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lipopolysaccharide and biofilm formation

Sebastián Acosta-Jurado, Pilar Navarro-Gómez, Piedad Del Socorro Murdoch, Juan-Carlos Crespo-Rivas, Shi Jie, Lidia Cuesta-Berrio, José-Enrique Ruiz-Sainz, Miguel-Ángel Rodríguez-Carvajal, José-María Vinardell
In the rhizobia-legume symbiotic interaction, bacterial surface polysaccharides, such as exopolysaccharide (EPS), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), K-antigen polysaccharide (KPS) or cyclic glucans (CG), appear to play crucial roles either acting as signals required for the progression of the interaction and/or preventing host defence mechanisms. The symbiotic significance of each of these polysaccharides varies depending on the specific rhizobia-legume couple. In this work we show that the production of exopolysaccharide by Sinorhizobium fredii HH103, but not by other S...
2016: PloS One
Dan Xu, Wei Zhang, Bing Zhang, Chongbing Liao, Yongping Shao
Deficiency in biosynthesis of inner core of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) rendered a characteristic biofilm-forming phenotype in E. coli. The pathological implications of this new phenotype in Shigella flexneri, a highly contagious enteric Gram-negative bacteria that is closely related to E. coli, were investigated in this study. The ΔrfaC (also referred as waaC) mutant, with incomplete inner core of LPS due to deficiency in Hep biosynthesis, was characteristic of strong biofilm formation ability and exhibited much more pronounced adhesiveness and invasiveness to human epithelial cells than the parental strain and other LPS mutants, which also showed distinct pattern of F-actin recruitment...
2016: PeerJ
E Shumilova, A V Shelud'ko, Yu A Filip'echeva, S S Evstigneeva, E G Ponomareva, L P Petrova, E I Katsy
The previously obtained insertion mutants ofAzospirillum brasilense Sp245 in the genes mmsBl and fabG1 (strains SK039 and Sp245.1610, respectively) were characterized by impaired flagellation and motility. The putative products of expression of these genes are 3-hydroxyisobutyrate dehydrogenase and 3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier protein] reductase, respectively. In the present work, A. brasilense- Sp245 strains SK039 and Sp245.1610 were found to have differences in the content of 3-hydroxyhexadecanoic, hexadecanoic, 3-hydroxytetradecanoic, hexadecenoic, octadecenoic, and nonadecanoic acids in their lipopolysaccharide prepa- rations, as well as in cell hydrophobicity and hemagglutination activity and dynamics of cell aggregation, in biomass amount, and in the relative content of lipopolysaccharide antigens in mature biofilms formed on hydrophilic or hydrophobic surfaces...
March 2016: Mikrobiologiia
Kyung-Jo Lee, Mi-Ae Lee, Won Hwang, Hana Park, Kyu-Ho Lee
The extracellular polysaccharides of Vibrio vulnificus play different roles during biofilm development. Among them, the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which is crucial for bacterial adherence to surfaces during the initial stage of biofilm formation, on the formation process was examined using various types of LPS extracts. Exogenously added LPS strongly inhibited biofilm formation in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the exogenous addition of a deacylated form of LPS (dLPS) also inhibited biofilm formation...
August 2016: Biofouling
Grzegorz Czerwonka, Anna Guzy, Klaudia Kałuża, Michalina Grosicka, Magdalena Dańczuk, Łukasz Lechowicz, Dawid Gmiter, Paweł Kowalczyk, Wiesław Kaca
Biofilms formed by Proteus mirabilis strains are a serious medical problem, especially in the case of urinary tract infections. Early stages of biofilm formation, such as reversible and irreversible adhesion, are essential for bacteria to form biofilm and avoid eradication by antibiotic therapy. Adhesion to solid surfaces is a complex process where numerous factors play a role, where hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions with solid surface seem to be substantial. Cell surface hydrophobicity and electrokinetic potential of bacterial cells depend on their surface composition and structure, where lipopolysaccharide, in Gram-negative bacteria, is prevailing...
November 2016: Archives of Microbiology
Agustín Reyes-Pérez, María Del Carmen Vargas, Magdalena Hernández, Eneas Aguirre-von-Wobeser, Ernesto Pérez-Rueda, Sergio Encarnacion
Organisms belonging to the genus Rhizobium colonize leguminous plant roots and establish a mutually beneficial symbiosis. Biofilms are structured ecosystems in which microbes are embedded in a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances, and their development is a multistep process. The biofilm formation processes of R. etli CFN42 were analyzed at an early (24-h incubation) and mature stage (72 h), comparing cells in the biofilm with cells remaining in the planktonic stage. A genome-wide microarray analysis identified 498 differentially regulated genes, implying that expression of ~8...
November 2016: Archives of Microbiology
Murali Sharaff, G Archana
Cu is an essential micronutrient required during nitrogen fixation, but above threshold concentrations it becomes toxic. The present study was aimed at studying the effect of high Cu concentrations on the early plant-microbe interactions between Ensifer (Sinorhizobium) meliloti 1021, a symbiotic diazotrophic bacterium belonging to α-Proteobacteria, and its plant host Medicago truncatula. E. meliloti exhibited pleomorphism with elongated and branched growth at 100 µM Cu which brought about 50 % reduction in growth...
September 2016: Archives of Microbiology
Lei Liu, Haihong Fang, Huiying Yang, Yiquan Zhang, Yanping Han, Dongsheng Zhou, Ruifu Yang
gmhA encodes a phosphoheptose isomerase that catalyzes the biosynthesis of heptose, a conserved component of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). GmhA plays an important role in Yersinia pestis biofilm blockage in the flea gut. waaA, waaE, and coaD constitute a three-gene operon waaAE-coaD in Y. pestis. waaA encodes a transferase that is responsible for binding lipid-A to the core oligosaccharide of LPS. WaaA is a key determinant in Y. pestis biofilm formation, and the waaA expression is positively regulated by the two-component regulatory system PhoP/PhoQ...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Wee S Lim, Kevin K S Phang, Andy H-M Tan, Sam F-Y Li, Dave S-W Ow
Phage therapy involves the application of lytic bacteriophages for treatment of clinical infections but bacterial resistance may develop over time. Isolated from nosocomial infections, small colony variants (SCVs) are morphologically distinct, highly virulent bacterial strains that are resistant to conventional antibiotics. In this study, SCVs was derived from Pseudomonas aeruginosa exposed to the lytic bacteriophage PB1 and these cells were resistant to subsequent phage infection by PB1. To elucidate the mechanism of the SCV phage resistance, we performed phenotypic assays, DNA microarrays and whole-genome sequencing...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Steven Clegg, Caitlin N Murphy
Strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae are frequently opportunistic pathogens implicated in urinary tract and catheter-associated urinary-tract infections of hospitalized patients and compromised individuals. Infections are particularly difficult to treat since most clinical isolates exhibit resistance to several antibiotics leading to treatment failure and the possibility of systemic dissemination. Infections of medical devices such as urinary catheters is a major site of K. pneumoniae infections and has been suggested to involve the formation of biofilms on these surfaces...
February 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
M Bhuvaneshwari, Sakcham Bairoliya, Abhinav Parashar, N Chandrasekaran, Amitava Mukherjee
The current study was aimed to explore the differential effects on Gram-positive and Gram-negative freshwater sediment bacterial isolates upon exposure to nano-particles and bulk particles of Al2O3 at low concentrations (0.25, 0.5, and 1 mg/L). The Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa was more susceptible to both the nano-forms and bulk forms than the Gram-positive Bacillus altitudinis. The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and release of lipopolysaccharide due to membrane damage were dependent on the dose of nano-Al2O3...
June 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Taylor Martin, Ignacia Diaz, Jacquelyn Kilbourne, Oscar Almarza, Cristopher Segovia, Roy Curtiss, Javier Santander
The genus Edwardsiella consists of bacteria with an intrinsic resistance to cyclic cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs). Edwardsiella ictaluri, a pathogen of the catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and the causative agent of a systemic infection, is highly resistant to CAMPs. Previously, we determined that the oligo-polysaccharide (O-PS) of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) does not play a role in the E. ictaluri CAMP resistance and an intact core-lipid A structure is necessary for CAMPs resistance. Here, we evaluated the influence of the outer-core in the CAMPs resistance and fish virulence...
April 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
Miguel A Ares, José L Fernández-Vázquez, Roberto Rosales-Reyes, Ma Dolores Jarillo-Quijada, Kristine von Bargen, Javier Torres, Jorge A González-Y-Merchand, María D Alcántar-Curiel, Miguel A De la Cruz
Klebsiella pneumoniae is an opportunistic pathogen causing nosocomial infections. Main virulence determinants of K. pneumoniae are pili, capsular polysaccharide, lipopolysaccharide, and siderophores. The histone-like nucleoid-structuring protein (H-NS) is a pleiotropic regulator found in several gram-negative pathogens. It has functions both as an architectural component of the nucleoid and as a global regulator of gene expression. We generated a Δhns mutant and evaluated the role of the H-NS nucleoid protein on the virulence features of K...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Ermenegilda Parrilli, Annarita Ricciardelli, Angela Casillo, Filomena Sannino, Rosanna Papa, Marco Tilotta, Marco Artini, Laura Selan, Maria Michela Corsaro, Maria Luisa Tutino
Microbial biofilms are mainly studied due to detrimental effects on human health but they are also well established in industrial biotechnology for the production of chemicals. Moreover, biofilm can be considered as a source of novel drugs since the conditions prevailing within biofilm can allow the production of specific metabolites. Antarctic bacterium Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAC125 when grown in biofilm condition produces an anti-biofilm molecule able to inhibit the biofilm of the opportunistic pathogen Staphylococcus epidermidis...
March 2016: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
Konstantina Dafopoulou, Basil Britto Xavier, An Hotterbeekx, Lore Janssens, Christine Lammens, Emmanuelle Dé, Herman Goossens, Athanasios Tsakris, Surbhi Malhotra-Kumar, Spyros Pournaras
In two pairs of clinical colistin-susceptible/colistin-resistant (Cst(s)/Cst(r)) Acinetobacter baumannii strains, the Cst(r) strains showed significantly decreased biofilm formation in static and dynamic assays (P < 0.001) and lower relative fitness (P < 0.05) compared with those of the Cst(s) counterparts. The whole-genome sequencing comparison of strain pairs identified a mutation converting a stop codon to lysine (*241K) in LpsB (involved in lipopolysaccharide [LPS] synthesis) in one Cst(r) strain and a frameshift mutation in CarO and the loss of a 47,969-bp element containing multiple genes associated with biofilm production in the other...
March 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Jennifer A Gaddy, Jana N Radin, Thomas W Cullen, Walter J Chazin, Eric P Skaar, M Stephen Trent, Holly M S Algood
UNLABELLED: Helicobacter pylori is one of several pathogens that persist within the host despite a robust immune response. H. pylori elicits a proinflammatory response from host epithelia, resulting in the recruitment of immune cells which manifests as gastritis. Relatively little is known about how H. pylori survives antimicrobials, including calprotectin (CP), which is present during the inflammatory response. The data presented here suggest that one way H. pylori survives the nutrient sequestration by CP is through alteration of its outer membrane...
December 8, 2015: MBio
Kelly M Fulton, Elena Mendoza-Barberá, Susan M Twine, Juan M Tomás, Susana Merino
Polar and but not lateral flagellin proteins from Aeromonas hydrophila strain AH-1 (serotype O11) were found to be glycosylated. Top-down mass spectrometry studies of purified polar flagellins suggested the presence of a 403 Da glycan of mass. Bottom-up mass spectrometry studies showed the polar flagellin peptides to be modified with 403 Da glycans in O-linkage. The MS fragmentation pattern of this putative glycan was similar to that of pseudaminic acid derivative. Mutants lacking the biosynthesis of pseudaminic acid (pseB and pseI homologues) were unable to produce polar flagella but no changes were observed in lateral flagella by post-transcriptional regulation of the flagellin...
2015: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Wael Elhenawy, Nichollas E Scott, M Laura Tondo, Elena G Orellano, Leonard J Foster, Mario F Feldman
Ralstonia solanacearum is one of the most lethal phytopathogens in the world. Due to its broad host range, it can cause wilting disease in many plant species of economic interest. In this work, we identified the O-oligosaccharyltransferase (O-OTase) responsible for protein O-glycosylation in R. solanacearum. An analysis of the glycoproteome revealed that 20 proteins, including type IV pilins are substrates of this general glycosylation system. Although multiple glycan forms were identified, the majority of the glycopeptides were modified with a pentasaccharide composed of HexNAc-(Pen)-dHex(3), similar to the O antigen subunit present in the lipopolysaccharide of multiple R...
March 2016: Glycobiology
Pablo del Cerro, Amanda Alves Paiva Rolla-Santos, Douglas Fabiano Gomes, Bettina Berquó Marks, María del Rosario Espuny, Miguel Ángel Rodríguez-Carvajal, María Eugenia Soria-Díaz, André Shigueyoshi Nakatani, Mariangela Hungria, Francisco Javier Ollero, Manuel Megías
BACKGROUND: Transcription of nodulation genes in rhizobial species is orchestrated by the regulatory nodD gene. Rhizobium tropici strain CIAT 899 is an intriguing species in possessing features such as broad host range, high tolerance of abiotic stresses and, especially, by carrying the highest known number of nodD genes--five--and the greatest diversity of Nod factors (lipochitooligosaccharides, LCOs). Here we shed light on the roles of the multiple nodD genes of CIAT 899 by reporting, for the first time, results obtained with nodD3, nodD4 and nodD5 mutants...
2015: BMC Genomics
S Hathroubi, M A Hancock, J T Bossé, P R Langford, Y D N Tremblay, J Labrie, M Jacques
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a Gram-negative bacterium belonging to the Pasteurellaceae family and the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, a highly contagious lung disease causing important economic losses. Surface polysaccharides, including lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and capsular polysaccharides (CPS), are implicated in the adhesion and virulence of A. pleuropneumoniae, but their role in biofilm formation is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the requirement for these surface polysaccharides in biofilm formation by A...
January 2016: Infection and Immunity
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