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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236620/influence-of-huang-lian-jie-du-decoction-on-quorum-sensing-system-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#1
Fei Xia, Lihua Ye, Ping Wang, Mingwei Zhang
Context • Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P aeruginosa) is an opportunistic and nosocomial, Gram-negative pathogen that is characteristic of quorum sensing (QS) modulation. QS inhibition (QSI) is considered to be a new approach to antimicrobial treatment that may reduce issues of antibiotic resistance. Traditional Chinese herbs have been recognized as a source of QSI. Objective • This study was intended to investigate whether the Huang Lian Jie Du decoction (HLJJD) possesses the ability to produce anti-QS activity...
February 27, 2017: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223387/activity-of-sanguinarine-against-candida-albicans-biofilms
#2
Hua Zhong, Dan-Dan Hu, Gan-Hai Hu, Juan Su, Shuang Bi, Zhuo-Er Zhang, Zheng Wang, Ri-Li Zhang, Zheng Xu, Yuan-Ying Jiang, Yan Wang
C. albicans biofilms show resistance to many clinical antifungal agents, and play a considerable contributing role in the process of C. albicans infections. New antifungal agents against C. albicans biofilms are sorely needed. The aim of this study was to evaluate sanguinarine (SAN) for its activity against Candida albicans biofilms and explore the underlying mechanism. The MIC50 of SAN was 3.2 μg/mL. While ≥ 0.8 μg/mL SAN could suppress C. albicans biofilms. Further mechanism study revealed that ≥ 0...
February 21, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217912/cold-adaptation-of-the-antarctic-haloarchaea-halohasta-litchfieldiae-and-halorubrum-lacusprofundi
#3
Timothy J Williams, Yan Liao, Jun Ye, Rhiannon P Kuchel, Anne Poljak, Mark J Raftery, Ricardo Cavicchioli
Halohasta litchfieldiae represents ∼ 44% and Halorubrum lacusprofundi ∼ 10% of the hypersaline, perennially cold (≥ -20°C) Deep Lake community in Antarctica. We used proteomics and microscopy to define physiological responses of these haloarchaea to growth at high (30°C) and low (10 and 4°C) temperatures. The proteomic data indicate that both species responded to low temperature by modifying their cell envelope including protein N-glycosylation, maintaining osmotic balance and translation initiation, and modifying RNA turnover and tRNA modification...
February 20, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217123/virulence-markers-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-escherichia-coli-strains-with-hybrid-eaec-upec-genotypes-recovered-from-sporadic-cases-of-extraintestinal-infections
#4
Flaviane B M Lara, Danielly R Nery, Pâmela M de Oliveira, Mayana L Araujo, Fabiana R Q Carvalho, Lorena C F Messias-Silva, Leonardo B Ferreira, Celio Faria-Junior, Alex L Pereira
Virulence genes from different E. coli pathotypes are blended in hybrid strains. E. coli strains with hybrid enteroaggregative/uropathogenic (EAEC/UPEC) genotypes have sporadically emerged causing outbreaks of extraintestinal infections, however their association with routine infections is yet underappreciated. We assessed 258 isolates of E. coli recovered from 86 consecutive cases of extraintestinal infections seeking EAEC and hybrid genotype (EAEC/UPEC) strains. Extensive virulence genotyping was carried out to detect 21 virulence genes, including molecular predictors of EAEC and UPEC strains...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216386/serotonin-disturbs-colon-epithelial-tolerance-of-commensal-e-coli-by-increasing-nox2-derived-superoxide
#5
Suhrid Banskota, Sushil Chandra Regmi, Jaya Gautam, Pallavi Gurung, Yu-Jeong Lee, Sae Kwang Ku, Jin-Hyung Lee, Jintae Lee, Hyeun Wook Chang, Sang Joon Park, Jung-Ae Kim
Adherent-invasive E. coli colonization and Toll-like receptor (TLR) expression are increased in the gut of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. However, the underlying mechanism of such changes has not been determined. In the current study, it was examined whether gut serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) can induce adherent-invasive E. coli colonization and increase TLR expression. In a co-culture system, commensal E. coli strain (BW25113, BW) adhered minimally to colon epithelial cells, but this was significantly enhanced by 5-HT to the level of a pathogenic strain (EDL933)...
February 17, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210244/assessment-of-the-antimicrobial-activity-of-olive-leaf-extract-against-foodborne-bacterial-pathogens
#6
Yanhong Liu, Lindsay C McKeever, Nasir S A Malik
Olive leaf extract (OLE) has been used traditionally as a herbal supplement since it contains polyphenolic compounds with beneficial properties ranging from increasing energy levels, lowering blood pressure, and supporting the cardiovascular and immune systems. In addition to the beneficial effects on human health, OLE also has antimicrobial properties. The aim of this work was to investigate the antimicrobial effect of OLE against major foodborne pathogens, including Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Salmonella Enteritidis...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202392/sophisticated-regulation-of-transcriptional-factors-by-the-bacterial-phosphoenolpyruvate-sugar-phosphotransferase-system
#7
REVIEW
Anne Galinier, Josef Deutscher
The phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) is a carbohydrate transport and phosphorylation system present in bacteria of all different phyla and in archaea. It is usually composed of three proteins or protein complexes, enzyme I, HPr and enzyme II, which are phosphorylated at histidine or cysteine residues. However, in many bacteria, HPr can also be phosphorylated at a serine residue. The PTS functions not only as carbohydrate transporter, but also regulates numerous cellular processes by either phosphorylating its target proteins or by interacting with them in a phosphorylation-dependent manner...
February 12, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199146/morphological-change-and-decreasing-transfer-rate-of-biofilm-featured-listeria-monocytogenes-egde
#8
Yuejia Lee, Chinling Wang
Listeria monocytogenes , a lethal foodborne pathogen, has the ability to resist the hostile food processing environment and thus frequently contaminates ready-to-eat foods during processing. It is commonly accepted that the tendency of L. monocytogenes ' to generate biofilms on various surfaces enhances its resistance to the harshness of the food processing environment. However, the role of biofilm formation in the transferability of L. monocytogenes EGDe remains controversial. We examined the growth of Listeria biofilms on stainless steel surfaces and their effect on the transferability of L...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198976/role-of-candida-species-from-hiv-infected-children-in-enamel-caries-lesions-an-in-vitro-study
#9
Senda Charone, Maristela Barbosa Portela, Karol de Oliveira Martins, Rosangela Maria Soares, Gloria Fernanda Castro
Objectives: This study analyzed the capacity of Candida spp. from dental biofilm of HIV infected (HIV+) children to demineralize primary molar enamel in vitro by Transversal Microhardness (TMH), Polarized Light Microscopy (PLM) and the quantity of calcium ions (Ca2+) released from the enamel. Material and Methods: Candida spp. samples were isolated from the supragingival biofilm of HIV+ children. A hundred and forty (140) enamel blocks were randomly assigned to six groups: biofilm formed by C...
January 2017: Journal of Applied Oral Science: Revista FOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198348/down-regulation-of-pe11-a-cell-wall-associated-esterase-enhances-the-biofilm-growth-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-and-reduces-cell-wall-virulence-lipid-levels
#10
Shivangi Rastogi, Amit Kumar Singh, Garima Pant, Kalyan Mitra, Koneni V Sashidhara, Manju Y Krishnan
PE11 (Rv1169c or LipX) is a cell wall associated esterase/lipase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Evidences suggest that PE11 is expressed by Mtb both in vitro and in vivo. Previous studies have shown that PE11 leads to modification in cell wall lipid content and enhanced virulence when expressed in the non-pathogenic surrogate Mycobacterium smegmatis. Since cell wall lipids often play different roles in pathogenic and non-pathogenic mycobacteria, we investigated the role of PE11 in its host, Mtb. Mtb with lowered expression of PE11 (PE11 knock-down) displayed significant changes in colony morphology and cell wall lipid profile, confirming the role of PE11 in cell wall architecture...
January 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186120/dimerisation-induced-formation-of-the-active-site-and-the-identification-of-three-metal-sites-in-eal-phosphodiesterases
#11
Dom Bellini, Sam Horrell, Andrew Hutchin, Curtis W Phippen, Richard W Strange, Yuming Cai, Armin Wagner, Jeremy S Webb, Ivo Tews, Martin A Walsh
The bacterial second messenger cyclic di-3',5'-guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) is a key regulator of bacterial motility and virulence. As high levels of c-di-GMP are associated with the biofilm lifestyle, c-di-GMP hydrolysing phosphodiesterases (PDEs) have been identified as key targets to aid development of novel strategies to treat chronic infection by exploiting biofilm dispersal. We have studied the EAL signature motif-containing phosphodiesterase domains from the Pseudomonas aeruginosa proteins PA3825 (PA3825(EAL)) and PA1727 (MucR(EAL))...
February 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183669/multi-metal-assessment-on-biofilm-formation-in-offshore-environment
#12
Muthukumar Krishnan, Hans-Uwe Dahms, Palanichamy Seeni, Subramanian Gopalan, Vignesh Sivanandham, Kim Jin-Hyoung, Rathinam Arthur James
Eight metal and non-metal coupons were exposed to seawater in offshore platform laboratory on biofilm formation in seven days of every month interval time for one year period. Among metal coupons, the highest mean heterotrophic biofilm bacteria population (HBBP) ranges were observed in mild steel (MS) coupon (33.03 to 40.00 [×10(4)] CFUscm(-2)) and lowest in copper (Cu) coupon (3.0 to 5.1 [×10(4)] CFUscm(-2)). Non-metal coupons show, highest mean HBBP ranges in glass (GL) coupon (29.6 to 66.0 [×10(4)] CFUscm(-2)) and lowest in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) coupon (34...
April 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171809/the-ins-and-outs-of-cyclic-di-gmp-signaling-in-vibrio-cholerae
#13
REVIEW
Jenna G Conner, David Zamorano-Sánchez, Jin Hwan Park, Holger Sondermann, Fitnat H Yildiz
The second messenger nucleotide cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) governs many cellular processes in the facultative human pathogen Vibrio cholerae. This organism copes with changing environmental conditions in aquatic environments and during transitions to and from human hosts. Modulation of c-di-GMP allows V. cholerae to shift between motile and sessile stages of life, thus allowing adaptation to stressors and environmental conditions during its transmission cycle. The V. cholerae genome encodes a large set of proteins predicted to degrade and produce c-di-GMP...
February 4, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167523/the-role-of-cyclic-di-gmp-and-exopolysaccharide-in-type-iv-pilus-dynamics
#14
Jan Ribbe, Amy E Baker, Sebstian Euler, George A O'Toole, Berenike Maier
For Pseudomonas aeruginosa the levels of cyclic di-GMP govern the transition from the planktonic state to biofilm formation. Type IV pili (T4P) are crucial determinants of biofilm structure and dynamics, but it is unknown how the levels of c-di-GMP affect pilus dynamics. Here, we scrutinized how c-di-GMP affects molecular motor properties and adhesive behavior of T4P. By means of retraction, T4P generated forces of ∼ 30 pN. Deletion mutants in the proteins with known roles in biofilm formation, swarming motility and exopolysaccharide (EPS) production, specifically, the diguanulate cyclases sadC and roeA or the c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase bifA, showed only modest effects on velocity or force of T4P retraction...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167518/pleiotropic-regulation-of-virulence-genes-in-streptococcus-mutans-by-a-conserved-small-protein-sprv
#15
Manoharan Shankar, Mohammad S Hossain, Indranil Biswas
: Streptococcus mutans, an oral pathogen associated with dental caries, colonizes tooth surfaces as polymicrobial biofilms, known as dental plaque. S. mutans expresses several virulence factors that allow the organism to tolerate environmental fluctuations and to compete with other microorganisms. We recently identified that a small hypothetical protein (90 amino acids) was essential for normal growth of the bacterium. Inactivation of the gene SMU.2137 encoding this protein caused a significant growth defect and loss of various virulence-associated functions...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166091/oral-polyphosphate-suppresses-bacterial-collagenase-production-and-prevents-anastomotic-leak-due-to-serratia-marcescens-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#16
Sanjiv K Hyoju, Robin E Klabbers, Melissa Aaron, Monika A Krezalek, Alexander Zaborin, Mara Wiegerinck, Neil H Hyman, Olga Zaborina, Harry Van Goor, John C Alverdy
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of polyphosphate on intestinal bacterial collagenase production and anastomotic leak in mice undergoing colon surgery. BACKGROUND: We have previously shown that anastomotic leak can be caused by intestinal pathogens that produce collagenase. Because bacteria harbor sensory systems to detect the extracellular concentration of phosphate which controls their virulence, we tested whether local phosphate administration in the form of polyphosphate could attenuate pathogen virulence and prevent leak without affecting bacterial growth...
February 3, 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163702/the-social-life-of-aeromonas-through-biofilm-and-quorum-sensing-systems
#17
REVIEW
Emilie Talagrand-Reboul, Estelle Jumas-Bilak, Brigitte Lamy
Bacteria of the genus Aeromonas display multicellular behaviors herein referred to as "social life". Since the 1990s, interest has grown in cell-to-cell communication through quorum sensing signals and biofilm formation. As they are interconnected, these two self-organizing systems deserve to be considered together for a fresh perspective on the natural history and lifestyles of aeromonads. In this review, we focus on the multicellular behaviors of Aeromonas, i.e., its social life. First, we review and discuss the available knowledge at the molecular and cellular levels for biofilm and quorum sensing...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152096/inhibitory-activity-of-hinokitiol-against-biofilm-formation-in-fluconazole-resistant-candida-species
#18
Dae Jin Kim, Min Woo Lee, Jeong Su Choi, Seung Gwan Lee, Jee Yoon Park, Suhng Wook Kim
The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of hinokitiol to inhibit the formation of Candida biofilms. Biofilm inhibition was evaluated by quantification of the biofilm metabolic activity with XTT assay. Hinokitiol efficiently prevented biofilm formation in both fluconazole-susceptible and fluconazole-resistant strains of Candida species. We determined the expression levels of specific genes previously implicated in biofilm development of C. albicans cells by real-time RT-PCR. The expression levels of genes associated with adhesion process, HWP1 and ALS3, were downregulated by hinokitiol...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151960/d-amino-acids-reduce-enterococcus-faecalis-biofilms-in-vitro-and-in-the-presence-of-antimicrobials-used-for-root-canal-treatment
#19
Peter S Zilm, Victor Butnejski, Giampiero Rossi-Fedele, Stephen P Kidd, Suzanne Edwards, Krasimir Vasilev
Enterococcus faecalis is the most frequent species present in post-treatment disease and plays a significant role in persistent periapical infections following root canal treatment. Its ability to persist in stressful environments is inter alia, due to its ability to form biofilms. The presence of certain D-amino acids (DAAs) has previously been shown to reduce formation of Bacillus subtilis biofilms. The aims of this investigation were to determine if DAAs disrupt biofilms in early and late growth stages for clinical E...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149841/effects-of-curcumin-on-helicobacter-pylori-infection
#20
Vaclav Vetvicka, Jana Vetvickova, Rafael Fernandez-Botran
BACKGROUND: Curcumin is a well-established natural molecule with significant biological and pharmaceutical effects. Its effects on Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection have been repeatedly confirmed both in animal and human models. This study directly compared five different samples to evaluate if the effects are general or if they differ among samples. METHODS: Using a mouse model, we studied the effects of curcumin on lipid peroxide (LPO) level, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and urease activity, number of colonized bacteria, levels of anti-H...
December 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
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