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antibiotic resistance and biofilm formation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731269/biofilm-formation-and-antibiotic-resistance-in-klebsiella-pneumoniae-urinary-strains
#1
Claudia Vuotto, Francesca Longo, Chiara Pascolini, Gianfranco Donelli, Maria Pia Balice, Maria Francesca Libori, Valentina Tiracchia, Antonino Salvia, Pietro Emanuele Varaldo
AIMS: Multi-drug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae has become a relevant healthcare-associated pathogen. Capsule, type 1 and 3 fimbriae (mrkA gene), type 2 quorum-sensing system (luxS), synthesis of D-galactan I (wbbM), LPS transport (wzm) and poly-beta-1,6-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (pgaA) seem involved in K. pneumoniae biofilm. Non-enzymatic antibiotic resistance is related to non-expression or mutation of porins (OmpK35 and OmpK36), and efflux pump (acrB) over-expression. The aim of this study was to analyse some virulence factors of K...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721848/evaluation-of-biofilm-specific-antimicrobial-resistance-genes-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-isolates-in-farabi-hospital
#2
Mahmood Saffari, Shabnam Karami, Farzaneh Firoozeh, Mojtaba Sehat
BACKGROUND: Biofilm produced from Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the cause of infection induced by contact lenses, trauma and post-surgery infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate biofilm formation and the presence of the genes ndvB and tssC1 in ocular infection isolates of P. aeruginosa. METHODS: A total of 92 P. aeruginosa strains were collected from patients with ocular infection referred to Farabi Hospital between March 2014 and July 2015. Antibiotic susceptibility patterns were evaluated by the agar disc-diffusion method according to CLSI guidelines...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720810/biofilm-formation-in-enterococci-genotype-phenotype-correlations-and-inhibition-by-vancomycin
#3
Yomna A Hashem, Heba M Amin, Tamer M Essam, Aymen S Yassin, Ramy K Aziz
Enterococci are nosocomial pathogens that can form biofilms, which contribute to their virulence and antibiotic resistance. Although many genes involved in biofilm formation have been defined, their distribution among enterococci has not been comprehensively studied on a genome scale, and their diagnostic ability to predict biofilm phenotypes is not fully established. Here, we assessed the biofilm-forming ability of 90 enterococcal clinical isolates. Major patterns of virulence gene distribution in enterococcal genomes were identified, and the differentiating virulence genes were screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 31 of the clinical isolates...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719354/thymol-and-carvacrol-strongly-inhibit-biofilm-formation-and-growth-of-carbapenemase-producing-gram-negative-bacilli
#4
P Raei, T Pourlak, M Y Memar, N Alizadeh, M Aghamali, E Zeinalzadeh, M Asgharzadeh, H S Kafil
Discovery of novel drugs with new mechanisms of action and without cross-reaction with current therapeutic agents is crucial in the management of infections caused by multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria. The aim of the present study was to investigate effects of carvacrol and thymol on biofilm formation and antimicrobial activity against different carbapenemase-producing Gram negative bacilli. The antimicrobial and antibiofilm effect of thymol and carvacrol was investigated against strains harboring different genes related to carbapenemase resistance...
May 20, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717038/a-human-biofilm-disrupting-monoclonal-antibody-potentiates-antibiotic-efficacy-in-rodent-models-of-both-staphylococcus-aureus-and-acinetobacter-baumannii-infections
#5
Yan Q Xiong, Angeles Estellés, L Li, W Abdelhady, R Gonzales, Arnold S Bayer, Edgar Tenorio, Anton Leighton, Stefan Ryser, Lawrence M Kauvar
Many serious bacterial infections are antibiotic-refractory due to biofilm formation. A key structural component of biofilm is extracellular DNA which is stabilized by bacterial proteins, including those from the DNABII family. TRL1068 is a high affinity human monoclonal antibody against a DNABII epitope conserved across both gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial species. In the current study, the efficacy of TRL1068 for disruption of biofilm was demonstrated in vitro in the absence of antibiotics by scanning electron microscopy...
July 17, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710559/aloe-emodin-inhibits-staphylococcus-aureus-biofilms-and-extracellular-protein-production-at-the-initial-adhesion-stage-of-biofilm-development
#6
Hua Xiang, Fengjiao Cao, Di Ming, Yanyang Zheng, Xiaoyun Dong, Xiaobo Zhong, Dan Mu, Bangbang Li, Ling Zhong, Junjie Cao, Lin Wang, Hongxia Ma, Tiedong Wang, Dacheng Wang
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) biofilms are clinically serious and play a critical role in the persistence of chronic infections due to their ability to resist antibiotics. The inhibition of biofilm formation is viewed as a new strategy for the prevention of S. aureus infections. Here, we demonstrated that minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of aloe-emodin exhibited no bactericidal activity against S. aureus but affected S. aureus biofilm development in a dose-dependent manner. Further studies indicated that aloe-emodin specifically inhibits the initial adhesion and proliferation stages of S...
July 15, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710012/antibiofilm-activity-of-vetiveria-zizanioides-root-extract-against-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#7
Arunachalam Kannappan, Shanmugaraj Gowrishankar, Ramanathan Srinivasan, Shunmugiah Karutha Pandian, Arumugam Veera Ravi
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a leading human pathogen responsible for causing chronic clinical manifestation worldwide. In addition to antibiotic resistance genes viz. mecA and vanA, biofilm formation plays a prominent role in the pathogenicity of S. aureus by enhancing its resistance to existing antibiotics. Considering the role of folk medicinal plants in the betterment of human health from the waves of multidrug resistant bacterial infections, the present study was intended to explore the effect of Vetiveria zizanioides root on the biofilm formation of MRSA and its clinical counterparts...
July 11, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709374/nanoparticles-as-efflux-pump-and-biofilm-inhibitor-to-rejuvenate-bactericidal-effect-of-conventional-antibiotics
#8
REVIEW
Divya Gupta, Ajeet Singh, Asad U Khan
The universal problem of bacterial resistance to antibiotic reflects a serious threat for physicians to control infections. Evolution in bacteria results in the development of various complex resistance mechanisms to neutralize the bactericidal effect of antibiotics, like drug amelioration, target modification, membrane permeability reduction, and drug extrusion through efflux pumps. Efflux pumps acquire a wide range of substrate specificity and also the tremendous efficacy for drug molecule extrusion outside bacterial cells...
December 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700050/characterization-of-biofilm-formation-antimicrobial-resistance-and-staphylococcal-cassette-chromosome-mec-analysis-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-hominis-from-blood-cultures-of-children
#9
Setareh Soroush, Fereshteh Jabalameli, Morovat Taherikalani, Mohammad Amin Eslampour, Reza Beigverdi, Mohammad Emaneini
INTRODUCTION: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus hominis (MRSHo) has been recognized as an important human pathogen, particularly in immunocompromised patients. METHODS: A total of 19 S. hominis isolates were collected from children at the Children's Medical Centre, Tehran, Iran, from March 2012 to February 2013. MRSHo susceptibility against 13 antimicrobial and 3 antiseptic agents was determined using disk diffusion (DAD) and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), respectively...
May 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698584/a-novel-stk1-targeted-small-molecule-as-an-antibiotic-resistance-breaker-against-multidrug-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#10
Sashi Kant, Shailendra Asthana, Dominique Missiakas, Vijay Pancholi
Ser/Thr protein kinase (STK1) plays a critical role in cell wall biosynthesis of and drug resistance in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). MRSA strains lacking STK1 become susceptible to failing cephalosporins, such as Ceftriaxone and Cefotaxime. STK1, despite being nonessential protein for MRSA survival, it can serve as an important therapeutic agent for combination therapy. Here, we report a novel small molecule quinazoline compound, Inh2-B1, which specifically inhibits STK1 activity by directly binding to its ATP-binding catalytic domain...
July 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697438/assessment-of-the-correlation-among-antibiotic-resistance-adherence-to-abiotic-and-biotic-surfaces-invasion-and-cytotoxicity-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-isolated-from-diseased-gilthead-sea-bream
#11
Faouzi Lamari, Ibtissem Chakroun, Sami Rtimi
Improper uses of antibiotics to treat fish disease pose an increase of multidrug resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In order to escape host antimicrobial agents and induce cytotoxicity, different virulence properties are needed by these bacteria such as, biofilm formation, adhesion and invasion ability. This study was conducted to isolate Pseudomonas aeruginosa from diseased cultured gilthead sea bream. Seventeen isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were identified by PCR. All of the isolates tested were susceptible to Gentamicin and Ciprofloxacin...
July 1, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690040/bioactivity-of-ceftazidime-and-fluconazole-included-in-polymethyl-methacrylate-bone-cement-for-use-in-arthroplasty
#12
J Martínez-Moreno, V Merino, A Nácher, J L Rodrigo, Blanca B Bonet Yuste, M Merino-Sanjuán
BACKGROUND: The microorganisms that most frequently cause prosthetic joint infection are methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and gram-negative aerobic bacillus. Studies have documented the efficacy of mixing antibiotics with polymethyl methacrylate, but that of antifungal drugs has not received much attention. The objective of this in vitro study was to characterize the elution profile and bioactivity of ceftazidime and fluconazole when incorporated into bone cement in proportions intended for prophylaxis and treatment of bone infections...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690026/antimicrobial-peptides-as-potential-anti-biofilm-agents-against-multidrug-resistant-bacteria
#13
REVIEW
Pooi Yin Chung, Ramona Khanum
Bacterial resistance to commonly used drugs has become a global health problem, causing increased infection cases and mortality rate. One of the main virulence determinants in many bacterial infections is biofilm formation, which significantly increases bacterial resistance to antibiotics and innate host defence. In the search to address the chronic infections caused by biofilms, antimicrobial peptides (AMP) have been considered as potential alternative agents to conventional antibiotics. Although AMPs are commonly considered as the primitive mechanism of immunity and has been extensively studied in insects and non-vertebrate organisms, there is now increasing evidence that AMPs also play a crucial role in human immunity...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688010/quorum-sensing-molecules-production-by-nosocomial-and-soil-isolates-acinetobacter-baumannii
#14
Demet Erdönmez, Abbas Yousefi Rad, Nilüfer Aksöz
Acinetobacter species remain alive in hospitals on various surfaces, both dry and moist, forming an important source of hospital infections. These bacteria are naturally resistant to many antibiotic classes. Although the role of the quorum sensing system in regulating the virulence factors of Acinetobacter species has not been fully elucidated, it has been reported that they play a role in bacterial biofilm formation. The biofilm formation helps them to survive under unfavorable growth conditions and antimicrobial treatments...
July 7, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687321/in%C3%A2-vitro-antibiofilm-efficacy-of-piper-betle-against-quorum-sensing-mediated-biofilm-formation-of-luminescent-vibrio-harveyi
#15
Ramanathan Srinivasan, Sivasubramanian Santhakumari, Arumugam Veera Ravi
Vibrio harveyi is a potent biofilm former, which confers resistance to multiple antimicrobials, disinfectants, chemicals and biocides. The prevalence of biofilm mediated antibiotic resistance among aquatic bacterial pathogens stresses the search for novel alternative approach to treat vibriosis in aquaculture. Exploring suitable therapeutics from natural resources could be a novel area of research. Therefore, this work was executed to evaluate the inhibitory effect of Piper betle ethyl acetate extract (PBE) on bioluminescence production and biofilm formation of V...
July 4, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687320/vancomycin-induced-biofilm-formation-by-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-is-associated-with-the-secretion-of-membrane-vesicles
#16
Xinlong He, Fenglai Yuan, Feng Lu, Yinyan Yin, Jun Cao
Chronic burn wound infections caused by Stapyhylococcus aureus (S. aureus) are largely associated with biofilm formation. However, the mechanism by which S. aureus form biofilm in clinical environments is far less understood. In the present study we addressed the association between biofilm formation and membrane vesicle (MV) secretion of S. aureus during vancomycin treatment. A representative methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strain BWMR22 obtained from a chronic burn wound was used in this study...
July 4, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685097/restructuring-of-enterococcus-faecalis-biofilm-architecture-in-response-to-antibiotic-induced-stress
#17
Jennifer L Dale, Jennifer L Nilson, Aaron M T Barnes, Gary M Dunny
Bacterial biofilms are intrinsically resistant to antimicrobial treatment, which contributes to microbial persistence in clinical infections. Enterococcus faecalis is an opportunistic pathogen that readily forms biofilms and is the most prevalent enterococcal species identified in healthcare-associated infections. Since intrinsic resistance to multiple antibiotics is common for enterococci, and antibiotic resistance is elevated in biofilm populations, it is imperative to understand the mechanisms involved. Previously, we identified two glycosyltransferase genes whose disruption resulted in impaired nascent biofilm formation in the presence of antibiotic concentrations subinhibitory for parent growth and biofilm formation...
2017: NPJ Biofilms and Microbiomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680970/nbiochip-a-lab-on-a-chip-platform-of-mono-and-polymicrobial-biofilms-for-high-throughput-downstream-applications
#18
Anand Srinivasan, Nelson S Torres, Kai P Leung, Jose L Lopez-Ribot, Anand K Ramasubramanian
Current in vitro techniques for the culture of microorganisms, and particularly of delicate microbial biofilms, are still mostly limited to low-density plates and manual labor and are not amenable to automation and true high-throughput (HT) applications. We have developed a novel fully automated platform for the formation of mono- and polymicrobial biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans at the nanoscale level. The nBioChip is robotically printed, robustly handled, and scanned using a standard microarray reader...
May 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678862/pseudomonas-aeruginosa-cells-attached-to-a-surface-display-a-typical-proteome-early-as-20-minutes-of-incubation
#19
Marc Crouzet, Stéphane Claverol, Anne-Marie Lomenech, Caroline Le Sénéchal, Patricia Costaglioli, Christophe Barthe, Bertrand Garbay, Marc Bonneu, Sébastien Vilain
Biofilms are present in all environments and often result in negative effects due to properties of the biofilm lifestyle and especially antibiotics resistance. Biofilms are associated with chronic infections. Controlling bacterial attachment, the first step of biofilm formation, is crucial for fighting against biofilm and subsequently preventing the persistence of infection. Thus deciphering the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in attachment could allow discovering molecular targets from it would be possible to develop inhibitors against bacterial colonization and potentiate antibiotherapy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675109/titanium-surfaces-immobilized-with-the-major-antimicrobial-fragment-fk-16-of-human-cathelicidin-ll-37-are-potent-against-multiple-antibiotic-resistant-bacteria
#20
Biswajit Mishra, Guangshun Wang
Infections on implanted medical devices are a challenging problem, especially when bacteria form difficult-to-treat biofilms. Antimicrobial peptides are considered to be a solution due to their potency against antibiotic-resistant superbugs. Previously, the authors' laboratory demonstrated the prevention of staphylococcal biofilm formation in an animal catheter model by injecting merecidin (formerly known as 17BIPHE2), a peptide engineered based on the only human cathelicidin. This study documents an alternative solution via covalent immobilization of FK-16, amino acid sequence FKRIVQRIKDFLRNLV-amide, which corresponds to the major antimicrobial region (residues 17-32) of LL-37...
July 4, 2017: Biofouling
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