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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634237/the-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-psl-polysaccharide-is-a-social-but-noncheatable-trait-in-biofilms
#1
Yasuhiko Irie, Aled E L Roberts, Kasper N Kragh, Vernita D Gordon, Jaime Hutchison, Rosalind J Allen, Gavin Melaugh, Thomas Bjarnsholt, Stuart A West, Stephen P Diggle
Extracellular polysaccharides are compounds secreted by microorganisms into the surrounding environment, and they are important for surface attachment and maintaining structural integrity within biofilms. The social nature of many extracellular polysaccharides remains unclear, and it has been suggested that they could function as either cooperative public goods or as traits that provide a competitive advantage. Here, we empirically tested the cooperative nature of the PSL polysaccharide, which is crucial for the formation of biofilms in Pseudomonas aeruginosa We show that (i) PSL is not metabolically costly to produce; (ii) PSL provides population-level benefits in biofilms, for both growth and antibiotic tolerance; (iii) the benefits of PSL production are social and are shared with other cells; (iv) the benefits of PSL production appear to be preferentially directed toward cells which produce PSL; (v) cells which do not produce PSL are unable to successfully exploit cells which produce PSL...
June 20, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628310/furoxan-nitric-oxide-donors-disperse-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-biofilms-accelerate-growth-and-repress-pyoverdine-production
#2
Wee Han Poh, Nicolas Barraud, Stefano Guglielmo, Loretta Lazzarato, Barbara Rolando, Roberta Fruttero, Scott A Rice
The use of nitric oxide (NO) as a signal for biofilm dispersal has been shown to increase the susceptibility of many biofilms to antibiotics, promoting their eradication. The delivery of NO to biofilms can be achieved by using NO-donors with different kinetics and properties of NO release that can influence their efficacy as biofilm control agents. In this study, the kinetics of three furoxan-derivatives were evaluated. The effects of these NO-donors, which have an advantageous pharmacological profile of slower onset with an extended duration of action, on Pseudomonas aeruginosa growth, biofilm development and dispersal were also characterized...
June 19, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617843/characterization-of-the-regulation-of-a-plant-polysaccharide-utilization-operon-and-its-role-in-biofilm-formation-in-bacillus-subtilis
#3
Cameron Habib, Yiyang Yu, Kevin Gozzi, Carly Ching, Moshe Shemesh, Yunrong Chai
The soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis is often found in association with plants in the rhizosphere. Previously, plant polysaccharides have been shown to stimulate formation of root-associated multicellular communities, or biofilms, in this bacterium, yet the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. A five-gene gan operon (ganSPQAB) in B. subtilis has recently been shown to be involved in utilization of the plant-derived polysaccharide galactan. Despite these findings, molecular details about the regulation of the operon and the role of the operon in biofilm formation remain elusive...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616968/crispri-srna-transcriptional-translational-regulation-of-extracellular-electron-transfer-in-shewanella-oneidensis
#4
Yingxiu Cao, Xiaofei Li, Feng Li, Hao Song
Extracellular electron transfer (EET) in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, which is one of the most well-studied exoelectrogens, underlies many microbial electrocatalysis processes, including microbial fuel cells, microbial electrolysis cells, and microbial electrosynthesis. However, regulating the efficiency of EET remains challenging due to the lack of efficient genome regulation tools that regulate gene expression levels in S. oneidensis. Here, we systematically established a transcriptional regulation technology, i...
June 15, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607158/the-two-component-signal-transduction-system-vxrab-positively-regulates-vibrio-cholerae-biofilm-formation
#5
Jennifer K Teschler, Andrew T Cheng, Fitnat H Yildiz
Two-component signal transduction systems (TCSs), typically composed of a sensor histidine kinase (HK) and a response regulator (RR), are the primary mechanism by which pathogenic bacteria sense and respond to extracellular signals. The pathogenic bacterium Vibrio cholerae is no exception and encodes for 52 RR genes. Using in frame deletion mutants of each RR gene, we performed a systematic analysis of their role in V. cholerae biofilm formation. We determined that 7 RRs impacted expression of an essential biofilm gene and found that the recently characterized RR, VxrB, regulates expression of key structural and regulatory biofilm-genes in V...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607157/anaerobic-cysteine-degradation-and-potential-metabolic-coordination-in-salmonella-enterica-and-escherichia-coli
#6
Melissa Loddeke, Barbara Schneider, Tamiko Oguri, Iti Mehta, Zhenyu Xuan, Larry Reitzer
Salmonella enterica has two CutR-activated enzymes that degrade cysteine: the aerobic CdsH and an unidentified anaerobic enzyme; E. coli only has the latter. To identify the anaerobic enzyme, transcript profiling was performed from E. coli without cutR and with overexpressed cutR 37 genes showed at least a five-fold change in expression, and the cutPA (formerly yhaOM) operon had the greatest differential. Homology suggested that CutP and CutA are a cysteine transporter and an iron-sulfur-containing cysteine desulfidase, respectively...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607054/electron-shuttling-antibiotics-structure-bacterial-communities-by-modulating-cellular-levels-of-c-di-gmp
#7
Chinweike Okegbe, Blanche L Fields, Stephanie J Cole, Christopher Beierschmitt, Chase J Morgan, Alexa Price-Whelan, Richard C Stewart, Vincent T Lee, Lars E P Dietrich
Diverse organisms secrete redox-active antibiotics, which can be used as extracellular electron shuttles by resistant microbes. Shuttle-mediated metabolism can support survival when substrates are available not locally but rather at a distance. Such conditions arise in multicellular communities, where the formation of chemical gradients leads to resource limitation for cells at depth. In the pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14, antibiotics called phenazines act as oxidants to balance the intracellular redox state of cells in anoxic biofilm subzones...
June 12, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605194/discovery-of-two-bacterial-nitric-oxide-responsive-proteins-and-their-roles-in-bacterial-biofilm-regulation
#8
Sajjad Hossain, Lisa-Marie Nisbett, Elizabeth M Boon
Bacterial biofilms form when bacteria adhere to a surface and produce an exopolysaccharide matrix ( Costerton Science 1999 , 284 , 1318 ; Davies Science 1998 , 280 , 295 ; Flemming Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 2010 , 8 , 623 ). Because biofilms are resistant to antibiotics, they are problematic in many aspects of human health and welfare, causing, for instance, persistent fouling of medical implants such as catheters and artificial joints ( Brunetto Chimia 2008 , 62 , 249 ). They are responsible for chronic infections in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients and in open wounds, such as those associated with burns and diabetes...
June 12, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604167/adaptation-to-copper-stress-influences-biofilm-formation-in-alteromonas-macleodii
#9
Kathleen D Cusick, Jason R Dale, Lisa A Fitzgerald, Brenda J Little, Justin C Biffinger
An Alteromonas macleodii strain was isolated from copper-containing coupons incubated in surface seawater (Key West, FL, USA). In addition to the original isolate, a copper-adapted mutant was created and maintained with 0.78 mM Cu(2+). Biofilm formation was compared between the two strains under copper-amended and low-nutrient conditions. Biofilm formation was significantly increased in the original isolate under copper amendment, while biofilm formation was significantly higher in the mutant under low-nutrient conditions...
July 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603807/bdm-mediated-regulation-of-flagellar-biogenesis-in-escherichia-coli-and-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium
#10
Jaejin Lee, Dae-Jun Kim, Ji-Hyun Yeom, Kangseok Lee
Synthesis of the flagellar apparatus in Escherichia coli is mediated via complex regulatory pathways. A previous study indicated that the protein encoded by the biofilm-dependent modulation (bdm) gene is linked closely with a regulatory pathway for flagellar assembly. However, the specific role of Bdm in flagellar biogenesis remains unknown. Herein, we showed that Bdm interacts with FlgM and inhibits its function as an anti-σ28 factor, which induces the transcription of flagellar late-class genes in E. coli...
June 12, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599184/plasma-modified-pla-electrospun-membranes-for-actinorhodin-production-intensification-in-streptomyces-coelicolor-immobilized-cell-cultivations
#11
Roberto Scaffaro, Francesco Lopresti, Alberto Sutera, Luigi Botta, Rosa Maria Fontana, Giuseppe Gallo
Most of industrially relevant bioproducts are produced by submerged cultivations of actinomycetes. The immobilization of these Gram-positive filamentous bacteria on suitable porous supports may prevent mycelial cell-cell aggregation and pellet formation which usually negatively affect actinomycete submerged cultivations, thus, resulting in an improved biosynthetic capability. In this work, electrospun polylactic acid (PLA) membranes, subjected or not to O2-plasma treatment (PLA-plasma), were used as support for immobilized-cell submerged cultivations of Streptomyces coelicolor M145...
May 31, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596760/in-depth-profiling-of-mvfr-regulated-small-molecules-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-after-quorum-sensing-inhibitor-treatment
#12
Giuseppe Allegretta, Christine K Maurer, Jens Eberhard, Damien Maura, Rolf W Hartmann, Laurence Rahme, Martin Empting
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative bacterium, which causes opportunistic infections in immuno-compromised individuals. Due to its multiple resistances toward antibiotics, the development of new drugs is required. Interfering with Quorum Sensing (QS), a cell-to-cell communication system, has shown to be highly efficient in reducing P. aeruginosa pathogenicity. One of its QS systems employs Pseudomonas Quinolone Signal (PQS) and 4-hydroxy-2-heptylquinoline (HHQ) as signal molecules. Both activate the transcriptional regulator MvfR (Multiple Virulence Factor Regulator), also called PqsR, driving the production of QS molecules as well as toxins and biofilm formation...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591948/-the-role-of-hmgn2-in-the-development-of-periodontitis-dental-plaque
#13
Yang Luo, Qian Li, Ya-Ping Fan, Jiao Chen, Ping Zhang, Yun Feng
OBJECTIVES: To determine the role of high mobility group chromosomal protein N2 (HMGN2) in the development of periodontitis plaque biofilm. METHODS: Saliva samples were collected before clinical interventions in patients with periodontitis (25 Mild periodontitis, 25 Moderate periodontitis and 25 Severe periodontitis) and healthy controls ( n=25).Following an estimation of dental plaque index, the level of HMGN2 in saliva was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
July 2016: Sichuan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Sichuan University. Medical Science Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586050/inhibitory-capacity-of-rhus-coriaria-l-extract-and-its-major-component-methyl-gallate-on-streptococcus-mutans-biofilm-formation-by-optical-profilometry-potential-applications-for-oral-health
#14
Tomas Kacergius, Saleh Abu-Lafi, Agne Kirkliauskiene, Vika Gabe, Azmi Adawi, Mahmoud Rayan, Mutaz Qutob, Rimantas Stukas, Algirdas Utkus, Mouhammad Zeidan, Anwar Rayan
Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) bacterium is the most well recognized pathogen involved in pathogenesis of dental caries. Its virulence arises from its ability to produce a biofilm and acidogenicity, causing tooth decay. Discovery of natural products capable to inhibit biofilm formation is of high importance for developing health care products. To the best of our knowledge, in all previous scientific reports, a colorimetric assay was applied to test the effect of sumac and methyl gallate (MG) on S. mutans adherence...
July 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570675/mitochondrial-complex-i-bridges-a-connection-between-regulation-of-carbon-flexibility-and-gastrointestinal-commensalism-in-the-human-fungal-pathogen-candida-albicans
#15
Xinhua Huang, Xiaoqing Chen, Yongmin He, Xiaoyu Yu, Shanshan Li, Ning Gao, Lida Niu, Yinhe Mao, Yuanyuan Wang, Xianwei Wu, Wenjuan Wu, Jianhua Wu, Dongsheng Zhou, Xiangjiang Zhan, Changbin Chen
Efficient assimilation of alternative carbon sources in glucose-limited host niches is critical for colonization of Candida albicans, a commensal yeast that frequently causes opportunistic infection in human. C. albicans evolved mechanistically to regulate alternative carbon assimilation for the promotion of fungal growth and commensalism in mammalian hosts. However, this highly adaptive mechanism that C. albicans employs to cope with alternative carbon assimilation has yet to be clearly understood. Here we identified a novel role of C...
June 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569671/degradable-magnesium-implant-associated-infections-by-bacterial-biofilms-induce-robust-localized-and-systemic-inflammatory-reactions-in-a-mouse-model
#16
Muhammad Imran Rahim, Anshu Babbar, Stefan Lienenklaus, Marina Pils, Manfred Rohde
Biomaterial-associated Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm infections constitute cascade of host immune reactions ultimately leading towards implant failure. Due to lack of relevant in vivo biofilm models, majority of the studies report host immune responses against free living or planktonic bacteria while bacteria in clinical situations live more frequently as biofilm communities than as single cells. Present study investigated host immune responses against biomaterial-associated P. aeruginosa biofilms in a clinically relevant mouse model...
June 1, 2017: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559883/relationship-between-pyruvate-kinase-activity-and-cariogenic-biofilm-formation-in-streptococcus-mutans-biotypes-in-caries-patients
#17
Wirginia Krzyściak, Monika Papież, Anna Jurczak, Dorota Kościelniak, Palina Vyhouskaya, Katarzyna Zagórska-Świeży, Anna Skalniak
Streptococcus mutans (MS) and its biotype I are the strains most frequently found in dental plaque of young children. Our results indicate that in children pyruvate kinase (PK) activity increases significantly in dental plaque, and this corresponds with caries progression. The MS strains isolated in this study or their main glycolytic metabolism connected with PK enzymes might be useful risk factors for studying the pathogenesis and target points of novel therapies for dental caries. The relationship between PK activity, cariogenic biofilm formation and selected biotypes occurrence was studied...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557053/a-novel-streptococcal-cell-cell-communication-peptide-promotes-pneumococcal-virulence-and-biofilm-formation
#18
Rolando A Cuevas, Rory Eutsey, Anagha Kadam, Jacob A West-Roberts, Carol A Woolford, Aaron P Mitchell, Kevin M Mason, N Luisa Hiller
Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is a major human pathogen. It is a common colonizer of the human respiratory track, where it utilizes cell-cell communication systems to coordinate population-level behaviors. We reasoned that secreted peptides that are highly expressed during infection are pivotal for virulence. Thus, we used in silico pattern searches to define a pneumococcal secretome, and analyzed the transcriptome of the clinically important PMEN1 lineage to identify which peptide-encoding genes are highly expressed in vivo...
May 29, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555174/the-atp-dependent-protease-clpp-inhibits-biofilm-formation-by-regulating-agr-and-cell-wall-hydrolase-sle1-in-staphylococcus-aureus
#19
Qian Liu, Xing Wang, Juanxiu Qin, Sen Cheng, Won-Sik Yeo, Lei He, Xiaowei Ma, Xiaoyun Liu, Min Li, Taeok Bae
Biofilm causes hospital-associated infections on indwelling medical devices. In Staphylococcus aureus, Biofilm formation is controlled by intricately coordinated network of regulating systems, of which the ATP-dependent protease ClpP shows an inhibitory effect. Here, we demonstrate that the inhibitory effect of ClpP on biofilm formation is through Agr and the cell wall hydrolase Sle1. Biofilm formed by clpP mutant consists of proteins and extracellular DNA (eDNA). The increase of the protein was, at least in part, due to the reduced protease activity of the mutant, which was caused by the decreased activity of agr...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552952/asymmetric-regulation-of-quorum-sensing-receptors-drives-autoinducer-specific-gene-expression-programs-in-vibrio-cholerae
#20
Amanda Hurley, Bonnie L Bassler
Quorum sensing (QS) is a mechanism of chemical communication that bacteria use to monitor cell-population density and coordinate group behaviors. QS relies on the production, detection, and group-wide response to extracellular signal molecules called autoinducers. Vibrio cholerae employs parallel QS circuits that converge into a shared signaling pathway. At high cell density, the CqsS and LuxPQ QS receptors detect the intra-genus and inter-species autoinducers CAI-1 and AI-2, respectively, to repress virulence factor production and biofilm formation...
May 26, 2017: PLoS Genetics
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