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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893915/hyperbiofilm-formation-by-bordetella-pertussis-strains-correlates-with-enhanced-virulence-traits
#1
Natalia Cattelan, Jamie Jennings-Gee, Purnima Dubey, Osvaldo M Yantorno, Rajendar Deora
Pertussis or whooping cough caused by the obligate human pathogen Bordetella pertussis is undergoing a world-wide resurgence. Majority of studies with this pathogen are conducted with laboratory-adapted strains which may not be representative of the species as a whole. Biofilm formation by B. pertussis plays an important role in its pathogenesis. We conducted a side-by side comparison of the biofilm forming ability of the prototype laboratory strains with currently circulating isolates from two countries with different vaccination programs...
September 11, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892294/nuclease-activity-gives-an-edge-to-host-defense-peptide-piscidin-3-over-piscidin-1-rendering-it-more-effective-against-persisters-and-biofilms
#2
M Daben J Libardo, Ali Adem Bahar, Buyong Ma, Riqiang Fu, Laura E McCormick, Jun Zhao, Scott A McCallum, Ruth Nussinov, Dacheng Ren, Alfredo M Angeles-Boza, Myriam L Cotten
Host defense peptides (HDPs) feature evolution-tested potency against life-threatening pathogens. While piscidin 1 (p1) and piscidin 3 (p3) are homologous and potent fish HDPs, only p1 is strongly membranolytic. Here, we hypothesize that another mechanism imparts p3 strong potency. We demonstrate that the N-termini of both peptides coordinate Cu(2+) and p3-Cu cleaves isolated DNA at a rate on par with free Cu(2+) but significantly faster than p1-Cu. On planktonic bacteria, p1 is more antimicrobial but only p3 features copper-dependent DNA cleavage...
September 11, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892020/identification-of-staphylococcus-aureus-cellular-pathways-affected-by-the-stilbenoid-lead-drug-sk-03-92-using-a-microarray
#3
William R Schwan, Rebecca Polanowski, Paul M Dunman, Sara Medina-Bielski, Michelle Lane, Marc Rott, Lauren Lipker, Amy Wescott, Aaron Monte, James M Cook, Douglas D Baumann, V V N Phani Babu Tiruveedhula, Christopher M Witzigmann, Cassandra Mikel, Md Toufiqur Rahman
The mechanism of action for a new lead stilbene compound coded SK-03-92 with bactericidal activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is unknown. To gain insight into the killing process, transcriptional profiling was performed on SK-03-92 treated vs. untreated S. aureus. Fourteen genes were upregulated and 38 genes downregulated by SK-03-92 treatment. Genes involved in sortase A production, protein metabolism, and transcriptional regulation were upregulated, whereas genes encoding transporters, purine synthesis proteins, and a putative two-component system (SACOL2360 (MW2284) and SACOL2361 (MW2285)) were downregulated by SK-03-92 treatment...
September 11, 2017: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890520/biofilm-formation-and-determination-of-minimum-biofilm-eradication-concentration-of-antibiotics-in-mycoplasma-hyopneumoniae
#4
Dereje Damte Tassew, Abraham Fikru Mechesso, Na-Hye Park, Ju-Beom Song, Joo-Woon Shur, Seung-Chun Park
The study was aimed to investigate biofilm forming ability of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and to determine the minimum biofilm eradication concentrations of antibiotics. Biofilm forming ability of six strains of M. hyopneumoniae was examined using crystal violet staining on coverslips. The results demonstrated an apparent line of biofilm growth in 3 of the strains isolated from swine with confirmed cases of enzootic pneumonia. BacLight bacterial viability assay revealed that the majority of the cells were viable after 336 hr of incubation...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888654/shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-stec-o22-h8-isolated-from-cattle-reduces-e-coli-o157-h7-adherence-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#5
L Martorelli, A Albanese, D Vilte, R Cantet, A Bentancor, G Zolezzi, I Chinen, C Ibarra, M Rivas, E C Mercado, A Cataldi
PROBLEM ADDRESSED: Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are a group of bacteria responsible for food-associated diseases. Clinical features include a wide range of symptoms such as diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis and the hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), a life-threatening condition. OBJECTIVE: Our group has observed that animals naturally colonized with STEC strains of unknown serotype were not efficiently colonized with E. coli O157:H7 after experimental infection...
September 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887419/oxidative-stressors-modify-the-response-of-streptococcus-mutans-to-its-competence-signal-peptides
#6
Matthew De Furio, Sang Joon Ahn, Robert A Burne, Stephen J Hagen
The dental caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans is continually exposed to several types of stress in the oral biofilm environment. Oxidative stress generated by reactive oxygen species has a major impact on the establishment, persistence and virulence of S. mutans. Here, we combined fluorescent reporter-promoter fusions with single-cell imaging to study the effects of reactive oxygen species on activation of genetic competence in S. mutans Exposure to paraquat, which generates superoxide anion, produced a qualitatively different effect on activation of expression of the gene for the master competence regulator, ComX, than did treatment with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which can yield hydroxyl radical...
September 8, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864654/exogenous-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-pufas-impact-membrane-remodeling-and-affect-virulence-phenotypes-among-pathogenic-vibrio-species
#7
Anna R Moravec, Andrew W Siv, Chelsea R Hobby, Emily N Lindsay, Layla V Norbash, Daniel J Shults, Steven J K Symes, David K Giles
The pathogenic Vibrio species (cholerae, parahaemolyticus and vulnificus) represent a constant threat to human health, causing food-borne and skin wound infections as a result of ingestion or exposure to contaminated water and seafood. Recent studies have highlighted Vibrio's ability to acquire fatty acids from environmental sources and assimilate them into cell membranes. The possession and conservation of such machinery provokes consideration of fatty acids as important factors in the pathogenic lifestyle of Vibrio species...
September 1, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858232/biofilm-producing-salmonella-typhi-chronic-colonization-and-development-of-gallbladder-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Enea Gino Di Domenico, Ilaria Cavallo, Martina Pontone, Luigi Toma, Fabrizio Ensoli
Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhi is the aetiological agent of typhoid or enteric fever. In a subset of individuals, S. Typhi colonizes the gallbladder causing an asymptomatic chronic infection. Nonetheless, these asymptomatic carriers provide a reservoir for further spreading of the disease. Epidemiological studies performed in regions where S. Typhi is endemic, revealed that the majority of chronically infected carriers also harbour gallstones, which in turn, have been indicated as a primary predisposing factor for the onset of gallbladder cancer (GC)...
August 31, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851574/levofloxacin-loaded-bone-cement-delivery-system-highly-effective-against-intracellular-bacteria-and-staphylococcus-aureus-biofilms
#9
Magda Ferreira, Olena Rzhepishevska, Liliana Grenho, Danila Malheiros, Lídia Gonçalves, António J Almeida, Luisa Jordão, Isabel A Ribeiro, Madeleine Ramstedt, Pedro Gomes, Ana Bettencourt
Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen in bone associated infections due to its ability to adhere and form biofilms on bone and/or implants. Moreover, recrudescent and chronic infections have been associated with S. aureus capacity to invade and persist within osteoblast cells. With the growing need of novel therapeutic tools, this research aimed to evaluate some important key biological properties of a novel carrier system composed of acrylic bone cement (polymethylmethacrylate - PMMA), loaded with a release modulator (lactose) and an antibiotic (levofloxacin)...
August 26, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821865/identification-of-bacterial-biofilm-and-the-staphylococcus-aureus-derived-protease-staphopain-on-the-skin-surface-of-patients-with-atopic-dermatitis
#10
Andreas Sonesson, Kornelia Przybyszewska, Sigrid Eriksson, Matthias Mörgelin, Sven Kjellström, Julia Davies, Jan Potempa, Artur Schmidtchen
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by an impaired epidermal barrier, dysregulation of innate and adaptive immunity, and a high susceptibility to bacterial colonization and infection. In the present study, bacterial biofilm was visualized by electron microscopy at the surface of AD skin. Correspondingly, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) isolates from lesional skin of patients with AD, produced a substantial amount of biofilm in vitro. S. aureus biofilms showed less susceptibility to killing by the antimicrobial peptide LL-37 when compared with results obtained using planktonic cells...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800779/proinflammatory-mg-63-cells-response-infection-with-enterococcus-faecalis-cps2-evaluated-by-the-expression-of-tlr-2-il-1%C3%AE-and-inos-mrna
#11
Boy M Bachtiar, Endang W Bachtiar
OBJECTIVE: We have previously demonstrated that unencapsulated Enterococcus faecalis cps2 inhibits biofilm formation of Candida albicans, a fungus commonly found with E. faecalis in periapical lesion. In this study, we compared encapsulated and unencapsulated E. faecalis cps2 strains relationship with osteoblastic (MG-63) cells, whereas E. faecalis ATCC 29212 were used as a reference strain. RESULTS: The binding capacity of E. faecalis to MG-63 cells as shown by each tested strain was comparable, but the unencapsulated strain was less invasive compared to the encapsulated and the reference strains...
August 11, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790201/division-of-labor-bet-hedging-and-the-evolution-of-mixed-biofilm-investment-strategies
#12
Nick Vallespir Lowery, Luke McNally, William C Ratcliff, Sam P Brown
Bacterial cells, like many other organisms, face a tradeoff between longevity and fecundity. Planktonic cells are fast growing and fragile, while biofilm cells are often slower growing but stress resistant. Here we ask why bacterial lineages invest simultaneously in both fast- and slow-growing types. We develop a population dynamic model of lineage expansion across a patchy environment and find that mixed investment is favored across a broad range of environmental conditions, even when transmission is entirely via biofilm cells...
August 8, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783379/phenotypic-and-genetic-heterogeneity-within-biofilms-with-particular-emphasis-on-persistence-and-antimicrobial-tolerance
#13
Faizan A Sadiq, Steve Flint, YanJun Li, Kai Ou, Lei Yuan, Guo Qing He
Phenotypic changes or phase variation within biofilms is an important feature of bacterial dormant life. Enhanced resistance to antimicrobials is one of the distinct features displayed by a fraction of cells within biofilms. It is believed that persisters are mainly responsible for this phenotypic heterogeneity. However, there is still an unresolved debate on the formation of persisters. In this short review, we highlight all known genomic and proteomic changes encountered by bacterial cells within biofilms...
August 7, 2017: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764931/acinetobacter-pittii-maintains-its-ability-to-form-biofilms-on-inanimate-surfaces-after-long-term-desiccation
#14
Zaloa Bravo, Itziar Chapartegui-González, María Lázaro-Díez, José Ramos-Vivas
BACKGROUND: The survival of pathogenic microorganisms in the health care environment has a major role in nosocomial infections. Among the responsible mechanisms that could allow nosocomial pathogens to persist with these stress conditions are their ability to resist desiccation and to form biofilms. AIM: To investigate the survival behaviour of Acinetobacter pittii isolates on inert surfaces and saline microcosms. METHODS: Five A. pittii clinical strains were spotted over white lab coat fragments, glass and plastic surfaces, or inoculated into sterile saline and monitored at room temperature over a period of 43 days...
July 29, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757033/commensal-coagulase-negative-staphylococcus-from-the-udder-of-healthy-cows-inhibits-biofilm-formation-of-mastitis-related-pathogens
#15
Paula Isaac, Luciana Paola Bohl, María Laura Breser, María Soledad Orellano, Agustín Conesa, Marcela Alejandra Ferrero, Carina Porporatto
Bovine mastitis, considered the most important cause of economic losses in the dairy industry, is a major concern in veterinary medicine. Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are the main pathogens associated with intramammary infections, and bacterial biofilms are suspected to be responsible for the persistence of this disease. CNS from the udder are not necessarily associated with intramammary infections. In fact, some commensal CNS have been shown to have biological activities...
August 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747370/survival-persistence-and-isolation-of-the-emerging-multidrug-resistant-pathogenic-yeast-candida-auris-on-a-plastic-healthcare-surface
#16
Rory M Welsh, Meghan L Bentz, Alicia Shams, Hollis Houston, Amanda Lyons, Laura J Rose, Anastasia P Litvintseva
The emerging multidrug-resistant pathogenic yeast Candida auris represents a serious threat to global health. Unlike most other Candida species, this organism appears to be commonly transmitted within healthcare facilities and is capable of causing healthcare-associated outbreaks. To better understand the epidemiology of this emerging pathogen we investigated the ability of C. auris to persist on plastic surfaces common in healthcare settings and compared with that of Candida parapsilosis, a species known to colonize the skin and plastics...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741666/assessment-of-the-potential-of-the-multi-enzyme-producer-bacillus-amyloliquefaciens-us573-as-alternative-feed-additive
#17
Ameny Farhat-Khemakhem, Monia Blibech, Ines Boukhris, Mohamed Makni, Hichem Chouayekh
BACKGROUND: Recently, probiotics have increasingly been used as feed additives in poultry diets as an alternative to antibiotic growth promoters fostering resistance development. RESULTS: This study was aimed at assessing the potential of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens US573 as a direct-fed microbial. The US573 strain was found to be free of harmful enzymatic activities and sensitive to antibiotics. In addition, it showed a good acid and bovine bile tolerance, high adhesion efficacy to chicken enterocytes, and an ability to form biofilms, which may favor its survival and persistence in the animal gastrointestinal tract...
July 25, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736523/sub-minimum-inhibitory-concentrations-of-rhubarb-water-extracts-inhibit-streptococcus-suis-biofilm-formation
#18
Wen-Ya Ding, Yan-Hua Li, He Lian, Xiao-Yu Ai, Yu-Lin Zhao, Yan-Bei Yang, Qiang Han, Xin Liu, Xue-Ying Chen, Zhonggui He
Streptococcus suis is one of the most important swine pathogens, which can cause persistent infection by forming biofilms. In this study, sub-minimum inhibitory concentration (sub-MIC) of rhubarb water extracts were found to inhibit biofilm formation. Two-component signal transduction systems (TCSs), transcriptional regulators, and DNA binding proteins were compared under two conditions: (1) cells treated with sub-MIC rhubarb water extracts and (2) untreated cells. Using an isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) strategy, we found that TCSs constituent proteins of histidine kinase and response regulator were significantly down-regulated...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731758/noncontact-cohesive-swimming-of-bacteria-in-two-dimensional-liquid-films
#19
Ye Li, He Zhai, Sandra Sanchez, Daniel B Kearns, Yilin Wu
Bacterial swimming in confined two-dimensional environments is ubiquitous in nature and in clinical settings. Characterizing individual interactions between swimming bacteria in 2D confinement will help to understand diverse microbial processes, such as bacterial swarming and biofilm formation. Here we report a novel motion pattern displayed by flagellated bacteria in 2D confinement: When two nearby cells align their moving directions, they tend to engage in cohesive swimming without direct cell body contact, as a result of hydrodynamic interaction but not flagellar intertwining...
July 7, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730700/relating-switching-rates-between-normal-and-persister-cells-to-substrate-and-antibiotic-concentrations-a-mathematical-modelling-approach-supported-by-experiments
#20
Gabriel Carvalho, Cyril Guilhen, Damien Balestrino, Christiane Forestier, Jean-Denis Mathias
We developed and compared two mathematical models of variable phenotypic switching rates between normal and persister cells that depend on substrate concentration and antibiotic presence. They could be used to simulate the formation of persisters in environments with concentration gradients such as biofilms. Our models are extensions of a previous model of the dynamics of normal and persistent cell populations developed by Balaban et al. (2004, Science 305: 1622). We calibrated the models' parameters with experimental killing curves obtained after ciprofloxacin treatment of samples regularly harvested from planktonic batch cultures of Klebsiella pneumoniae...
July 21, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
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