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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241218/analysis-of-the-cariogenic-potential-of-various-almond-milk-beverages-using-a-streptococcus-mutans-biofilm-model-in-vitro
#1
Janelle Lee, Janice A Townsend, Tatyana Thompson, Thomas Garitty, Arpan De, Qingzhao Yu, Brian M Peters, Zezhang T Wen
To evaluate the cariogenic properties of almond milk beverages, 6 almond milks, along with soy and whole bovine milk, were analyzed for their abilities to support Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation and acid production, and their capacity to buffer changes in pH. Biofilm formation by S. mutans was analyzed using an in vitro 96-well plate model and measured by crystal violet staining. Acid production by S. mutans was evaluated by a colorimetric L-lactate assay and pH measurement of bacterial cultures. Buffering capacity was assessed by a pH titration assay...
December 15, 2017: Caries Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229515/oxyr-of-haemophilus-parasuis-is-a-global-transcriptional-regulator-important-in-oxidative-stress-resistance-and-growth
#2
Yongping Wen, Yiping Wen, Xintian Wen, Sanjie Cao, Xiaobo Huang, Rui Wu, Qin Zhao, Mafeng Liu, Yong Huang, Qigui Yan, Xinfeng Han, Xiaoping Ma, Ke Dai, Lingqiang Ding, Sitong Liu, Jian Yang
Haemophilus parasuis is an opportunistic pathogen and the causative agent of Glässer's disease in swine. This disease has high morbidity and mortality rates in swine populations, and is responsible for major economic losses worldwide. Survival of H. parasuis within the host requires mechanisms for coping with oxidative stress conditions. In many bacteria, OxyR is known to mediate protection against oxidative stress; however, little is known about the role of OxyR in H. parasuis. In the current study, an oxyR mutant strain was constructed in H...
December 8, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225595/characteristics-of-and-virulence-factors-associated-with-biofilm-formation-in-clinical-enterococcus-faecalis-isolates-in-china
#3
Jin-Xin Zheng, Yang Wu, Zhi-Wei Lin, Zhang-Ya Pu, Wei-Ming Yao, Zhong Chen, Duo-Yun Li, Qi-Wen Deng, Di Qu, Zhi-Jian Yu
Enterococcus faecalis biofilm traits and distribution characteristics in China have not been clarified. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and characteristics of E. faecalis biofilm formation in a sample of clinical isolates and to explore the virulence factors associated with biofilm formation in those isolates. A total of 265 E. faecalis isolates were collected from patients in Shenzhen, China. Virulence genes were detected within the genomes of the microbes by polymerase chain reaction. The isolates were subjected to multilocus sequence typing (MLST) based on housekeeping genes...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213262/the-oxidative-stress-agent-hypochlorite-stimulates-c-di-gmp-synthesis-and-biofilm-formation-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#4
Nikola Strempel, Michael Nusser, Anke Neidig, Gerald Brenner-Weiss, Joerg Overhage
The opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is able to survive under a variety of often harmful environmental conditions due to a multitude of intrinsic and adaptive resistance mechanisms, including biofilm formation as one important survival strategy. Here, we investigated the adaptation of P. aeruginosa PAO1 to hypochlorite (HClO), a phagocyte-derived host defense compound and frequently used disinfectant. In static biofilm assays, we observed a significant enhancement in initial cell attachment in the presence of sublethal HClO concentrations...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211965/early-detection-of-biofouling-on-water-purification-membranes-by-ambient-ionization-mass-spectrometry-imaging
#5
Swathy Jakka Ravindran, Ramesh Kumar, Amitava Srimany, Ligy Philip, Thalappil Pradeep
By direct analysis of water purification membranes using ambient ionization mass spectrometry, an attempt has been made to understand the molecular signatures of bacterial fouling. Membrane based purification methods are used extensively in water treatment and a major challenge for them is biofouling. The build-up of microbes and their extracellular polymeric matrix clog the membranes and reduce their efficiency. To understand the early stages of bacterial fouling on water purification membranes, we have used Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (DESI MS), where ion formation occurs in ambient conditions and the ionization event is surface sensitive...
December 6, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208399/association-between-extracellular-material-and-biofilm-formation-in-response-to-sodium-hypochlorite-by-clinical-isolates-of-enterococcus-faecalis
#6
Austin Yoo, Giampiero Rossi-Fedele, Stephen P Kidd, Anthony H Rogers, Peter S Zilm
INTRODUCTION: Extracellular material (ECM) surrounding Enterococcus faecalis may play a role in increasing resistance to environmental stresses. Our aim was to determine ECM levels in response to subminimal inhibitory concentrations of sodium hypochlorite (sub-MIC/NaOCl) or anaerobic growth and determine the impact on biofilm development. METHODS: From 37 E. faecalis clinical strains, 19 were selected according to their biofilm-producing ability by using a crystal violet biofilm assay: 10 strong, 4 intermediate, and 5 non-biofilm producers...
December 2, 2017: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207350/mobile-genetic-elements-and-antibiotic-resistance-in-mine-soil-amended-with-organic-wastes
#7
Carlos Garbisu, Olatz Garaiyurrebaso, Anders Lanzén, Itxaso Álvarez-Rodríguez, Lide Arana, Fernando Blanco, Kornelia Smalla, Elisabeth Grohmann, Itziar Alkorta
Metal resistance has been associated with antibiotic resistance due to co- or cross-resistance mechanisms. Here, metal contaminated mine soil treated with organic wastes was screened for the presence of mobile genetic elements (MGEs). The occurrence of conjugative IncP-1 and mobilizable IncQ plasmids, as well as of class 1 integrons, was confirmed by PCR and Southern blot hybridization, suggesting that bacteria from these soils have gene-mobilizing capacity with implications for the dissemination of resistance factors...
December 2, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204271/genome-sequencing-and-analysis-of-the-first-spontaneous-nanosilver-resistant-bacterium-proteus-mirabilis-strain-scdr1
#8
Amr T M Saeb, Khalid A Al-Rubeaan, Mohamed Abouelhoda, Manojkumar Selvaraju, Hamsa T Tayeb
Background: P. mirabilis is a common uropathogenic bacterium that can cause major complications in patients with long-standing indwelling catheters or patients with urinary tract anomalies. In addition, P. mirabilis is a common cause of chronic osteomyelitis in Diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) patients. We isolated P. mirabilis SCDR1 from a Diabetic ulcer patient. We examined P. mirabilis SCDR1 levels of resistance against Nanosilver colloids, the commercial Nanosilver and silver containing bandages and commonly used antibiotics...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187716/-possible-involvement-of-surface-antigen-protein-2-in-the-morphological-transition-and-biofilm-formation-of-candida-albicans
#9
Kazuko Okamoto-Shibayama, Yuichiro Kikuchi, Eitoyo Kokubu, Kazuyuki Ishihara
Surface antigen protein 2 (Csa2) is a member of the Candida albicans Common in Fungal Extracellular Membranes (CFEM) protein superfamily. We previously established its role in iron acquisition in C. albicans. However, the other roles of Csa2 remain unknown. Here, we compared growth, morphological transition, and biofilm formation among wild-type, Csa2-mutant, and complemented strains of C. albicans. Deletion of the Csa2 gene resulted in smaller and reduced colony growth, significant attenuation of the dimorphic transition under serum-inducing conditions, and reduced biofilm formation; complementation restored these levels to those of the wild-type...
2017: Medical Mycology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186528/conformational-dynamism-for-dna-interaction-in-the-salmonella-rcsb-response-regulator
#10
Patricia Casino, Laura Miguel-Romero, Juanjo Huesa, Pablo García, Francisco García-Del Portillo, Alberto Marina
The RcsCDB phosphorelay system controls an extremely large regulon in Enterobacteriaceae that involves processes such as biofilm formation, flagella production, synthesis of extracellular capsules and cell division. Therefore, fine-tuning of this system is essential for virulence in pathogenic microorganisms of this group. The final master effector of the RcsCDB system is the response regulator (RR) RcsB, which activates or represses multiple genes by binding to different promoter regions. This regulatory activity of RcsB can be done alone or in combination with additional transcriptional factors in phosphorylated or dephosphorylated states...
November 23, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184101/a-meta-proteomics-approach-to-study-the-interspecies-interactions-affecting-microbial-biofilm-development-in-a-model-community
#11
Jakob Herschend, Zacharias B V Damholt, Andrea M Marquard, Birte Svensson, Søren J Sørensen, Per Hägglund, Mette Burmølle
Microbial biofilms are omnipresent in nature and relevant to a broad spectrum of industries ranging from bioremediation and food production to biomedical applications. To date little is understood about how multi-species biofilm communities develop and function on a molecular level, due to the complexity of these biological systems. Here we apply a meta-proteomics approach to investigate the mechanisms influencing biofilm formation in a model consortium of four bacterial soil isolates; Stenotrophomonas rhizophila, Xanthomonas retroflexus, Microbacterium oxydans and Paenibacillus amylolyticus...
November 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180990/the-n-terminus-of-human-lactoferrin-displays-anti-biofilm-activity-on-candida-parapsilosis-in-lumen-catheters
#12
Roberta Fais, Mariagrazia Di Luca, Cosmeri Rizzato, Paola Morici, Daria Bottai, Arianna Tavanti, Antonella Lupetti
Candida parapsilosis is a major cause of hospital-acquired infection, often related to parenteral nutrition administered via catheters and hand colonization of health care workers, and its peculiar biofilm formation ability on plastic surfaces. The mortality rate of 30% points to the pressing need for new antifungal drugs. The present study aimed at analyzing the inhibitory activity of the N-terminal lactoferrin-derived peptide, further referred to as hLF 1-11, against biofilms produced by clinical isolates of C...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180375/formation-and-characterization-of-early-bacterial-biofilms-on-different-wood-typologies-applied-in-dairy-production
#13
Margherita Cruciata, Raimondo Gaglio, Maria Luisa Scatassa, Giovanna Sala, Cinzia Cardamone, Marisa Palmeri, Giancarlo Moschetti, Tommaso La Mantia, Luca Settanni
Main hypothesis: Sicilian forestry resources are suitable for the production of equipment to be used in cheese making and indigenous milk lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are able to develop stable biofilms providing starter and non starter cultures necessary for curd fermentation and cheese ripening, respectively. Hence, the present work was carried out to evaluate LAB biofilm formation on different woods derived from trees species grown in Sicily with deproteinized whey. Microbiological and scanning electron microscopy analyses showed minimal differences in microbial levels and composition for the neoformed biofilms...
November 27, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178764/initial-microbial-colonization-of-enamel-in-children-with-different-levels-of-caries-activity-an-in-situ-study
#14
Susann Hertel, Alexandra Wolf, Sabine Basche, Gabriele Viergutz, Stefan Rupf, Matthias Hannig, Christian Hannig
PURPOSE: To investigate patterns of overnight in situ microbial colonization of enamel in children. METHODS: Overall, 29 children (aged 5-9 years) participated in the study. Nine were caries-free with no decayed, missing, or filled teeth (DMFT), 11 were caries-rehabilitated (DMFT ≥ 2, no active carious lesions), and nine were caries-active (DMFT ≥ 2, at least two carious lesions). Bovine enamel samples were fixed on individual upper jaw splints stored overnight in situ...
June 2017: American Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176569/a-novel-peptidic-inhibitor-derived-from-streptococcus-cristatus-arca-attenuates-virulence-potential-of-porphyromonas-gingivalis
#15
Meng-Hsuan Ho, Richard J Lamont, Hua Xie
Periodontitis is a global health problem and the 6th most common infectious disease worldwide. Porphyromonas gingivalis is considered a keystone pathogen in the disease and is capable of elevating the virulence potential of the periodontal microbial community. Strategies that interfere with P. gingivalis colonization and expression of virulence factor are therefore attractive approaches for preventing and treating periodontitis. We have previously reported that an 11-mer peptide (SAPP) derived from Streptococcus cristatus arginine deiminase (ArcA) was able to repress the expression and production of several well-known P...
November 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173625/biofilm-formation-by-salmonella-spp-in-catfish-mucus-extract-under-industrial-conditions
#16
Nitin Dhowlaghar, Piumi De Abrew Abeysundara, Ramakrishna Nannapaneni, Mark W Schilling, Sam Chang, Wen-Hsing Cheng, Chander S Sharma
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of strain and temperature on the growth and biofilm formation of Salmonella spp. in high and low concentrations of catfish mucus extract on different food-contact surfaces at 22 °C and 10 °C. The second objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of disinfectants at recommended concentrations and contact times for removing Salmonella biofilms cells on a stainless steel surface containing catfish mucus extract. Growth and biofilm formation of all Salmonella strains increased with higher concentrations of catfish mucus extract at both 10 °C and 22 °C...
April 2018: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164072/a-new-strain-collection-for-improved-expression-of-outer-membrane-proteins
#17
Ina Meuskens, Marcin Michalik, Nandini Chauhan, Dirk Linke, Jack C Leo
Almost all integral membrane proteins found in the outer membranes of Gram-negative bacteria belong to the transmembrane β-barrel family. These proteins are not only important for nutrient uptake and homeostasis, but are also involved in such processes as adhesion, protein secretion, biofilm formation, and virulence. As surface exposed molecules, outer membrane β-barrel proteins are also potential drug and vaccine targets. High production levels of heterologously expressed proteins are desirable for biochemical and especially structural studies, but over-expression and subsequent purification of membrane proteins, including outer membrane proteins, can be challenging...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163415/combination-susceptibility-testing-of-common-antimicrobials-in-vitro-and-the-effects-of-sub-mic-of-antimicrobials-on-staphylococcus-aureus-biofilm-formation
#18
Bing Yang, Zhixin Lei, Yishuang Zhao, Saeed Ahmed, Chunqun Wang, Shishuo Zhang, Shulin Fu, Jiyue Cao, Yinsheng Qiu
The current study was conducted to evaluate the antibacterial combination efficacies, and whether the sub-inhibitory concentrations (sub-MIC) of antibiotics can influent on the biofilm formation of S. aureus. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of common antibacterial drugs was determined in vitro against clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Escherichia coli (E. coli), and Pasteurella multocida (P. multocida) alone and in combination with each other by using the broth microdilution method and the checkerboard micro-dilution method analyzed with the fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI), respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163384/bacillus-subtilis-biofilm-development-a-computerized-study-of-morphology-and-kinetics
#19
Sarah Gingichashvili, Danielle Duanis-Assaf, Moshe Shemesh, John D B Featherstone, Osnat Feuerstein, Doron Steinberg
Biofilm is commonly defined as accumulation of microbes, embedded in a self-secreted extra-cellular matrix, on solid surfaces or liquid interfaces. In this study, we analyze several aspects of Bacillus subtilis biofilm formation using tools from the field of image processing. Specifically, we characterize the growth kinetics and morphological features of B. subtilis colony type biofilm formation and compare these in colonies grown on two different types of solid media. Additionally, we propose a model for assessing B...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163381/functional-characterization-of-acinetobacter-baumannii-lacking-the-rna-chaperone-hfq
#20
Han-Yueh Kuo, Hsuan-Hao Chao, Po-Cheng Liao, Long Hsu, Kai-Chih Chang, Chi-Hua Tung, Chang-Hua Chen, Ming-Li Liou
The RNA chaperone Hfq is involved in the riboregulation of diverse genes via small RNAs. Recent studies have demonstrated that Hfq contributes to the stress response and the virulence of several pathogens, and the roles of Hfq vary among bacterial species. Here, we attempted to elucidate the role of Hfq in Acinetobacter baumannii ATCC 17978. In the absence of hfq, A. baumannii exhibited retarded cell growth and was highly sensitive to environmental stress, including osmotic and oxidative pressure, pH, and temperature...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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