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level of biofilm formation

Hongping Shi, Xueyan Zhou, Wencheng Zou, Yongxiang Wang, Changwei Lei, Rong Xiang, Long Zhou, Bihui Liu, Anyun Zhang, Hongning Wang
The objective of this study was to investigate the co-occurrence of biofilms and quinolone resistance in Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium mediated by IncHI2-type oqxAB-positive plasmids. Among the 40 Salmonella strains, we found that 27 isolates formed biofilms and displayed identical multidrug-resistance profiles to ciprofloxacin, doxycycline, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, ampicillin and streptomycin, based on biofilm formation assays and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. In particular, a single S...
June 18, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Euna Oh, Katelyn J Andrews, Byeonghwa Jeon
Campylobacter is a leading foodborne pathogen worldwide. Biofilm formation is an important survival mechanism that sustains the viability of Campylobacter under harsh stress conditions. Iron affects biofilm formation in some other bacteria; however, the effect of iron on biofilm formation has not been investigated in Campylobacter . In this study, we discovered that ferrous (Fe2+ ) and ferric (Fe3+ ) iron stimulated biofilm formation in Campylobacter jejuni . The sequestration of iron with an iron chelator prevented the iron-mediated biofilm stimulation...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Somayyeh Hosseinzadeh, Habib Dastmalchi Saei, Malahat Ahmadi, Taghi Zahraei Salehi
Background and Objectives: Salmonellosis due to multi-drug resistant Salmonella Typhimurium with biofilm formation ability is a serious public health threat worldwide. Studies have shown that medicinal plants inhibit the growth of bacterial species. The present study aimed at determining antibiotic resistance pattern and biofilm formation ability of S. Typhimurium isolated from poultry flocks. Moreover, the antibacterial activity of Licochalcone A (LAA) and Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) against the studied isolates were investigated in this study...
February 2018: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
Emma Reece, Sean Doyle, Peter Greally, Julie Renwick, Siobhán McClean
Many cystic fibrosis (CF) airway infections are considered to be polymicrobial and microbe-microbe interactions may play an important role in disease pathology. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aspergillus fumigatus are the most prevalent bacterial and fungal pathogens isolated from the CF airway, respectively. We have previously shown that patients co-colonized with these pathogens had comparable outcomes to those chronically colonized with P. aeruginosa . Our objective was to examine the interactions between A...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Christopher Ealand, Binayak Rimal, James Chang, Lethabo Mashigo, Melissa Chengalroyen, Lusanda Mapela, Germar Beukes, Edith Machowski, Sung Joon Kim, Bavesh Kana
Resuscitation promoting factors (Rpfs) have previously been shown to act as growth stimulatory molecules via their lysozyme-like activity on peptidoglycan in the bacterial cell wall. In this study, we investigated the ability of Mycobacterium smegmatis strains lacking rpf genes to form biofilms and tested their susceptibility to cell wall targeting agents. M. smegmatis encodes four distinct rpf homologues, namely MSMEG_5700 ( rpfA ), MSMEG_5439 ( rpfB ), MSMEG_4640 ( rpfE2 ) and MSMEG_4643 ( rpfE ). During axenic growth of the wild type strain, all four mRNA transcripts were expressed to varying degrees but MSMEG_4643 was significantly greater during exponential growth...
June 18, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Kun Cao, Fubin Lai, Xin-Lu Zhao, Qiu-Xia Wei, Xin-Yu Miao, Ruiguang Ge, Qing-Yu He, Xuesong Sun
Given their involvement in catalysis, infection, and biofilm formation, Fe and Mn are essential for bacterial survival and virulence. In this study, we found that Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) could grow in the Mn-deficient medium (MDCM). Furthermore, findings showed that the Fe concentration in the bacterium increased when the Mn concentration decreased. In addition, it was noted that supplementing MDCM with Fe resulted in the recovery of bacterial growth. Quantitative proteomics using stable-isotope dimethyl labeling was performed to investigate the adaptive growth mechanism of S...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
C K Youn, Y Jun, E-R Jo, S-J Jang, H Song, S I Cho
OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to compare the anti-biofilm activities of four commonly available antiseptic eardrops against biofilms from methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and quinolone-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in vitro. METHODS: The anti-biofilm activities of 50 per cent Burow's solution, vinegar with water (1:1), 2 per cent acetic acid solution, and 4 per cent boric acid solution were evaluated using biofilm assays. Additionally, the anti-biofilm activities of the four antiseptic solutions against tympanostomy tube biofilms were compared using a scanning electron microscope...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
Jianeng Xu, Conghui Huang, Xiaoyang Shi, Shengkun Dong, Baoling Yuan, Thanh H Nguyen
PVC pipe loops were constructed to simulate household premise plumbing. These pipe loops were exposed to water treated by physical processes at three water treatment plants in Xiamen, China from August 2016 to June 2017. After the biofilms were allowed to develop inside the pipes, these pipes were deconstructed and exposed to organic-free chlorine solution buffered at pH 6.8 ± 0.2 for 48 h. The decay of chlorine by these biofilms was higher than by the effluent waters that were used to grow the biofilms...
June 13, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Kuan-Jung Chen, Cheng-Kang Lee
Dispersin B (DspB) has shown a great potential for the hydrolysis of polymeric β-1,6-N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (PNAG) to disperse the biofilms formed by various bacteria but with no killing activity. Here we have investigated whether a silver-binding peptide (AgBP) fused to DspB can induce the in situ formation of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) and conjugated to the structure of DspB so that the bacteria cells released from the dispersed biofilm will be killed by the conjugated AgNP. However, the desired conjugate could be obtained because of the silver ions itself was found to precipitate DspB...
June 13, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Bin Zhu, Lei Song, Xiangzhen Kong, Lorna C Macleod, Ping Xu
Streptococcus sanguinis is an early colonizer of tooth surfaces and a key player in plaque biofilm development. However, the mechanism of biofilm formation of S. sanguinis is still unclear. Here, we showed that deletion of a transcription factor, brpL , promotes cell aggregation and biofilm formation in S. sanguinis SK36. Glucan, a polysaccharide synthesized from sucrose, was over-produced and aggregated in the biofilm of Δ brpL , which was necessary for better biofilm formation ability of Δ brpL . Quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that gtfP was significantly up-regulated in Δ brpL , which increased the productions of water-insoluble and water-soluble glucans...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Bertram Daum, Vicki Gold
Bacteria and archaea are evolutionarily distinct prokaryotes that diverged from a common ancestor billions of years ago. However, both bacteria and archaea assemble long, helical protein filaments on their surface through a machinery that is conserved at its core. In both domains of life, the filaments are required for a diverse array of important cellular processes including cell motility, adhesion, communication and biofilm formation. In this review, we highlight the recent structures of both the type IV pilus machinery and the archaellum determined in situ...
June 27, 2018: Biological Chemistry
Arunachalam Kannappan, Ramar Mohankumar, Ramanathan Srinivasan, Govindaraju Archunan, Shunmugiah Karutha Pandian, Kandasamy Ruckmani, Arumugam Veera Ravi
Staphylococcal infections associated with indwelling medical devices are difficult to eradicate owing to its recalcitrant nature of biofilms to conventional antibiotics. In our earlier study, we reported the efficacy of geraniol (GE) in inhibiting the in vitro biofilm formation of S. epidermidis and adaptive resistant development. To examine the in vivo potential of GE in eradicating the in vivo colonization of S. epidermidis, an implanted rat jugular vein catheter model was developed. Oral supplementation of GE (GE at 200 mg/kg bw for three days) in rats infected with S...
June 11, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
Sara García-Salinas, Hellen Elizondo-Castillo, Manuel Arruebo, Gracia Mendoza, Silvia Irusta
Even though essential oils (EOs) have been used for therapeutic purposes, there is now a renewed interest in the antimicrobial properties of phytochemicals and EOs in particular. Their demonstrated low levels of induction of antimicrobial resistance make them interesting for bactericidal applications, though their complex composition makes it necessary to focus on the study of their main components to identify the most effective ones. Herein, the evaluation of the antimicrobial action of different molecules present in EOs against planktonic and biofilm-forming Gram-positive ( Staphylococcus aureus ) and Gram-negative ( Escherichia coli ) bacteria was assessed...
June 8, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Beatriz Helena Dias Panariello, Marlise I Klein, Ewerton Garcia De Oliveira Mima, Ana Cláudia Pavarina
Background : Fluconazole (FLZ) is a drug commonly used for the treatment of Candida infections. However, β-glucans in the extracellular matrices (ECMs) hinder FLZ penetration into Candida biofilms, while extracellular DNA (eDNA) contributes to the biofilm architecture and resistance. Methods : This study characterized biofilms of FLZ-sensitive (S) and -resistant (R) Candida albicans and Candida glabrata in the presence or absence of FLZ focusing on the ECM traits. Biofilms of C. albicans American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 90028 (CaS), C...
2018: Journal of Oral Microbiology
Yi Xu, Chao Wang, Jun Hou, Peifang Wang, Lingzhan Miao, Guoxiang You
Inhibitory effects of ceria nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) on biofilm were investigated individually and in combination with phosphate (P), ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), humic acid (HA) and citrate (CA) to further explore the toxicity alleviating solutions. Exposure to 20 mg/L CeO2 NPs significantly decreased the performance of biofilm in nutrients removal. Distribution experiments suggested >98% of the CeO2 NPs retained in microbial aggregates, leading to 51.26 μg/L Ce ions dissolution. The dissolved CeIV and its further being reduced to CeIII stimulated the formation of O2 - and OH, which increased lipid peroxidation level to 130...
June 1, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Behrooz Sadeghi Kalani, Gholamreza Irajian, Lida Lotfollahi, Esmail Abdollahzadeh, Shabnam Razavi
Listeria monocytogenes is known as a major food-borne pathogen causing a severe life-threatening disease, listeriosis, in susceptible patients. This bacterium has special features that facilitate its survival in different conditions and cause resistance to antibacterial agents and biocides. Toxin-antitoxin (TA) system has a potential to be introduced as an antibacterial target because of its participation in cell physiology, including stress response, antiphage activity, biofilm formation, and resistance to antibiotics...
June 4, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Zhiwei Guan, Ying Wang, Lijuan Gao, Weican Zhang, Xuemei Lu
Cytophaga hutchinsonii, belonging to Bacteroidetes, is speculated to use a novel cell-contact mode to digest cellulose. In this study, we identified a histone-like protein HU, CHU_2750, in C. hutchinsonii, whose transcription could be induced by crystalline but not amorphous cellulose. We constructed a CHU_2750-deleted mutant and expressed CHU_2750 in Escherichia coli to study the gene's functions. Our results showed that although the deletion of CHU_2750 was not lethal to C. hutchinsonii, the mutant displayed an abnormal filamentous morphology, loose nucleoid, and obvious defects in the degradation of crystalline cellulose and cell motility...
June 6, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Serena Rigo, Chao Cai, Gesine Gunkel-Grabole, Lionel Maurizi, Xiaoyan Zhang, Jian Xu, Cornelia G Palivan
Microbial contamination and biofilm formation of medical devices is a major issue associated with medical complications and increased costs. Consequently, there is a growing need for novel strategies and exploitation of nanoscience-based technologies to reduce the interaction of bacteria and microbes with synthetic surfaces. This article focuses on surfaces that are nanostructured, have functional coatings, and generate or release antimicrobial compounds, including "smart surfaces" producing antibiotics on demand...
May 2018: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Nikolai Lebedev, Matthew D Yates, Igor Griva, Leonard M Tender
Bacterial cell polarity is an internal asymmetric distribution of subcellular components, including proteins, lipids, and other molecules that correlates with the cell ability to sense energy and metabolite sources, chemical signals, quorum signals, toxins, and movement in the desired directions. This ability also plays central role in cell attachment to various surfaces and biofilm formation. Mechanisms and factors controlling formation of this cell internal asymmetry are not completely understood. As a step in this direction, in the present work, we develop an approach for analyzing how information about inorganic substrate can be non-genetically coded inside an individual bacterial cell...
June 6, 2018: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
Kasi Manikandan, Deepika Prasad, Ankita Srivastava, Nirpendra Singh, Sadaf Dabeer, Anuja Krishnan, K Muniyappa, Krishna Murari Sinha
Cyclic di-GMP and cyclic di-AMP are second messengers produced by a wide variety of bacteria. They influence bacterial cell survival, biofilm formation, virulence and bacteria-host interactions. However, many of their cellular targets and biological effects are yet to be determined. A chemical proteomics approach revealed that Mycobacterium smegmatis RecA (MsRecA) possesses a high-affinity cyclic di-AMP binding activity. We further demonstrate that both cyclic di-AMP and cyclic di-GMP bind specifically to the C-terminal motif of MsRecA and Mycobacterium tuberculosis RecA (MtRecA)...
June 5, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
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