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antibiotic resistance and biofilm formation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435260/development-of-gold-nanoparticles-coated-with-silica-containing-the-antibiofilm-drug-cinnamaldehyde-and-their-effects-on-pathogenic-bacteria
#1
Mohankandhasamy Ramasamy, Jin-Hyung Lee, Jintae Lee
Emerging resistance to antibiotics is a mounting worldwide health concern and increases the need for nonantibiotic strategies to combat infectious diseases caused by bacterial pathogens. In this study, the authors used the antibiofilm activity of the naturally occurring antimicrobial cinnamaldehyde (CNMA) conjugated to the surface of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) to deliver CNMA efficiently and eradicate biofilms of Gram-negative organisms (enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa), Gram positive (methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus organisms, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434261/strategies-to-prevent-infections-associated-with-cardiovascular-implantable-electronic-devices
#2
Bharath Raj Palraj, Saira Farid, M Rizwan Sohail
Infections involving cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIED) are associated with high morbidity and mortality and substantial financial cost. In the past two decades, the rate of CIED infections has increased disproportionate to the number of devices implanted, likely due to aging patient population with multiple comorbidities. Microbial contamination of the generator pocket and or leads by skin flora at the time of implantation is a major mechanism for early CIED infections. Due to resistance to host immune cells and antibiotics caused by biofilm formation, complete removal of the device generator and leads is required to achieve cure...
April 24, 2017: Expert Review of Medical Devices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433610/paraoxonases-and-infectious-diseases
#3
REVIEW
Jordi Camps, Simona Iftimie, Anabel García-Heredia, Antoni Castro, Jorge Joven
The paraoxonases (PON1, PON2 and PON3) are an enzyme family with a high structural homology. All of them have lactonase activity and degrade lipid peroxides in lipoproteins and cells. As such, they play a role in protection against oxidation and inflammation. Infectious diseases are often associated with oxidative stress and an inflammatory response. Infection and inflammation trigger a cascade of reactions in the host, known as the acute-phase response. This response is associated with dramatic changes in serum proteins and lipoproteins, including a decrease in serum PON1 activity...
April 19, 2017: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421881/factors-pivotal-for-designing-of-nanoantimicrobials-an-exposition
#4
Bushra Jamil, Muhammad Imran
Understanding the interplay between bacterial pathogens and antimicrobials is a key to realize the control over infections causing morbidity and mortality. An important current issue of contemporary medicine and microbiology is the search for new strategies for adequate therapy of infectious diseases associated with rapidly emerging multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens. Recently, a great deal of progress has been made in the field of nanobiotechnology towards the development of various nanoantimicrobials (NAMs) as novel therapeutic solution...
April 19, 2017: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420074/natural-pathogen-control-chemistry-to-replace-toxic-treatment-of-microbes-and-biofilm-in-cooling-towers
#5
REVIEW
Lon Brouse, Richard Brouse, Daniel Brouse
Application of toxic antibacterial agents is considered necessary to control prevalent fresh water microorganisms that grow in evaporative cooling water systems, but can adversely affect the environment and human health. However, natural antibacterial water chemistry has been applied in industrial cooling water systems for over 10 years to inhibit microorganisms with excellent results. The water chemistry method concentrates natural minerals in highly-softened water to produce elevated pH and dissolved solids, while maintaining low calcium and magnesium content...
March 31, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418081/assessment-of-biofilm-removal-capacity-of-a-broad-host-range-bacteriophage-jhp-against-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#6
Muafia Shafique, Iqbal Ahmad Alvi, Zaigham Abbas, Shafiq Ur Rehman
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an efficient biofilm-dwelling microbial pathogen, associated with nosocomial infections. These biofilm-associated infections are resistant to antibiotics and immune defenses, therefore pose major problem against their treatment. This scenario demands alternative therapeutic regimens, and bacteriophage therapy is one among potential strategies for clinical management of multiple drug resistance. In this investigation, the efficacy of a bacteriophage, JHP, is evaluated to eradicate P...
April 18, 2017: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409362/the-antibacterial-agent-moxifloxacin-inhibits-virulence-factors-of-candida-albicans-through-multitargeting
#7
Ashwini Jadhav, Bhagyashree Bansode, Datta Phule, Amruta Shelar, Rajendra Patil, Wasudev Gade, Kiran Kharat, Sankunny Mohan Karuppayil
Fluoroquinolines are broad spectrum fourth generation antibiotics. Some of the Fluoroquinolines exhibit antifungal activity. We are reporting the potential mechanism of action of a fluoroquinoline antibiotic, moxifloxacin on the growth, morphogenesis and biofilm formation of the human pathogen Candida albicans. Moxifloxacin was found to be Candidacidal in nature. Moxifloxacin seems to inhibit the yeast to Hyphal morphogenesis by affecting signaling pathways. It arrested the cell cycle of C. albicans at S phase...
May 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406615/redox-sensitive-marr-homologue-bifr-from-burkholderia-thailandensis-regulates-biofilm-formation
#8
Ashish Gupta, Stanley M Fuentes, Anne Grove
Biofilm formation by pathogenic Burkholderia species is a serious complication as it renders the bacteria resistant to antibiotics and host defenses. Using B. thailandensis, we report here a novel redox-sensitive member of the multiple antibiotic resistance regulator (MarR) protein family, BifR, which represses biofilm formation. BifR is encoded as part of the emrB-bifR operon; emrB-bifR is divergent to ecsC, which encodes a putative LasA protease. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, LasA has been implicated in virulence by contributing to cleavage of elastase...
April 21, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404671/an-update-on-antimicrobial-resistance-in-clostridium-difficile-resistance-mechanisms-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-testing
#9
Zhong Peng, Dazhi Jin, Hyeun Bum Kim, Charles W Stratton, Bin Wu, Yi-Wei Tang, Xingmin Sun
Oral antibiotics such as metronidazole, vancomycin and fidaxomicin are therapies of choice for CDI. Several important mechanisms for C. difficile antibiotic resistance have been described; these include the acquisition of antibiotic resistance genes via transfer of mobile genetic elements, selective pressure in vivo resulting in gene mutations, altered expression of redox-active proteins, iron metabolism and DNA repair, as well as biofilm formation. This update summarizes new information published since 2010 on phenotypic and genotypic resistance mechanisms in C...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403796/riboswitches-as-potential-targets-for-the-development-of-anti-biofilm-drugs
#10
José A Reyes-Darias, Tino Krell
In nature, bacteria can exist as single motile cells or as sessile cellular community, known as microbial biofilms. Bacteria within biofilms are embedded in a self-produced extracellular matrix that makes them more resistant to antibiotic treatment and responses of the host immune system. Microbial biofilms are very important in medicine since they are associated with several human diseases such as dental caries, periodontitis, otitis media, infective endocarditis, infectious kidney stones, osteomyelitis or prostatitis...
April 7, 2017: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402186/inhibition-of-hafnia-alvei-h4-biofilm-formation-by-the-food-additive-dihydrocoumarin
#11
Hong Man Hou, Feng Jiang, Gong Liang Zhang, Jia Y Wang, Ya H Zhu, Xin Y Liu
Quorum sensing (QS) is an intercellular signaling and gene regulatory mechanism that is implicated in food spoilage caused by bacteria. Thus, blocking QS may suppress QS-controlled phenotypes of these bacteria that are responsible for food spoilage. Biofilm formation is closely related to bacterial infection, and it is also a major mechanism responsible for the increased resistance of biofilm-associated bacteria to antimicrobial drugs. Food spoilage and biofilm formation caused by food-related bacteria have posed a significant problem for the food industry...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398220/antibiotic-loaded-mos-sub-2-sub-nanosheets-to-combat-bacterial-resistance-via-biofilms-inhibition
#12
Xu Zhang, Wentao Zhang, Lizhi Liu, Mei Yang, Lunjie Huang, Kai Chen, Rong Wang, Baowei Yang, Daohong Zhang, Jianlong Wang
The emergence of antibiotic resistance has resulted in an increasing difficulty treating clinical infections associated with biofilms formation, one of the key processes contributed to enhance antibiotic resistance in return. With the rapid development of nanotechnology, a new way to overcome antibiotic resistance was opened up. Based on multiple properties especially antibacterial potential of MoS<sub>2</sub> nanosheets that have aroused wide attention, herein, a novel antimicrobial agent to combat resistant gram-positive <i>Staphylococcus aureus (S...
April 11, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397768/lysozyme-associated-liposomal-gentamicin-inhibits-bacterial-biofilm
#13
Yilin Hou, Zhaojie Wang, Peng Zhang, Hu Bai, Yuelin Sun, Jinyou Duan, Haibo Mu
Bacteria on living or inert surfaces usually form biofilms which make them highly resistant to antibiotics and immune clearance. Herein, we develop a simple approach to overcome the above conundrum through lysozyme-associated liposomal gentamicin (LLG). The association of lysozyme to the surface of liposomes can effectively reduce the fusion of liposomes and undesirable payload release in regular storage or physiological environments. The LLG was more effective at damaging established biofilms and inhibiting biofilm formation of pathogens including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria than gentamicin alone...
April 9, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392838/global-gene-expression-in-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-the-diseased-ocular-surface-of-the-human-eye-with-a-potential-to-form-biofilm
#14
Konduri Ranjith, Kotakonda Arunasri, Gundlapally Sathyanarayana Reddy, HariKrishna Adicherla, Savitri Sharma, Sisinthy Shivaji
BACKGROUND: Escherichia coli, the gastrointestinal commensal, is also known to cause ocular infections such as conjunctivitis, keratitis and endophthalmitis. These infections are normally resolved by topical application of an appropriate antibiotic. But, at times these E. coli are resistant to the antibiotic and this could be due to formation of a biofilm. In this study ocular E. coli from patients with conjunctivitis, keratitis or endophthalmitis were screened for their antibiotic susceptibility and biofilm formation potential...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390975/natural-isothiocyanates-express-antimicrobial-activity-against-developing-and-mature-biofilms-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#15
Stefan J Kaiser, Nico T Mutters, Brigitte Blessing, Frank Günther
BACKGROUND: The antimicrobial properties of natural isothiocyanates (ITCs) found in plants such as nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus) and horseradish (Armoracia rusticana), and the need of new chemotherapeutic options for treatment of infections caused by multidrug-resistant and biofilm-forming Gram-negative bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa), led us to evaluate the effects of three major ITCs, allylisothiocyanate (AITC), benzylisothiocyanate (BITC), and phenylethyl-isothiocyanate (PEITC), and a mixture (ITCM) adapted to the ITC composition after release of active components out of natural sources...
April 5, 2017: Fitoterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389538/pumilacidin-like-lipopeptides-derived-from-marine-bacterium-bacillus-sp-suppress-the-motility-of-vibrio-alginolyticus
#16
Pengyuan Xiu, Rui Liu, Dechao Zhang, Chaomin Sun
Bacterial motility is a crucial factor during the invasion and colonization processes of pathogens, which makes it an attractive therapeutic drug target. Here, we isolated a marine bacterium (Vibrio alginolyticus 178) from a seamount in the tropical West Pacific that exhibits vigorous motility on agar plates and severe pathogenicity to zebrafish. We found that V. alginolyticus 178 motility was significantly suppressed by another marine bacterium Bacillus sp. 176 isolated from the same niche. We isolated, purified, and characterized two different cyclic lipopeptides (CLPs) from Bacillus sp...
April 7, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386254/identification-of-ellagic-acid-rhamnoside-as-a-bioactive-component-of-a-complex-botanical-extract-with-anti-biofilm-activity
#17
Benjamin M Fontaine, Kate Nelson, James T Lyles, Parth B Jariwala, Jennifer M García-Rodriguez, Cassandra L Quave, Emily E Weinert
Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of hospital-acquired infections. It is listed among the top "serious threats" to human health in the USA, due in large part to rising rates of resistance. Many S. aureus infections are recalcitrant to antibiotic therapy due to their ability to form a biofilm, which acts not only as a physical barrier to antibiotics and the immune system, but results in differences in metabolism that further restricts antibiotic efficacy. Development of a modular strategy to synthesize a library of phenolic glycosides allowed for bioactivity testing and identification of anti-biofilm compounds within an extract of the elmleaf blackberry (Rubus ulmifolius)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378802/histones-from-avian-erythrocytes-exhibit-antibiofilm-activity-against-methicillin-sensitive-and-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#18
Megan Rose-Martel, Garima Kulshreshtha, Nahom Ahferom Berhane, Joelle Jodoin, Maxwell T Hincke
Staphylococcus aureus, a human pathogen associated with many illnesses and post-surgical infections, can resist treatment due to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains and through biofilm formation. The current treatments for chronic biofilm infections are antibiotics and/or surgical removal of the contaminated medical device. Due to higher morbidity and mortality rates associated with overuse/misuse of antibiotics, alternate treatments are essential. This study reports the antibiofilm activity of avian erythrocyte histones against methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)...
April 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377746/genome-guided-insights-into-the-plant-growth-promotion-capabilities-of-the-physiologically-versatile-bacillus-aryabhattai-strain-ab211
#19
Chandrima Bhattacharyya, Utpal Bakshi, Ivy Mallick, Shayantan Mukherji, Biswajit Bera, Abhrajyoti Ghosh
Bacillus aryabhattai AB211 is a plant growth promoting, Gram-positive firmicute, isolated from the rhizosphere of tea (Camellia sinensis), one of the oldest perennial crops and a major non-alcoholic beverage widely consumed all over the world. The whole genome of B. aryabhattai AB211 was sequenced, annotated and evaluated with special focus on genomic elements related to plant microbe interaction. It's genome sequence reveals the presence of a 5,403,026 bp chromosome. A total of 5226 putative protein-coding sequences, 16 rRNA, 120 tRNA, 8 ncRNAs, 58 non-protein coding genes, and 11 prophage regions were identified...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377314/clarithromycin-and-n-acetylcysteine-co-spray-dried-powders-for-pulmonary-drug-delivery-a-focus-on-drug-solubility
#20
Michele Dario Manniello, Pasquale Del Gaudio, Rita P Aquino, Paola Russo
Cystic fibrosis (CF) lungs are usually susceptible to Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization and this bacterium is resistant to immune system clearance and drug control. Particularly, the biofilm mode of growth protects several microorganisms from host defenses and antibacterial drugs, mainly due to a delayed penetration of the drug through the biofilm matrix. Biofilm, together with lung mucus viscosity and tenacity, reduces, therefore, the effectiveness of conventional antibiotic therapy in CF. The aim of this research was to design and develop a stable, portable, easy to use dry powder inhaler (DPI) for CF patients, able to release directly to the lung an association of macrolide antibiotics (clarithromycin) and a mucolytic agent (N-Acetyl-Cysteine)...
April 1, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
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