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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340187/biofilm-adherence-and-hydrophobicity-as-virulence-factors-in-malassezia-furfur
#1
Letizia Angiolella, Claudia Leone, Florencia Rojas, Javier Mussin, María de Los Angeles Sosa, Gustavo Giusiano
Malassezia species are natural inhabitants of the healthy skin. However, under certain conditions, they may cause or exacerbate several skin diseases. The ability of this fungus to colonize or infect is determined by complex interactions between the fungal cell and its virulence factors. This study aims to evaluate "in vitro" the hydrophobicity levels, the adherence on a plastic surface and the biofilm formation of 16 clinical isolates of Malassezia furfur. Cellular surface hydrophobicity (CSH) levels were determined by two-phase system...
March 9, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325767/cohesive-properties-of-the-caulobacter-crescentus-holdfast-adhesin-are-regulated-by-a-novel-c-di-gmp-effector-protein
#2
Kathrin S Sprecher, Isabelle Hug, Jutta Nesper, Eva Potthoff, Mohamed-Ali Mahi, Matteo Sangermani, Volkhard Kaever, Torsten Schwede, Julia Vorholt, Urs Jenal
When encountering surfaces, many bacteria produce adhesins to facilitate their initial attachment and to irreversibly glue themselves to the solid substrate. A central molecule regulating the processes of this motile-sessile transition is the second messenger c-di-GMP, which stimulates the production of a variety of exopolysaccharide adhesins in different bacterial model organisms. In Caulobacter crescentus, c-di-GMP regulates the synthesis of the polar holdfast adhesin during the cell cycle, yet the molecular and cellular details of this control are currently unknown...
March 21, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319414/preparation-and-characterization-of-zno-nanoparticles-coated-by-chitosan-linoleic-acid-fungal-growth-and-biofilm-assay
#3
S Barad, M Roudbary, A Nasrollahi Omran, M Porgham Daryasari
INTRODUCTION: This study has been carried out on reviewing the use of new synthetic component of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) coated by Chitosan-linoleic acid (CS-LA) and to assess Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of nanoparticles on clinical samples and biofilm formation in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: At first the synthesized ZnO NPs coated by CS-LA were identified with X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscope (SEM), Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy analysis (FTIR)...
2017: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295778/the-ricaft-ymca-ylbf-yaat-complex-carries-two-4fe-4s-2-clusters-and-may-respond-to-redox-changes
#4
Andrew W Tanner, Valerie J Carabetta, Ryan J Martinie, Ameya A Mashruwala, Jeffrey M Boyd, Carsten Krebs, David Dubnau
During times of environmental insult, Bacillus subtilis undergoes developmental changes leading to biofilm formation, sporulation and competence. Each of these states is regulated in part by the phosphorylated form of the master response regulator Spo0A (Spo0A∼P). The phosphorylation state of Spo0A is controlled by a multi-component phosphorelay. RicA, RicF and RicT (previously YmcA, YlbF and YaaT) have been shown to be important regulatory proteins for multiple developmental fates. These proteins directly interact and form a stable complex, which has been proposed to accelerate the phosphorelay...
March 15, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289081/light-modulates-metabolic-pathways-and-other-novel-physiological-traits-in-the-human-pathogen-acinetobacter-baumannii
#5
Gabriela L Müller, Marisel Tuttobene, Matías Altilio, Maitena Martinez Amezaga, Meaghan Nguyen, P Pamela Cribb, Larisa E Cybulski, María Soledad Ramírez, Silvia Altabe, María Alejandra Mussi
Light sensing in chemotrophic bacteria has been relatively recently ascertained. In the human pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii, light modulates motility, biofilm formation and virulence through the BLUF photoreceptor BlsA. In addition, light can induce reduction in susceptibility to certain antibiotics such as minocycline and tigecycline in a photoreceptor-independent manner. In this work we identified new traits whose expression are modulated by light in this pathogen, which comprise not only important determinants related to pathogenicity and antibiotic resistance, but also metabolic pathways, which represents a novel concept for chemotrophic bacteria...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289031/downregulation-of-autolysin-encoding-genes-by-phage-derived-lytic-proteins-inhibits-biofilm-formation-in-staphylococcus-aureus
#6
Lucía Fernández, Silvia González, Ana Belén Campelo, Beatriz Martínez, Ana Rodríguez, Pilar García
Phage-derived lytic proteins are a promising alternative to conventional antimicrobials. One of their most interesting properties is that they do not readily select for resistant strains, which is likely due to the fact that their targets are essential for the viability of the bacterial cell. Moreover, genetic engineering allows the design of new "tailor-made" proteins that may exhibit improved antibacterial properties. One example of this is the chimeric protein CHAPSH3b, which consists of a catalytic domain from the virion-associated peptidoglycan (PG) hydrolase of phage vB_SauS-phiIPLA88 (HydH5) and the cell wall binding domain of lysostaphin...
March 13, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288290/effect-of-commonly-prescribed-liquid-medications-on-streptococcus-mutans-biofilm-an-in-vitro-study
#7
Samantha A Clark, LaQuia A Vinson, George Eckert, Richard L Gregory
OBJECTIVE: This study addressed the effect of pediatric liquid antibiotic medications on Streptococcus mutans UA159. These suspensions commonly contain sugars such as sucrose to make them more palatable for children. The study was designed to evaluate the effects of oral liquid antibiotics on Streptococcus mutans growth and biofilm formation. STUDY DESIGN: A 24 hour culture of S. mutans was treated with various concentrations of liquid medications commonly prescribed to children for odontogenic or fungal infections- amoxicillin, penicillin VK, clindamycin, and nystatin...
2017: Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286116/biatriosporin-d-displays-anti-virulence-activity-through-decreasing-the-intracellular-camp-levels
#8
Ming Zhang, Wenqiang Chang, Hongzhuo Shi, Yanhui Zhou, Sha Zheng, Ying Li, Lin Li, Hongxiang Lou
Candidiasis has long been a serious human health problem, and novel antifungal approaches are greatly needed. During both superficial and systemic infection, C. albicans relies on a battery of virulence factors, such as adherence, filamentation, and biofilm formation. In this study, we found that a small phenolic compound, Biatriosporin D (BD), isolated from an endolichenic fungus, Biatriospora sp., displayed anti-virulence activity by inhibiting adhesion, hyphal morphogenesis and biofilm formation of C. albicans...
March 9, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282938/listeria-monocytogenes-in-fresh-produce-outbreaks-prevalence-and-contamination-levels
#9
Qi Zhu, Ravi Gooneratne, Malik Altaf Hussain
Listeria monocytogenes, a member of the genus Listeria, is widely distributed in agricultural environments, such as soil, manure and water. This organism is a recognized foodborne pathogenic bacterium that causes many diseases, from mild gastroenteritis to severe blood and/or central nervous system infections, as well as abortion in pregnant women. Generally, processed ready-to-eat and cold-stored meat and dairy products are considered high-risk foods for L. monocytogenes infections that cause human illness (listeriosis)...
March 9, 2017: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280492/mitochondrial-complex-v-%C3%AE-subunit-is-critical-for-candida-albicans-pathogenicity-through-modulating-multiple-virulence-properties
#10
Shui-Xiu Li, Yan-Jun Song, Yi-Shan Zhang, Hao-Tian Wu, Hui Guo, Kun-Ju Zhu, Dong-Mei Li, Hong Zhang
The α subunit (ATP1) is a vital component of mitochondrial complex V which counts for the majority of cellular ATP production in a living organism. Nevertheless, how the α subunit influences other cellular processes such as pathogenicity in Candida albicans remains poorly understood. To address this question, ATP1 mutant (atp1Δ/Δ) and the gene-reconstituted strain (atp1Δ/ATP1) have been constructed in this study and their pathogenicity-related traits are compared to those of wild type (WT). In a murine model of disseminated candidiasis, atp1Δ/Δ infected mice have a significantly higher survival rate and experience a lower fungal burden in tissues...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278272/additional-regulatory-activities-of-mrkh-for-the-transcriptional-expression-of-the-klebsiella-pneumoniae-mrk-genes-antagonist-of-h-ns-and-repressor
#11
Miguel A Ares, José L Fernández-Vázquez, Sabino Pacheco, Verónica I Martínez-Santos, Ma Dolores Jarillo-Quijada, Javier Torres, María D Alcántar-Curiel, Jorge A González-Y-Merchand, Miguel A De la Cruz
Klebsiella pneumoniae is a common opportunistic pathogen causing nosocomial infections. One of the main virulence determinants of K. pneumoniae is the type 3 pilus (T3P). T3P helps the bacterial interaction to both abiotic and biotic surfaces and it is crucial for the biofilm formation. T3P is genetically organized in three transcriptional units: the mrkABCDF polycistronic operon, the mrkHI bicistronic operon and the mrkJ gene. MrkH is a regulatory protein encoded in the mrkHI operon, which positively regulates the mrkA pilin gene and its own expression...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263038/divide-and-conquer-the-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-two-component-hybrid-sags-enables-biofilm-formation-and-recalcitrance-of-biofilm-cells-to-antimicrobial-agents-via-distinct-regulatory-circuits
#12
Olga E Petrova, Kajal Gupta, Julie Liao, James S Goodwine, Karin Sauer
The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa forms antimicrobial resistant biofilms through sequential steps requiring several two-component regulatory systems. The sensor-regulator hybrid SagS plays a central role in biofilm development by enabling the switch from the planktonic to the biofilm mode of growth, and by facilitating the transition of biofilm cells to a highly tolerant state. However, the mechanism by which SagS accomplishes both functions is unknown. SagS harbors a periplasmic sensory HmsP, and phosphorelay HisKA and Rec domains...
March 6, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259434/effect-of-yeasts-on-biodegradation-potential-of-immobilized-cultures-of-white-rot-fungi
#13
Pavlína Šlosarčíková, Čeněk Novotný, Kateřina Malachová, Hana Válková, Jindřich Fojtík
The aim was to investigate the effect of yeast organisms on the degradation process by immobilized cultures of ligninolytic fungi. Immobilization was accomplished by 7-day colonization of polyamide mesh with mycelial fragments. Irpex lacteus decolorized >90% of the initial concentration of 150mgl(-1) of anthraquinone Remazol Brilliant Blue R dye in three subsequent decolorization cycles and the degradation capacity was not negatively affected by the presence of 10(6)Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells per ml in the mixed culture...
March 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258142/activation-mechanism-and-cellular-localization-of-membrane-anchored-alginate-polymerase-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#14
M Fata Moradali, Shirin Ghods, Bernd H A Rehm
The exopolysaccharide, alginate, produced by the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa represents a survival advantage by contributing to formation of characteristic biofilms during infection. Membrane anchored proteins Alg8 (catalytic subunit) and Alg44 (co-polymerase) constitute the alginate polymerase which is being activated by the second messenger molecule c-di-GMP, but the mechanism of activation remains elusive. To shed light on the c-di-GMP mediated activation of alginate polymerization in vivo, an in silico structural model of Alg8 fused to the c-di-GMP binding PilZ domain informed by the structure of cellulose synthase, BcsA, was developed...
March 3, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251783/indole-signaling-and-micro-algal-auxins-decrease-the-virulence-of-vibrio-campbellii-a-major-pathogen-of-aquatic-organisms
#15
Qian Yang, Gde Sasmita Julyantoro Pande, Zheng Wang, Baochuan Lin, Robert A Rubin, Gary J Vora, Tom Defoirdt
Vibrios belonging to the Harveyi clade are major pathogens of marine vertebrates and invertebrates, causing major losses in wild and cultured organisms. Despite their significant impact, the pathogenicity mechanisms of these bacteria are not yet completely understood. In this study, we investigated the impact of indole signaling on the virulence of Vibrio campbellii. Elevated indole levels significantly decreased motility, biofilm formation, exopolysaccharide production and virulence to crustacean hosts. Indole furthermore inhibited the three-channel quorum sensing system of V...
March 2, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245229/combinatory-antibiotic-therapy-increases-rate-of-bacterial-kill-but-not-final-outcome-in-a-novel-mouse-model-of-staphylococcus-aureus-spinal-implant-infection
#16
Yan Hu, Vishal Hegde, Daniel Johansen, Amanda H Loftin, Erik Dworsky, Stephen D Zoller, Howard Y Park, Christopher D Hamad, George E Nelson, Kevin P Francis, Anthony Scaduto, Nicholas M Bernthal
BACKGROUND: Management of spine implant infections (SII) are challenging. Explantation of infected spinal hardware can destabilize the spine, but retention can lead to cord compromise and biofilm formation, complicating management. While vancomycin monotherapy is commonly used, in vitro studies have shown reduced efficacy against biofilm compared to combination therapy with rifampin. Using an established in vivo mouse model of SII, we aim to evaluate whether combination therapy has increased efficacy compared to both vancomycin alone and infected controls...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236620/influence-of-huang-lian-jie-du-decoction-on-quorum-sensing-system-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#17
Fei Xia, Lihua Ye, Ping Wang, Mingwei Zhang
Context • Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P aeruginosa) is an opportunistic and nosocomial, Gram-negative pathogen that is characteristic of quorum sensing (QS) modulation. QS inhibition (QSI) is considered to be a new approach to antimicrobial treatment that may reduce issues of antibiotic resistance. Traditional Chinese herbs have been recognized as a source of QSI. Objective • This study was intended to investigate whether the Huang Lian Jie Du decoction (HLJJD) possesses the ability to produce anti-QS activity...
February 27, 2017: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223387/activity-of-sanguinarine-against-candida-albicans-biofilms
#18
Hua Zhong, Dan-Dan Hu, Gan-Hai Hu, Juan Su, Shuang Bi, Zhuo-Er Zhang, Zheng Wang, Ri-Li Zhang, Zheng Xu, Yuan-Ying Jiang, Yan Wang
C. albicans biofilms show resistance to many clinical antifungal agents, and play a considerable contributing role in the process of C. albicans infections. New antifungal agents against C. albicans biofilms are sorely needed. The aim of this study was to evaluate sanguinarine (SAN) for its activity against Candida albicans biofilms and explore the underlying mechanism. The MIC50 of SAN was 3.2 μg/mL. While ≥ 0.8 μg/mL SAN could suppress C. albicans biofilms. Further mechanism study revealed that ≥ 0...
February 21, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217912/cold-adaptation-of-the-antarctic-haloarchaea-halohasta-litchfieldiae-and-halorubrum-lacusprofundi
#19
Timothy J Williams, Yan Liao, Jun Ye, Rhiannon P Kuchel, Anne Poljak, Mark J Raftery, Ricardo Cavicchioli
Halohasta litchfieldiae represents ∼ 44% and Halorubrum lacusprofundi ∼ 10% of the hypersaline, perennially cold (≥ -20°C) Deep Lake community in Antarctica. We used proteomics and microscopy to define physiological responses of these haloarchaea to growth at high (30°C) and low (10 and 4°C) temperatures. The proteomic data indicate that both species responded to low temperature by modifying their cell envelope including protein N-glycosylation, maintaining osmotic balance and translation initiation, and modifying RNA turnover and tRNA modification...
February 20, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217123/virulence-markers-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-escherichia-coli-strains-with-hybrid-eaec-upec-genotypes-recovered-from-sporadic-cases-of-extraintestinal-infections
#20
Flaviane B M Lara, Danielly R Nery, Pâmela M de Oliveira, Mayana L Araujo, Fabiana R Q Carvalho, Lorena C F Messias-Silva, Leonardo B Ferreira, Celio Faria-Junior, Alex L Pereira
Virulence genes from different E. coli pathotypes are blended in hybrid strains. E. coli strains with hybrid enteroaggregative/uropathogenic (EAEC/UPEC) genotypes have sporadically emerged causing outbreaks of extraintestinal infections, however their association with routine infections is yet underappreciated. We assessed 258 isolates of E. coli recovered from 86 consecutive cases of extraintestinal infections seeking EAEC and hybrid genotype (EAEC/UPEC) strains. Extensive virulence genotyping was carried out to detect 21 virulence genes, including molecular predictors of EAEC and UPEC strains...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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