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level of biofilm formation

Graciela Del Valle Castillo, Silvia López de Blanc, Claudia Elena Sotomayor, Ana Isabel Azcurra
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the association between malignant and premalignant lesions and the virulence factor profile of Candida spp. recovered from different oral lesions. DESIGN: Candida spp. isolated from malignant lesions (squamous cell carcinoma, OC, n = 25), atypical lichen planus (AL, n = 11), chronic candidiasis (CC, n = 25), and asymptomatic carriers (WI, n = 15, control strains.) Isolates were identified in chromogenic medium, colony morphology and biochemical tests...
February 19, 2018: Archives of Oral Biology
Lin-Rui Tan, Peng-Fei Xia, Raymond J Zeng, Qian Li, Xue-Fei Sun, Shu-Guang Wang
The interactions between antibiotics and microorganisms have attracted enormous research attentions. In this study, we investigated the effects of two typical aminoglycoside antibiotics on the aggregation of the model cyanobacterium, Synechococcus elongatus, and the dominating strain in algal blooms, Microcystis aeruginosa, via the analysis of zeta potentials, hydrophobicity, and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) secretion. The results showed that low-level antibiotics promoted the aggregation of S. elongatus and M...
April 11, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Juliet Kinyua, Noelia Negreira, Ann-Kathrin McCall, Tim Boogaerts, Christoph Ort, Adrian Covaci, Alexander L N van Nuijs
Recent studies have demonstrated the role of biofilms on the stability of drug residues in wastewater. These factors are pertinent in wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) when estimating community-level drug use. However, there is scarce information on the biotransformation of drug residues in the presence of biofilms and the potential use of transformation products (TPs) as biomarkers in WBE. The purpose of this work was to investigate the formation of TPs in sewage reactors in the presence of biofilm mimicking conditions during in-sewer transport...
April 5, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Yao Sun, Hong Lu, Xiaoxiao Zhang, Qing Wu, Wenzi Bi, Haiyang Liu, Jianming Cao, Tieli Zhou
The current worldwide emergence of resistance to antibiotics in bacteria constitutes an important growing public health threat. The mechanisms of the emergence and dissemination of resistance remain to be elucidated. Adaptation laboratory evolution provide an approach to investigate the acquisition of de novo mutations that confers drug resistance. In our study, 3 Enterococcus faecalis clinical isolates and E. faecalis ATCC29212 were evolved resistant to 8 kinds of antimicrobials spanning five chemical classes, including ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, penicillin, imipenem, vancomycin, chloramphenicol and gentamicin...
April 3, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Tránsito García García, Magali Ventroux, Abderahmane Derouiche, Vladimir Bidnenko, Sara Correia Santos, Céline Henry, Ivan Mijakovic, Marie-Françoise Noirot-Gros, Sandrine Poncet
Bacillus subtilis cells can adopt different life-styles in response to various environmental cues, including planktonic cells during vegetative growth, sessile cells during biofilm formation and sporulation. While switching life-styles, bacteria must coordinate the progression of their cell cycle with their physiological status. Our current understanding of the regulatory pathways controlling the decision-making processes and triggering developmental switches highlights a key role of protein phosphorylation...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Huiming Tang, Yunyun Zhang, Yifan Ma, Mengmeng Tang, Dongsheng Shen, Meizhen Wang
Quorum sensing (QS) regulates the behavior of bacterial populations and promotes their adaptation and survival under stress. As QS is responsible for the virulence of vast majority of bacteria, quorum quenching (QQ), the interruption of QS, has become an attractive therapeutic strategy. However, the role of QS in stress tolerance and the efficiency of QQ under stress in bacteria are seldom explored. In this study, we demonstrated that QS-regulated catalase (CAT) expression and biofilm formation help Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 resist nicotine stress...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Mikio Bakke, Shigeya Suzuki
ATP is the universal energy molecule found in animals, plants, and microorganisms. ATP rapid hygiene monitoring tests have been employed in the food industry to ensure that adequate cleanliness is being maintained. However, because ATP is hydrolyzed to ADP and AMP by metabolic processes, by heat treatment, or under acidic or alkaline conditions, total adenylate (ATP+ADP+AMP [A3]) could be a more reliable sanitation indicator of food residues that may cause biofilm formation and allergen contamination. Therefore, a novel hygiene monitoring system to measure A3 was developed based on the luciferin-luciferase assay with the combination of two enzymes, pyruvate kinase and pyruvate phosphate dikinase, that can convert ADP into ATP and recycle AMP into ATP, respectively...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
M Vasil', Z Farkasova, J Elecko, J Illek, F Zigo
In this study we investigated 24 strains of Staphylococcus aureus and 33 strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis isolated from milk of sheep with clinical mastitis, for their ability to form biofilms. Three methods for the determination of a biofilm were used. When evaluating the growth on Congo Red agar (CRA), 79.2% S. aureus strains and 72.7% S. epidermidis strains were positive for biofilm formation. The quantitative method of biofilm detection on a Microtitre Plate (MTP) revealed positive results for 75.0% of S...
December 2017: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
Nicolas L Fernandez, Disha Srivastava, Amanda L Ngouajio, Christopher M Waters
In Vibrio cholerae , high intracellular cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) is associated with a biofilm lifestyle while low intracellular c-di-GMP is associated with a motile lifestyle. C-di-GMP also regulates other behaviors such as acetoin production and type II secretion; however, the extent of phenotypes regulated by c-di-GMP is not fully understood. We recently determined that the sequence upstream of the DNA repair gene three methyladenine glycosylase ( tag ) was positively induced by c-di-GMP, suggesting this signaling system might impact DNA repair pathways...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
Yuko Matsuda, Otomi Cho, Takashi Sugita, Daiki Ogishima, Satoru Takeda
PURPOSE: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is a common superficial infection of the vaginal mucous membranes caused by the fungus Candida albicans. The aim of this study was to assess the mechanisms underlying the inhibitory effects of the culture supernatants of Lactobacillus gasseri and L. crispatus, the predominant microbiota in Asian healthy women, on C. albicans biofilm formation. The inhibition of C. albicans adhesion to HeLa cells by Lactobacillus culture supernatant was also investigated...
March 30, 2018: Mycopathologia
Ashok Gavaskar, D Rojas, F Videla
Nanotechnology involves manipulation of matter measuring 1-100 nm in at least one of its dimensions at the molecular level. Engineering and manipulation of matter at the molecular level has several advantages in the field of medicine (nanomedicine) since most of the biological molecules exist and function at a nanoscale. Though promising, questions still remain on how much of this will ultimately translate into achieving better patient care. Concerns of cost-effectiveness and nanotechnology safety still remain unclear...
March 30, 2018: European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology: Orthopédie Traumatologie
Bin Zhou, Defeng Zhang
Infection following orthopedic surgery is a major complication that can have serious implications on patient health. The present study aimed to investigate the antibacterial effects of bacteriocins obtained from Lactobacillus rhamnosus on a rabbit model of Staphylococcus aureus infection following knee replacement surgery. Blood samples were collected 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 days after bacteriocin injection, and C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin (IL)-6 levels were measured using commercial ELISA kits. In addition, biofilm formation was evaluated by fluorescence microscopy...
March 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Cuong Quoc Nguyen, William John Thrift, Arunima Bhattacharjee, Saba Ranjbar, Tara Gallagher, Mahsa Darvishzadeh-Varcheie, Robert Noboru Sanderson, Filippo Capolino, Katrine Whiteson, Pierre Baldi, Allon I Hochbaum, Regina Ragan
Detection of bacterial metabolites at low concentrations in fluids with complex background allows for applications ranging from detecting biomarkers of respiratory infections to identifying contaminated medical instruments. Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy, when utilizing plasmonic nanogaps, has the relatively unique capacity to reach trace molecular detection limits in a label free format, yet large-area device fabrication incorporating nanogaps with this level of performance has proven difficult...
March 28, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Yuuki Sakaue, Shoji Takenaka, Tatsuya Ohsumi, Hisanori Domon, Yutaka Terao, Yuichiro Noiri
BACKGROUND: Chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) has been proven to be effective in preventing and controlling biofilm formation. At the same time, an increase in calculus formation is known as one of considerable side effects. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether mineral deposition preceding a calculus formation would occur at an early stage after the use of CHG using an in vitro saliva-related biofilm model. METHODS: Biofilms were developed on the MBEC™ device in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth containing 0...
March 27, 2018: BMC Oral Health
Xiangyu Ju, Junjie Li, Mengjiao Zhu, Zhaoxin Lu, Fengxia Lv, Xiaoyu Zhu, Xiaomei Bie
Biofilms are communities of bacterial cells that serve to protect them from external adverse influences and enhance bacterial resistance to antibiotics and sanitizers. Here, we studied the regulatory effects of glucose and sodium chloride on biofilm formation in Salmonella serovar Dublin (S. Dublin). To analyze expression levels of the quorum sensing gene luxS, we created a luxS knockout mutant. Also, antimicrobial resistance, hydrophobicity and autoinducer-2 (AI-2) activity of both the wild-type (WT) and the mutant strain were investigated...
May 2018: Food Research International
Adson A Souza, Andrea S Costa, Dyély C O Campos, Andressa H M Batista, Gleilton W P Sales, Nádia A P Nogueira, Keila M M Alves, Andrelina Noronha Coelho-de-Souza, Hermógenes D Oliveira
In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of a lipid transfer protein isolated from Morinda citrifolia L. seeds, named McLTP1 , and to investigate its effect in the cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) mouse sepsis model. Antimicrobial assays revealed that McLTP1 (12.5-800 μg/mL) significantly reduced Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538P and ATCC 14458) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC 12228) planktonic growth, reaching maximal inhibition of approximately 50% and 98%, respectively...
March 22, 2018: Biochimie
Rabeb Bennour Hennekinne, Laurent Guillier, Lindsay Fazeuilh, Timothy Ells, Stephen Forsythe, Emily Jackson, Thomas Meheut, Nathalie Gnanou Besse
Cronobacter is a ubiquitous Gram-negative pathogen bacterium capable of surviving in low water activity environments, in particular powdered infant formula (PIF). Seven Cronobacter strains representing four different species (C. sakazakii, n=4; C. malonaticus, n=1; C. muytjensii, n=1; C. turicensis, n=1) were subjected to dry stress and stored in PIF at room temperature. The resulting survivor curves showed that Cronobacter spp. can survive for extended periods of at least three months with a significant, but moderate, variability regarding the level of resistance between species; however, no correlation was evident regarding the origin of strains...
March 25, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Kavita Sharma, Neelima Mahato, Yong Rok Lee
Quantitative investigation and systematic studies of quercetin, total phenolics, flavonoids, antioxidants, antibacterial and antibiofilm or antibiofouling properties of methanolic extracts of onions obtained from six different varieties have been carried out to explore their relative merits in terms of biological activities of fresh and aging onions. Total phenolic content in the extracts was examined spectrophotometrically using Folin-Ciocalteau's phenol reagent and total antioxidant activity was studied by FRAP and DPPH methods...
April 2018: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
Boris Aguilar, Ahmadreza Ghaffarizadeh, Christopher D Johnson, Gregory J Podgorski, Ilya Shmulevich, Nicholas S Flann
The complex morphologies observed in many biofilms play a critical role in the survival of these microbial communities. Recently, the formation of wrinkles has been the focus of many studies aimed at finding fundamental information on morphogenesis during development. While the underlying genetic mechanisms of wrinkling are not well-understood, recent discoveries have led to the counterintuitive idea that wrinkle formation is triggered by localized cell death. This work examines the hypothesis that the material properties of a biofilm both power and control wrinkle formation within biofilms in response to localized cell death...
2018: PloS One
Ravit Malishev, Razan Abbasi, Raz Jelinek, Liraz Chai
Biofilms are aggregates of cells that form surface-associated communities. The cells in a biofilm are interconnected with an extracellular matrix, a network that is made mostly of polysaccharides, proteins and sometimes nucleic acids. Some extracellular matrix proteins form fibers, often termed functional amyloids or amyloid-like fibrils, to differentiate their constructive function from disease-related amyloid fibers. Recent studies of functional amyloid assembly have neglected their interaction with membranes, despite their native assembly in a cellular environment...
March 22, 2018: Biochemistry
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