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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910884/the-hha-tomb-toxin-antitoxin-system-shows-conditional-toxicity-and-promotes-persister-cell-formation-by-inhibiting-apoptosis-like-death-in-s-typhimurium
#1
Sangeeta Jaiswal, Prajita Paul, Chandrashekhar Padhi, Shilpa Ray, Daniel Ryan, Shantoshini Dash, Mrutyunjay Suar
Toxin-antitoxin (TA) modules are two component "addictive" genetic elements found on either plasmid or bacterial chromosome, sometimes on both. TA systems perform a wide range of functions like biofilm formation, persistence, programmed cell death, phage abortive infection etc. Salmonella has been reported to contain several such TA systems. However, the hemolysin expression modulating protein (Hha) and its adjacent uncharacterized hypothetical protein TomB (previously known as YbaJ), have not been listed as a TA module in Salmonella...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908256/a-review-on-nano-antimicrobials-metal-nanoparticles-methods-and-mechanisms
#2
Edris Hoseinzadeh, Pouran Makhdoumi, Parisa Taha, John Stelling, Hooshyar Hossini, Mohammad Amjad Kamal, Ghulam Md Ashraf
Nanotechnology is a scientific and engineering technology conducted at the Nano-scale, such as in the fields of compound fabric manufacturing, food processing, agricultural processing, and engineering, as well as in medical and medicinal application. In recent decade, nanomaterial applications for antimicrobial works have been interested by many researchers. Available reports show that some of the metal oxide Nanoparticles including; Al2O3, TiO2, ZnO, CuO, Co3O4, In2O3, MgO, SiO2, ZrO2, Cr2O3, Ni2O3, Mn2O3, CoO, and Nickel oxide have toxicity toward several microorganisms and they could successfully kill numerous bacteria...
December 1, 2016: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902776/inhibition-of-candida-albicans-biofilm-formation-by-the-synthetic-lactoferricin-derived-peptide-hlf1-11
#3
Paola Morici, Roberta Fais, Cosmeri Rizzato, Arianna Tavanti, Antonella Lupetti
The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of the synthetic peptide hLF1-11 against biofilm produced by clinical isolates of Candida albicans with different fluconazole susceptibility. The antibiofilm activity of the peptide hLF1-11 was assessed in terms of reduction of biofilm cellular density, metabolic activity and sessile cell viability. The extent of morphogenesis in hLF1-11 treated and untreated biofilms was also investigated microscopically. Transcription levels of genes related to cell adhesion, hyphal development and extracellular matrix production were analysed by qRT-PCR in hLF1-11 treated and untreated biofilms...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902758/oldenlandia-diffusa-extract-inhibits-biofilm-formation-by-haemophilus-influenzae-clinical-isolates
#4
Takeaki Wajima, Yui Anzai, Tetsuya Yamada, Hideaki Ikoshi, Norihisa Noguchi
Oldenlandia diffusa has been empirically used as a therapeutic adjunct for the treatment of respiratory infections. To establish the basic evidence of its clinical usefulness, antimicrobial and biofilm inhibitory activities of an O. diffusa extract were examined against clinical isolates of Haemophilus influenzae, a major causative pathogen of respiratory and sensory organ infections. No significant growth inhibitory activity was observed during incubation for more than 6 h after the extract addition into a culture of H...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902428/high-concentrations-of-intracellular-ap4a-and-or-ap5a-in-developing-myxococcus-xanthus-cells-inhibit-sporulation
#5
Yoshio Kimura, Chihiro Tanaka, Katsuho Sasaki, Masashi Sasaki
Diadenosine polyphosphates (ApnA) are thought to act as signaling molecules regulating stress responses and biofilm formation in prokaryotes. However, ApnA function in Myxococcus xanthus remains unknown. Here, we investigated the role of ApnA in M. xanthus, using the wild-type and ApnA hydrolase (apaH) mutant strains exposed to various stress conditions. In both wild-type and apaH mutant cells cultured on starvation medium (CF agar), the levels of intracellular diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A) and pentaphosphate (Ap5A) increased several fold during the first 16 h of development, and decreased gradually thereafter...
November 28, 2016: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891050/evaluating-the-effect-of-oxygen-concentrations-on-antibiotic-sensitivity-growth-and-biofilm-formation-of-human-pathogens
#6
Shilpi Gupta, Nozrin Laskar, Daniel E Kadouri
Standard antimicrobial susceptibility tests are performed in vitro under normal room oxygen conditions to predict the in vivo effectiveness of antimicrobial therapy. The aim of this study was to conduct a comprehensive analysis of the effect of different oxygen levels on the antibiotic susceptibility of two strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. It was found that anoxic conditions caused reduced sensitivity of bacteria to aminoglycoside antibiotics in four of six bacteria used in the study...
2016: Microbiology Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889172/safety-assessment-of-tetragenococcus-halophilus-isolates-from-doenjang-a-korean-high-salt-fermented-soybean-paste
#7
Do-Won Jeong, Sojeong Heo, Jong-Hoon Lee
We assessed the safety of 49 Tetragenococcus halophilus strains isolated from doenjang in Korea. Minimum inhibitory concentration assays showed that all strains can be considered as susceptible to ampicillin, erythromycin, penicillin G, tetracycline, and vancomycin, but resistant to ciprofloxacin based on the Enterococcus breakpoint values provided by the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility testing in 2015. Ciprofloxacin resistance was sufficiently high to consider the potential for acquisition of transmissible determinants...
April 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888610/camp-independent-signal-pathways-stimulate-hyphal-morphogenesis-in-candida-albicans
#8
Salvatore M Parrino, Haoyu Si, Shamoon Naseem, Kevin Groudan, Justin Gardin, James B Konopka
The fungal pathogen Candida albicans can transition from budding to hyphal growth, which promotes biofilm formation and invasive growth into tissues. Stimulation of adenylyl cyclase to form cAMP induces hyphal morphogenesis. The failure of cells lacking adenylyl cyclase (cyr1Δ) to form hyphae has suggested that cAMP signaling is essential for hyphal growth. However, cyr1Δ mutants also grow slowly and have defects in morphogenesis, making it unclear whether hyphal inducers must stimulate cAMP, or if normal basal levels of cAMP are required to maintain cellular health needed for hyphal growth...
November 26, 2016: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878175/synergistic-effects-of-mining-and-urban-effluents-on-the-level-and-distribution-of-methylmercury-in-a-shallow-aquatic-ecosystem-of-the-bolivian-altiplano
#9
L Alanoca, S Guédron, D Amouroux, S Audry, M Monperrus, E Tessier, S Goix, D Acha, P Seyler, D Point
Lake Uru Uru (3686 m a.s.l.) located in the Bolivian Altiplano region receives both mining effluents and urban wastewater discharges originating from the surrounding local cities which are under rapid development. We followed the spatiotemporal distribution of different mercury (Hg) compounds and other metal(oid)s (e.g., Fe, Mn, Sb, Ti and W) in both water and sediments during the wet and dry seasons along a north-south transect of this shallow lake system. Along the transect, the highest Hg and metal(oid) concentrations in both water and sediments were found downstream of the confluences with mining effluents...
November 23, 2016: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874045/morphological-and-proteomic-analysis-of-biofilms-from-the-antarctic-archaeon-halorubrum-lacusprofundi
#10
Y Liao, T J Williams, J Ye, J Charlesworth, B P Burns, A Poljak, M J Raftery, R Cavicchioli
Biofilms enhance rates of gene exchange, access to specific nutrients, and cell survivability. Haloarchaea in Deep Lake, Antarctica, are characterized by high rates of intergenera gene exchange, metabolic specialization that promotes niche adaptation, and are exposed to high levels of UV-irradiation in summer. Halorubrum lacusprofundi from Deep Lake has previously been reported to form biofilms. Here we defined growth conditions that promoted the formation of biofilms and used microscopy and enzymatic digestion of extracellular material to characterize biofilm structures...
November 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864170/control-of-biofilm-formation-antibiotics-and-beyond
#11
Ammar Algburi, Nicole Comito, Dimitri Kashtanov, Leon M T Dicks, Michael L Chikindas
Biofilm-associated bacteria are less sensitive to antibiotics than free-living (planktonic) cells. Furthermore, with variation in concentration of antibiotics throughout a biofilm, microbial cells are often exposed to levels below inhibitory concentrations and may develop resistance. This, and the irresponsible use of antibiotics, lead to the selection of pathogens that are difficult to eradicate. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention use the terms "antibiotic" and "antimicrobial agents" interchangeably...
November 18, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856967/nanosized-building-blocks-for-customizing-novel-antibiofilm-approaches
#12
A J Paula, H Koo
Recent advances in nanotechnology provide unparalleled flexibility to control the composition, size, shape, surface chemistry, and functionality of materials. Currently available engineering approaches allow precise synthesis of nanocompounds (e.g., nanoparticles, nanostructures, nanocrystals) with both top-down and bottom-up design principles at the submicron level. In this context, these "nanoelements" (NEs) or "nanosized building blocks" can 1) generate new nanocomposites with antibiofilm properties or 2) be used to coat existing surfaces (e...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845335/an-iron-detection-system-determines-bacterial-swarming-initiation-and-biofilm-formation
#13
Chuan-Sheng Lin, Yu-Huan Tsai, Chih-Jung Chang, Shun-Fu Tseng, Tsung-Ru Wu, Chia-Chen Lu, Ting-Shu Wu, Jang-Jih Lu, Jim-Tong Horng, Jan Martel, David M Ojcius, Hsin-Chih Lai, John D Young
Iron availability affects swarming and biofilm formation in various bacterial species. However, how bacteria sense iron and coordinate swarming and biofilm formation remains unclear. Using Serratia marcescens as a model organism, we identify here a stage-specific iron-regulatory machinery comprising a two-component system (TCS) and the TCS-regulated iron chelator 2-isocyano-6,7-dihydroxycoumarin (ICDH-Coumarin) that directly senses and modulates environmental ferric iron (Fe(3+)) availability to determine swarming initiation and biofilm formation...
November 15, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843315/antibacterial-abilities-and-biocompatibilities-of-ti-ag-alloys-with-nanotubular-coatings
#14
Xingwang Liu, Ang Tian, Junhua You, Hangzhou Zhang, Lin Wu, Xizhuang Bai, Zeming Lei, Xiaoguo Shi, Xiangxin Xue, Hanning Wang
PURPOSE: To endow implants with both short- and long-term antibacterial activities without impairing their biocompatibility, novel Ti-Ag alloy substrates with different proportions of Ag (1, 2, and 4 wt% Ag) were generated with nanotubular coverings (TiAg-NT). METHODS: Unlike commercial pure Ti and titania nanotube, the TiAg-NT samples exhibited short-term antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and double staining with SYTO 9 and propidium iodide...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842489/a-novel-phase-variant-of-the-cholera-pathogen-shows-stress-adaptive-cryptic-transcriptomic-signatures
#15
Bliss Lambert, Maheshi Dassanayake, Dong-Ha Oh, Shana B Garrett, Sang-Yeol Lee, Gregg S Pettis
BACKGROUND: In a process known as phase variation, the marine bacterium and cholera pathogen Vibrio cholerae alternately expresses smooth or rugose colonial phenotypes, the latter being associated with advanced biofilm architecture and greater resistance to ecological stress. To define phase variation at the transcriptomic level in pandemic V. cholerae O1 El Tor strain N16961, we compared the RNA-seq-derived transcriptomes among the smooth parent N16961, its rugose derivative (N16961R) and a smooth form obtained directly from the rugose at high frequencies consistent with phase variation (N16961SD)...
November 14, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836762/passive-immunization-against-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-recombinant-pila-in-a-murine-burn-wound-model
#16
Mehdi Mousavi, Bahador Behrouz, Gholamreza Irajian, Mehdi Mahdavi, Fatemeh Korpi, Mohammad Motamedifar
Pseudomonas aeruginosa type IV pili have an essential role in twitching motility, colonization and biofilm formation. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of intraperitoneal administration of rabbit anti-recombinant PilA (anti-r-PilA) immunoglobulin G (IgG) against P. aeruginosa infection in a mouse burn-wound model. After burn and infection, mortality rate was assessed in all mice, and that of mice passively immunized with rabbit anti-r-PilA IgG was compared to non-immunized mice. Bacterial quantities in the skin and internal organs were measured to determine the level of systemic infection...
November 9, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834106/probiotic-lactobacillus-fermentum-uco-979c-biofilm-formation-on-ags-and-caco-2-cells-and-helicobacter-pylori-inhibition
#17
M J Salas-Jara, E A Sanhueza, A Retamal-Díaz, C González, H Urrutia, A García
The ability of the human isolate Lactobacillus fermentum UCO-979C to form biofilm and synthesize exopolysaccharide on abiotic and biotic models is described. These properties were compared with the well-known Lactobacillus casei Shirota to better understand their anti-Helicobacter pylori probiotic activities. The two strains of lactobacilli synthesized exopolysaccharide as detected by the Dubois method and formed biofilm on abiotic and biotic surfaces visualized by crystal violet staining and scanning electron microscopy...
November 2016: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833605/lactobacillus-fermentum-atcc-23271-displays-in-vitro-inhibitory-activities-against-candida-spp
#18
Monique S do Carmo, Francisca M F Noronha, Mariana O Arruda, Ênnio P da Silva Costa, Maria R Q Bomfim, Andrea S Monteiro, Thiago A F Ferro, Elizabeth S Fernandes, Jorge A Girón, Valério Monteiro-Neto
Lactobacilli are involved in the microbial homeostasis in the female genital tract. Due to the high prevalence of many bacterial diseases of the female genital tract and the resistance of microorganisms to various antimicrobial agents, alternative means to control these infections are necessary. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the probiotic properties of well-characterized Lactobacillus species, including L. acidophilus (ATCC 4356), L. brevis (ATCC 367), L. delbrueckii ssp. delbrueckii (ATCC 9645), L. fermentum (ATCC 23271), L...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833601/synergistic-nisin-polymyxin-combinations-for-the-control-of-pseudomonas-biofilm-formation
#19
Des Field, Nynke Seisling, Paul D Cotter, R P Ross, Colin Hill
The emergence and dissemination of multi-drug resistant pathogens is a global concern. Moreover, even greater levels of resistance are conferred on bacteria when in the form of biofilms (i.e., complex, sessile communities of bacteria embedded in an organic polymer matrix). For decades, antimicrobial peptides have been hailed as a potential solution to the paucity of novel antibiotics, either as natural inhibitors that can be used alone or in formulations with synergistically acting antibiotics. Here, we evaluate the potential of the antimicrobial peptide nisin to increase the efficacy of the antibiotics polymyxin and colistin, with a particular focus on their application to prevent biofilm formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832188/melatonin-receptor-agonists-as-the-perioceutics-agents-for-periodontal-disease-through-modulation-of-porphyromonas-gingivalis-virulence-and-inflammatory-response
#20
Wei Zhou, Xuan Zhang, Cai-Lian Zhu, Zhi-Yan He, Jing-Ping Liang, Zhong-Chen Song
AIM: "Perioceutics" including antimicrobial therapy and host modulatory therapy has emerged as a vital adjunctive treatment of periodontal disease. Melatonin level was significantly reduced in patients with periodontal diseases suggesting melatonin could be applied as a potential "perioceutics" treatment of periodontal diseases. This study aims to investigate the effects of melatonin receptor agonists (melatonin and ramelteon) on Porphyromonas gingivalis virulence and Porphyromonas gingivalis-derived lipopolysaccharide (Pg-LPS)-induced inflammation...
2016: PloS One
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