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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087802/cytochrome-c-peroxidase-ccp-is-a-molecular-determinant-of-the-oxidative-stress-response-in-the-extreme-acidophilic-leptospirillum-sp-cf-1
#1
C Zapata, B Paillavil, R Chávez, P Álamos, G Levicán
Bioleaching processes are used to recover metals from sulfidic ores. Biofilm formation on ores is important for bioleaching because the attached microorganisms start the leaching process by concentrating ferric ions in the extracellular matrix. It has been shown that hydrogen peroxide is spontaneously generated on the surface of ores and that it negatively influences the growth and activity of microorganisms. However, the mechanism by which bioleaching microorganisms tolerate exogenous H2O2 as an adaptive trait remains elusive...
January 12, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087484/inhibition-of-bacterial-adhesion-and-biofilm-formation-by-dual-functional-textured-and-nitric-oxide-releasing-surfaces
#2
Li-Chong Xu, Yaqi Wo, Mark E Meyerhoff, Christopher A Siedlecki
: In separate prior studies, physical topographic surface modification or nitric oxide (NO) release has been demonstrated to each be an effective approach to inhibit and control bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation on polymeric surfaces. Such approaches can prevent biomaterial-associated infection without causing the antibiotic resistance of the strain. In this work, both techniques were successfully integrated and applied to a polyurethane (PU) biomaterial surface that bears ordered pillar topographies (400/400 nm and 500/500 nm patterns) at the top surface and a S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP, NO donor) doped sub-layer in the middle, via a soft lithography two-stage replication process...
January 10, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087297/inhibition-of-streptococcal-biofilm-by-hydrogen-water
#3
Jinkyung Kim, Heon-Jin Lee, Su-Hyung Hong
OBJECTIVES: The accumulation of oral bacterial biofilm is the main etiological factor of oral diseases. Recently, electrolyzed hydrogen-rich water (H-water) has been shown to act as an effective antioxidant by reducing oxidative stress. In addition to this general health benefit, H-water has antibacterial activity for disease-associated oral bacteria. However, little is known about the effect of H-water on oral bacterial biofilm. The objective of this study was to confirm the effect of H-water on streptococcal biofilm formation...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076372/bad-to-the-bone-on-in-vitro-and-ex-vivo-microbial-biofilm-ability-to-directly-destroy-colonized-bone-surfaces-without-participation-of-host-immunity-or-osteoclastogenesis
#4
Adam Junka, Patrycja Szymczyk, Grzegorz Ziółkowski, Ewa Karuga-Kuzniewska, Danuta Smutnicka, Iwona Bil-Lula, Marzenna Bartoszewicz, Susan Mahabady, Parish Paymon Sedghizadeh
Bone infections are a significant public health burden associated with morbidity and mortality in patients. Microbial biofilm pathogens are the causative agents in chronic osteomyelitis. Research on the pathogenesis of osteomyelitis has focused on indirect bone destruction by host immune cells and cytokines secondary to microbial insult. Direct bone resorption by biofilm pathogens has not yet been seriously considered. In this study, common osteomyelitis pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, and Streptococcus mutans) were grown as biofilms in multiple in vitro and ex vivo experiments to analyze quantitative and qualitative aspects of bone destruction during infection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072820/p-cymene-promotes-its-catabolism-through-the-p-cymene-and-the-p-cumate-pathways-activates-a-stress-response-and-reduces-the-biofilm-formation-in-burkholderia-xenovorans-lb400
#5
Loreine Agulló, María José Romero-Silva, Mirian Domenech, Michael Seeger
p-Cymene is an aromatic terpene that is present in diverse plant species. The aims of this study were to study the p-cymene metabolism in the model aromatic-degrading bacterium Burkholderia xenovorans LB400, and its response to p-cymene. The catabolic p-cymene (cym) and p-cumate (cmt) genes are clustered on the LB400 major chromosome. B. xenovorans LB400 was able to grow on p-cymene as well as on p-cumate as a sole carbon and energy sources. LB400 growth attained higher cell concentration at stationary phase on p-cumate than on p-cymene...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067424/human-pathogens-in-plant-biofilms-formation-physiology-and-detection
#6
REVIEW
Eduardo Ximenes, Lori Hoagland, Seockmo Ku, Xuan Li, Michael Ladisch
Fresh produce, viewed as an essential part of a healthy life style, usually consumed in the form of raw or minimally processed fruits and vegetables, is a potentially important source of food-borne disease including human pathogenic bacteria and viruses. These are passed on to the consumer since the bacteria can form biofilms or otherwise populate plant tissues, thereby using plants as vectors to infect animal hosts. The life cycle of the bacteria in plants differs from those in animals or humans and results in altered physiochemical and biological properties (e...
January 9, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065625/decreased-bacterial-adherence-biofilm-formation-and-tissue-reactivity-of-barbed-monofilament-suture-in-an-in%C3%A2-vivo-contaminated-wound-model
#7
Michael R Morris, Christopher Bergum, Nancy Jackson, David C Markel
BACKGROUND: Monofilament and barbed monofilament sutures have been shown in in vitro models to have less bacterial adherence than braided suture. This study evaluates bacterial adherence to suture materials and tissue reactivity with an in vivo contaminated wound mouse model. METHODS: Staphylococcus aureus was used to create an in vivo contaminated wound model at 2 amounts (10(6) colony-forming units [CFU] and 10(8) CFU) using a mouse air pouch. Three types of commonly used absorbable suture were evaluated: braided, monofilament, and barbed monofilament...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061510/bacterial-coaggregation-among-the-most-commonly-isolated-bacteria-from-contact-lens-cases
#8
Ananya Datta, Fiona Stapleton, Mark D P Willcox
Purpose: To examine the coaggregation and cohesion between the commonly isolated bacteria from contact lens cases. Methods: Four or five strains each of commonly isolated bacteria from contact lens cases, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Serratia marcescens, were grown, washed, mixed in equal proportions, and allowed to coaggregate for 24 hours. Lactose (0.06 M), sucrose (0.06 M), and pronase (2 mg/mL; 2 hours, 37°C) were used to inhibit coaggregation...
January 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053670/the-complete-genome-sequence-of-cronobacter-sakazakii-atcc-29544-t-a-food-borne-pathogen-isolated-from-a-child-s-throat
#9
Seongok Kim, You-Tae Kim, Hyunjin Yoon, Ju-Hoon Lee, Sangryeol Ryu
BACKGROUND: Cronobacter sakazakii is an emerging opportunistic pathogen that is associated with rare but life-threatening cases of severe diseases: meningitis, necrotizing enterocolitis, and sepsis in premature and full-term infants. However, the pathogenesis mechanism of this pathogen remains largely unknown. To determine its pathogenesis at the genomic level, the genome of C. sakazakii ATCC 29544(T) was completely sequenced and analyzed. RESULTS: The genomic DNA, containing a circular chromosome and three plasmids, is composed of 4,511,265 bp with a GC content of 56...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050817/phosphatidylcholine-coatings-deliver-local-antimicrobials-and-reduce-infection-in-a-murine-model-a-preliminary-study
#10
Michael A Harris, Karen E Beenken, Mark S Smeltzer, Warren O Haggard, J Amber Jennings
BACKGROUND: Phosphatidylcholine coatings have been shown to elute antibiotics for several days. A recently developed biofilm inhibitor, cis-2-decenoic acid (C2DA), has been shown to exhibit synergistic activity with several common antibiotics. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of C2DA and amikacin dual drug delivery from a phosphatidylcholine coating. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) What are the in vitro elution profiles of amikacin and C2DA from phosphatidylcholine-coated coupons in incubated phosphate-buffered saline? (2) Does the presence of C2DA in eluate samples lower the amount of amikacin needed for bacterial inhibition in overnight bacterial turbidity assays? (3) Does addition of amikacin and C2DA result in decreased colony-forming units (CFUs) on wire implants and bone when compared with phosphatidylcholine coatings alone in a mouse model of periprosthetic joint infection? METHODS: Effects of loading concentrations were assessed during 7-day in vitro elution studies for coatings containing all mixtures of 0%, 5%, 15%, and 25% wt of amikacin and C2DA (n = 4) through quantitative high-performance liquid chromatography concentration determination and plotting concentration eluted over time...
January 3, 2017: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049020/eradication-ofpseudomonas-aeruginosacells-by-cathodic-electrochemical-currents-delivered-with-graphite-electrodes
#11
Tagbo H R Niepa, Hao Wang, Jeremy L Gilbert, Dacheng Ren
Antibiotic resistance is a major challenge to the treatment of bacterial infections associated with medical devices and biomaterials. One important intrinsic mechanism of such resistance is the formation of persister cells that are phenotypic variants of microorganisms and highly tolerant to antibiotics. Recently, we reported a new approach to eradicating persister cells of Pseudomonas aeruginosa using low-level direct electrochemical current (DC) and synergy with the antibiotic tobramycin. To further understand the underlying mechanism and develop this technology toward possible medical applications, we investigated the electricidal activities of non-metallic biomaterial on persister and biofilm cells of P...
December 31, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046010/tetr-family-regulator-brpt-modulates-biofilm-formation-in-streptococcus-sanguinis
#12
Jinlin Liu, Victoria N Stone, Xiuchun Ge, Madison Tang, Fadi Elrami, Ping Xu
Biofilms are a key component in bacterial communities providing protection and contributing to infectious diseases. However, mechanisms involved in S. sanguinis biofilm formation have not been clearly elucidated. Here, we report the identification of a novel S. sanguinis TetR repressor, brpT (Biofilm Regulatory Protein TetR), involved in biofilm formation. Deletion of brpT resulted in a significant increase in biofilm formation. Interestingly, the mutant accumulated more water soluble and water insoluble glucans in its biofilm compared to the wild-type and the complemented mutant...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045163/crispr-cas9-technology-applications-in-genome-engineering-development-of-sequence-specific-antimicrobials-and-future-prospects
#13
REVIEW
César de la Fuente-Núñez, Timothy K Lu
The development of CRISPR-Cas9 technology has revolutionized our ability to edit DNA and to modulate expression levels of genes of interest, thus providing powerful tools to accelerate the precise engineering of a wide range of organisms. In addition, the CRISPR-Cas system can be harnessed to design "precision" antimicrobials that target bacterial pathogens in a DNA sequence-specific manner. This capability will enable killing of drug-resistant microbes by selectively targeting genes involved in antibiotic resistance, biofilm formation and virulence...
January 3, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039134/characterizing-a-family-of-secretory-proteins-associated-with-different-morphotypes-in-cryptococcus-neoformans
#14
Rachana Gyawali, Srijana Upadhyay, Joshua Way, Xiaorong Lin
: Cryptococcus neoformans, an opportunistic human fungal pathogen, can undergo yeast to hyphal transition in response to environmental cues. This morphological transition is associated with changes in the expression of cell surface proteins. The Cryptococcus cell surface and secreted protein Cfl1 is the first identified adhesin in Basidiomycota. Cfl1 is shown to regulate morphology, biofilm formation, and intercellular communication. Four additional homologs of CFL1 are encoded in the Cryptococcus genome: DHA1, DHA2, CPL1, and CFL105 The common features of this gene family are the conserved C-terminal SIGC domain and the presence of an N-terminal signal peptide...
December 30, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036246/down-regulation-of-pe11-a-cell-wall-associated-esterase-enhances-the-biofilm-growth-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-and-reduces-cell-wall-virulence-lipid-levels
#15
Shivangi Rastogi, Amit Kumar Singh, Garima Pant, Kalyan Mitra, Koneni V Sashidhara, Manju Y Krishnan
PE11 (Rv1169c or LipX) is a cell wall associated esterase/lipase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis(Mtb). Evidences suggest that PE11 is expressed by Mtb both in vitro and in vivo. Previous studies have shown that when expressed in the non-pathogenic surrogate M. smegmatis, PE11 leads to modification in cell wall lipid content and enhanced virulence. Since cell wall lipids often play different roles in pathogenic and non-pathogenic mycobacteria, we investigated the role of PE11 in its host, Mtb. Mtb with lowered expression of PE11 (PE11 knock-down) displayed significant changes in colony morphology and cell wall lipid profile, confirming the role of PE11 in cell wall architecture...
December 30, 2016: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034758/ymdb-mediated-down-regulation-of-suca-inhibits-biofilm-formation-and-induces-apramycin-susceptibility-in-escherichia-coli
#16
Moonjeong Kim, Minji Kim, Kwang-Sun Kim
Antibiotic resistance associated with biofilm formation is a major concern when treating bacterial infections with drugs. The genes and pathways involved in biofilm formation have been extensively studied and are also involved in antibiotic resistance. Recent studies show that overexpression of Escherichia coli (E. coli) YmdB protein alters gene expression profiles and inhibits biofilm formation. Therefore, it is expected that YmdB and its regulated genes play a key role in development of biofilm and antibiotic resistance phenotypes...
December 26, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031194/azithromycin-ciprofloxacin-impregnated-urinary-catheters-avert-bacterial-colonization-biofilm-formation-and-inflammation-in-a-murine-model-of-foreign-body-associated-urinary-tract-infections-caused-by-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#17
Hina Saini, Anitha Vadekeetil, Sanjay Chhibber, Kusum Harjai
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a multifaceted pathogen causing a variety of biofilm-mediated infections including catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs). High prevalence of CAUTIs in hospitals, their clinical manifestations like urethritis, cystitis, pyelonephritis, meningitis, urosepsis, death; and economic challenges underscore the need for management of these infections. Biomaterial modification of urinary catheters with dual drugs seems an interesting approach to combat CAUTIs by inhibiting biofilm...
December 28, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025643/transferrin-impacts-bacillus-thuringiensis-biofilm-levels
#18
Bianca Garner, Elrica Brown, Martha Taplin, Angel Garcia, Baracka Williams-Mapp
The present study examined the impact of transferrin on Bacillus thuringiensis biofilms. Three commercial strains, an environmental strain (33679), the type strain (10792), and an isolate from a diseased insect (700872), were cultured in iron restricted minimal medium. All strains produced biofilm when grown in vinyl plates at 30°C. B. thuringiensis 33679 had a biofilm biomass more than twice the concentration exhibited by the other strains. The addition of transferrin resulted in slightly increased growth yields for 2 of the 3 strains tested, including 33679...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018312/enzyme-mediated-quenching-of-the-pseudomonas-quinolone-signal-pqs-promotes-biofilm-formation-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-by-increasing-iron-availability
#19
Beatrix Tettmann, Christine Niewerth, Frank Kirschhöfer, Anke Neidig, Andreas Dötsch, Gerald Brenner-Weiss, Susanne Fetzner, Joerg Overhage
The 2-alkyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-quinolone 2,4-dioxygenase HodC was previously described to cleave the Pseudomonas quinolone signal, PQS, which is exclusively used in the complex quorum sensing (QS) system of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic pathogen employing QS to regulate virulence and biofilm development. Degradation of PQS by exogenous addition of HodC to planktonic cells of P. aeruginosa attenuated production of virulence factors, and reduced virulence in planta. However, proteolytic cleavage reduced the efficacy of HodC...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011229/differential-colony-size-cell-length-and-cellular-proteome-of-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-urine-vs-stone-nidus-of-kidney-stone-patients
#20
Ratree Tavichakorntrakool, Patcharee Boonsiri, Vitoon Prasongwatana, Aroonlug Lulitanond, Chaisiri Wongkham, Visith Thongboonkerd
BACKGROUND: Escherichia coli is associated with kidney stone disease, as a cause or an effect (secondary or recurrent urinary tract infection, UTI). Defining phenotypic or functional differences between E. coli inside stone nidus (ECS, associated with infection-induced stone) and outside the stone (i.e. from urine) (ECU, represented secondary infection) would be helpful to better understand bacterial involvement in this disease. METHODS: ECS and ECU were isolated from 100 stone formers and subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility test, ERIC-PCR genotyping, determination of biofilm formation, bacterial colony size on agar plate and cell length in broth, 2-DE, nanoLC-MS/MS, protein network analysis, and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity assay...
December 20, 2016: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
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