are a substantial number of genes in sequenced bacterial genomes, including P. syringae, that encode for conserved hypothetical proteins; some of these have been functionally characterized in other Pseudomonads and have been demonstrated to play important roles in disease...
January 10, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067424/human-pathogens-in-plant-biofilms-formation-physiology-and-detection
#8
REVIEW
Eduardo Ximenes, Lori Hoagland, Seockmo Ku, Xuan Li, Michael Ladisch
Fresh produce, viewed as an essential part of a healthy life style, usually consumed in the form of raw or minimally processed fruits and vegetables, is a potentially important source of food-borne disease including human pathogenic bacteria and viruses. These are passed on to the consumer since the bacteria can form biofilms or otherwise populate plant tissues, thereby using plants as vectors to infect animal hosts. The life cycle of the bacteria in plants differs from those in animals or humans and results in altered physiochemical and biological properties (e...
January 9, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067350/enzyme-responsive-reporter-molecules-for-selective-localization-and-fluorescence-imaging-of-pathogenic-biofilms
#9
Junxin Aw, Frances Widjaja, Yichen Ding, Jing Mu, Yang Liang, Bengang Xing
Pathogenic bacteria and their biofilm formation are responsible for a broad spectrum of microbial infections. A novel enzyme-responsive reporter molecule (ERM-1), which can specifically recognize AmpC β-lactamase (Bla) in drug resistant bacteria, has been developed to enable the selective localization of biofilms.
January 9, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066817/transcriptional-profiling-of-the-oral-pathogen-streptococcus-mutans-in-response-to-competence-signaling-peptide-xip
#10
Iwona B Wenderska, Andrew Latos, Benjamin Pruitt, Sara Palmer, Grace Spatafora, Dilani B Senadheera, Dennis G Cvitkovitch
In the cariogenic Streptococcus mutans, competence development is regulated by the ComRS signaling system comprised of the ComR regulator and the ComS prepeptide to the competence signaling peptide XIP (ComX-inducing peptide). Aside from competence development, XIP signaling has been demonstrated to regulate cell lysis, and recently, the expression of bacteriocins, small antimicrobial peptides used by bacteria to inhibit closely related species. Our study further explores the effect of XIP signaling on the S...
January 2017: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065820/bioavailability-enhanced-resveramax%C3%A2-modulates-quorum-sensing-and-inhibits-biofilm-formation-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-pao1
#11
H S Vasavi, H V Sudeep, H B Lingaraju, K Shyam Prasad
Quorum sensing (QS), a cell-to-cell communication mechanism present in many bacterial species plays a key role in regulating the virulence factor and biofilm formation in many pathogens, which causes severe public health risk. Therefore, interfering with QS mechanism offers an attractive strategy to combat bacterial infections. In the present study, anti-QS activity of a novel resveratrol formulation, Resveramax™, was detected using Chromobacterium violaceum biosensor bioassay and the effect of Resveramax on QS-regulated phenotypes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 was assessed by standard protocols...
January 5, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065676/rhamnolipids-from-non-pathogenic-burkholderia-thailandensis-e264-physicochemical-characterization-antimicrobial-and-antibiofilm-efficacy-against-oral-hygiene-related-pathogens
#12
Mohamed Elshikh, Scott Funston, Alif Chebbi, Syed Ahmed, Roger Marchant, Ibrahim M Banat
Biosurfactants are naturally occurring surface active compounds that have mainly been exploited for environmental applications and consumer products, with their biomedical efficacy an emerging area of research. Rhamnolipids area major group of biosurfactants that have been reported for their antimicrobial and antibiofilm efficacy. One of the main limiting factors for scaled up production and downstream applications of rhamnolipids is the fact that they are predominantly produced from the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa...
January 5, 2017: New Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063305/inhibitory-effects-of-lactobacillus-rhamnosus-and-lactobacillus-casei-on-candida-biofilm-of-denture-surface
#13
Young-Gyun Song, Sung-Hoon Lee
OBJECTIVE: Candida albicans biofilm is associated with denture-related stomatitis and oral candidiasis of elderly. Probiotics are beneficial bacteria and have antibacterial activity against pathogenic bacteria. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antifungal activity of various probiotics against C. albicans and the inhibitory effects of probiotics on Candida biofilm on the denture surface. DESIGN: The spent culture media of various probiotics were investigated the antifungal efficacy against C...
December 31, 2016: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062003/identification-of-genes-involved-in-mycoplasma-gallisepticum-biofilm-formation-using-mini-tn4001-sgm-transposon-mutagenesis
#14
Yang Wang, Li Yi, Fanqing Zhang, Xusheng Qiu, Lei Tan, Shengqing Yu, Xiangchao Cheng, Chan Ding
Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) is an important pathogen that can cause chronic respiratory disease in chickens and infectious sinusitis in turkeys. MG has the ability to form biofilms. The molecular mechanisms underlying MG biofilm formation are complex and poorly understood. To better understand the mechanisms involved in biofilm formation, mini-Tn4001-SGM, a novel transposon vector containing the gentamicin gene was constructed and electroporated into MG strain Rlow. Of the 738 mutants obtained, 12 had significantly reduced capacity to form biofilms in a polystyrene microtiter-plate biofilm assay...
January 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056743/antimicrobial-peptides-for-the-control-of-biofilm-formation
#15
Mercedes González Moreno, Lisa Lombardi, Mariagrazia Di Luca
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are an abundant and varied group of molecules recognized as the most ancient components of the innate immune system. They are found in a wide group of organisms including bacteria, plants and animals as a defense mechanism against different kinds of infectious pathogens. Over the past two decades, a fast-growing number of AMPs have been identified/designed and their wide-spectrum antimicrobial activity has been deeply investigated. In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in the use of AMPs as alternative anti-biofilm molecules for the control of biofilm-related infections...
January 5, 2017: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056742/fungal-biofilm-a-real-obstacle-against-an-efficient-therapy-lessons-from-candida
#16
Thaís Pereira de Mello, Lívia de Souza Ramos, Lys Adriana Braga-Silva, Marta Helena Branquinha, André Luis Souza Dos Santos
The past decades have witnessed a dramatic increase in invasive fungal infections, especially caused by different species belonging to the Candida genus. Nowadays, even after many improvements in several medical procedures, Candida infections (candidiasis) still account for an unacceptable high rate of morbimortality in hospital settings. Corroborating this statement, fungal biofilms formed on both abiotic and living surfaces are responsible for an important medical and economic burden, since biofilm lifestyle confers numerous advantages to the pathogens, including high tolerance to environmental stresses such as antimicrobials and host immune responses...
January 5, 2017: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053670/the-complete-genome-sequence-of-cronobacter-sakazakii-atcc-29544-t-a-food-borne-pathogen-isolated-from-a-child-s-throat
#17
Seongok Kim, You-Tae Kim, Hyunjin Yoon, Ju-Hoon Lee, Sangryeol Ryu
BACKGROUND: Cronobacter sakazakii is an emerging opportunistic pathogen that is associated with rare but life-threatening cases of severe diseases: meningitis, necrotizing enterocolitis, and sepsis in premature and full-term infants. However, the pathogenesis mechanism of this pathogen remains largely unknown. To determine its pathogenesis at the genomic level, the genome of C. sakazakii ATCC 29544(T) was completely sequenced and analyzed. RESULTS: The genomic DNA, containing a circular chromosome and three plasmids, is composed of 4,511,265 bp with a GC content of 56...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049617/synthesis-of-antimicrobial-glucosamides-as-bacterial-quorum-sensing-mechanism-inhibitors
#18
Nripendra N Biswas, Tsz Tin Yu, Önder Kimyon, Shashidhar Nizalapur, Christopher R Gardner, Mike Manefield, Renate Griffith, David StC Black, Naresh Kumar
Bacteria communicate with one another and regulate their pathogenicity through a phenomenon known as quorum sensing (QS). When the bacterial colony reaches a threshold density, the QS system induces the production of virulence factors and the formation of biofilms, a powerful defence system against the host's immune responses. The glucosamine monomer has been shown to disrupt the bacterial QS system by inhibiting autoinducer (AI) signalling molecules such as the acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs). In this study, the synthesis of acetoxy-glucosamides 8, hydroxy-glucosamides 9 and 3-oxo-glucosamides 12 was performed via the 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC·HCl) and N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC) coupling methods...
December 21, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049145/the-fumarate-reductase-of-bacteroides-thetaiotaomicron-unlike-that-of-escherichia-coli-is-configured-so-that-it-does-not-generate-reactive-oxygen-species
#19
Zheng Lu, James A Imlay
: The impact of oxidative stress upon organismal fitness is most apparent in the phenomenon of obligate anaerobiosis. The root cause may be multifaceted, but the intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) likely plays a key role. ROS are formed when redox enzymes accidentally transfer electrons to oxygen rather than to their physiological substrates. In this study, we confirm that the predominant intestinal anaerobe Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron generates intracellular ROS at a very high rate when it is aerated...
January 3, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046077/an-oxygen-sensing-two-component-system-in-the-burkholderia-cepacia-complex-regulates-biofilm-intracellular-invasion-and-pathogenicity
#20
Matthew M Schaefers, Tiffany L Liao, Nicole M Boisvert, Damien Roux, Deborah Yoder-Himes, Gregory P Priebe
Burkholderia dolosa is a member of the Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC), which is a group of bacteria that cause chronic lung infection in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and can be associated with outbreaks carrying high morbidity and mortality. While investigating the genomic diversity of B. dolosa strains collected from an outbreak among CF patients, we previously identified fixL as a gene showing signs of strong positive selection. This gene has homology to fixL of the rhizobial FixL/FixJ two-component system...
January 2017: PLoS Pathogens
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