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persister cells in biofilm

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146500/motility-biofilm-formation-apoptotic-effect-and-virulence-gene-expression-of-atypical-salmonella-typhimurium-outside-and-inside-caco-2-cells
#1
Ibtissem Chakroun, Abdelkarim Mahdhi, Patricia Morcillo, Hector Cordero, Alberto Cuesta, Amina Bakhrouf, Kacem Mahdouani, M Ángeles Esteban
Disease outbreaks related to waterborne pathogen contamination throughout the world as well as challenges that lie ahead for addressing persistent infection are of renewed interest. In this research, we studied the effects of prolonged exposure of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to the cues encountered in the extracellular environment particularly in seawater microcosm on bacterial virulence and subsequent infection in Caco-2 cells. Our data show a significant difference in biofilm formation, swimming and swarming motilities between normal and stressed cells of S...
November 13, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139571/human-prosthetic-joint-infections-are-associated-with-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-mdscs-implications-for-infection-persistence
#2
Cortney E Heim, Debbie Vidlak, Jessica Odvody, Curtis W Hartman, Kevin L Garvin, Tammy Kielian
Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a devastating complication of joint arthroplasty surgery typified by biofilm formation. Currently, mechanisms whereby biofilms persist and evade immune-mediated clearance in immune competent patients remain largely ill-defined. Therefore, the current study characterized leukocyte infiltrates and inflammatory mediator expression in tissues from patients with PJI compared to aseptic loosening. CD33(+) HLA-DR(-) CD66b(+) CD14(-/low) granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (G-MDSCs) were the predominant leukocyte population at sites of human PJI compared to aseptic tissues...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121701/the-impact-of-isolation-source-in-the-biofilm-formation-characteristics-of-bacillus-cereus
#3
Mohammad Shakhawat Hussain, Deog-Hwan Oh
Human pathogen and food spoiler Bacillus cereus can form biofilm that act as a persistent source of contamination, which is of public health concern. This study aimed to understand how the source of isolation might affect the behavior of biofilm formation. Biofilm formation abilities of 56 strains of B. cereus isolated from different environment including human food poisoning, farm, and food were determined. Crystal violet (CV) assay results revealed significant (p < 0.05) difference in biofilm formation abilities among the strains isolated from different sources only at an early stage of incubation...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120018/rna-metabolism-in-staphylococcus-aureus-virulence
#4
Patrick Linder, Joshua Armitano
The opportunistic pathogen Staphylococcus aureus encounters a variety of host defence systems depending on its localisation during colonisation in the nares, systemic infections within the body, or persistent infections within cells or embedded in biofilms. To respond rapidly to these different environments, this bacterium has evolved, in its longstanding interaction with animal and human hosts, a variety of mechanisms to fine-tune its gene expression. RNA metabolism, including transcription, processing, translation into proteins and RNA decay, is a central player in this response and might in the future be used to treat this feared pathogen...
November 9, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116818/pure-and-oxidized-copper-materials-as-potential-antimicrobial-surfaces-for-spaceflight-activities
#5
C Hahn, M Hans, C Hein, R L Mancinelli, F Mücklich, R Wirth, P Rettberg, C E Hellweg, R Moeller
Microbial biofilms can lead to persistent infections and degrade a variety of materials, and they are notorious for their persistence and resistance to eradication. During long-duration space missions, microbial biofilms present a danger to crew health and spacecraft integrity. The use of antimicrobial surfaces provides an alternative strategy for inhibiting microbial growth and biofilm formation to conventional cleaning procedures and the use of disinfectants. Antimicrobial surfaces contain organic or inorganic compounds, such as antimicrobial peptides or copper and silver, that inhibit microbial growth...
November 8, 2017: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089020/transcriptomic-study-of-salmonella-enterica-subspecies-enterica-serovar-typhi-biofilm
#6
Khee Chian Jason Chin, Todd Duane Taylor, Maxime Hebrard, Kogaan Anbalagan, Marjan Ganjali Dashti, Kia Kien Phua
BACKGROUND: Typhoid fever is an acute systemic infection of humans caused by Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi). In chronic carriers, the bacteria survive the harsh environment of the gallbladder by producing biofilm. The phenotype of S. Typhi biofilm cells is significantly different from the free-swimming planktonic cells, and studies have shown that they are associated with antibiotic resistance, immune system evasion, and bacterial persistence. However, the mechanism of this transition and the events leading to biofilm formation are unknown...
October 31, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081766/an-update-on-candida-tropicalis-based-on-basic-and-clinical-approaches
#7
REVIEW
Diana L Zuza-Alves, Walicyranison P Silva-Rocha, Guilherme M Chaves
Candida tropicalis has emerged as one of the most important Candida species. It has been widely considered the second most virulent Candida species, only preceded by C. albicans. Besides, this species has been recognized as a very strong biofilm producer, surpassing C. albicans in most of the studies. In addition, it produces a wide range of other virulence factors, including: adhesion to buccal epithelial and endothelial cells; the secretion of lytic enzymes, such as proteinases, phospholipases, and hemolysins, bud-to-hyphae transition (also called morphogenesis) and the phenomenon called phenotypic switching...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075628/selective-essential-oils-from-spice-or-culinary-herbs-have-high-activity-against-stationary-phase-and-biofilm-borrelia-burgdorferi
#8
Jie Feng, Shuo Zhang, Wanliang Shi, Nevena Zubcevik, Judith Miklossy, Ying Zhang
Although the majority of patients with acute Lyme disease can be cured with the standard 2-4 week antibiotic treatment, about 10-20% of patients continue suffering from chronic symptoms described as posttreatment Lyme disease syndrome. While the cause for this is debated, one possibility is that persister bacteria are not killed by the current Lyme antibiotics and remain active in the system. It has been reported that essential oils have antimicrobial activities and some have been used by patients with persisting Lyme disease symptoms...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066303/computational-insights-into-promoter-architecture-of-toxin-antitoxin-systems-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#9
Zoozeal Thakur, Vandana Saini, Preeti Arya, Ajit Kumar, Promod K Mehta
Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are two component genetic modules widespread in many bacterial genomes, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). The TA systems play a significant role in biofilm formation, antibiotic tolerance and persistence of pathogen inside the host cells. Deciphering regulatory motifs of Mtb TA systems is the first essential step to understand their transcriptional regulation. In this study, in silico approaches, that is, the knowledge based motif discovery and de novo motif discovery were used to identify the regulatory motifs of 79 Mtb TA systems...
October 21, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055390/mycoplasma-infection-followed-by-time-lapse-microscopy
#10
Laszlo Talas, Gaspar Banfalvi, Eszter Fidrus, Zsuzsa M Szigeti, Gabor Nagy
Early detection of mycoplasma infection is crucial for saving precious often irreplaceable data from the tissues of patients. Mycoplasma infections cause diseases in the upper and lower respiratory tracts, urethritis in men resulting in painful dysuria, urgency and urethral discharge. Cough, fever, headache, urethritis may persist for several weeks and convalescence is slow. The symptoms of these diseases are aggravated by the detection of mycoplasma infections, that takes either a long time, besides being expensive or is specific and restricted to only a limited number of contaminant strains...
October 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026306/enhanced-antifungal-activity-of-voriconazole-loaded-nanostructured-lipid-carriers-against-candida-albicans-with-a-dimorphic-switching-model
#11
Baocheng Tian, Qi Yan, Juan Wang, Chen Ding, Sixiang Sai
Candida commonly adheres to implanted medical devices and forms biofilms. Due to the minimal activity of current antifungals against biofilms, new drugs or drug-delivery systems to treat these persistent infections are urgently needed. In the present investigation, voriconazole-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (Vrc-NLCs) were formulated for enhanced drug-delivery efficiency to C. albicans to increase the antifungal activity of Vrc and to improve the treatment of infectious Candida diseases. Vrc-NLCs were prepared by a hot-melt, high-pressure homogenization method, and size distribution, ζ-potential, morphology, drug-encapsulation efficiency, drug loading, and physical stability were characterized...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992352/in-vivo-pathogenicity-of-trichosporon-asahii-isolates-with-different-in-vitro-enzymatic-profiles-in-an-immunocompetent-murine-model-of-systemic-trichosporonosis
#12
Alexandra M Montoya, Carolina E Luna-Rodríguez, Rogelio de J Treviño-Rangel, Miguel Becerril-García, Raquel G Ballesteros-Elizondo, Odila Saucedo-Cárdenas, Gloria M González
Trichosporon asahii is an opportunistic yeastlike fungus that colonizes the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts and human skin. Although it is an important cause of disseminated infections by non-Candida species, there are a few reports related to its virulence factors and their possible role in in vivo pathogenicity. We developed a murine model of disseminated trichosporonosis in immunocompetent mice for the evaluation of the in vivo pathogenicity of 6 T. asahii isolates with different in vitro virulence factor profiles...
September 9, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972168/pela-and-pelb-form-a-modification-and-secretion-complex-essential-for-pel-polysaccharide-dependent-biofilm-formation-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#13
Lindsey S Marmont, Gregory B Whitfield, Jacquelyn D Rich, Patrick Yip, Laura B Giesbrecht, Carol A Stremick, John C Whitney, Matthew R Parsek, Joe J Harrison, P Lynne Howell
The Pel polysaccharide (PEL) is synthesized by the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa and is an important biofilm constituent critical for bacterial virulence and persistence. PEL is a cationic polymer that promotes cell-cell interactions within the biofilm matrix through electrostatic interactions with extracellular DNA (eDNA). Translocation of PEL across the outer membrane is proposed to occur via PelB, a membrane-embedded porin with a large periplasmic domain predicted to contain 19 tetratricopeptide repeats (TPRs)...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972138/photorhabdus-luminescens-lectin-a-plla-a-new-probe-for-detecting-%C3%AE-galactoside-terminating-glycoconjugates
#14
Ghamdan Beshr, Asfandyar Sikandar, Eva-Maria Jemiller, Nikolai Klymiuk, Dirk Hauck, Stefanie Wagner, Eckhard Wolf, Jesko Koehnke, Alexander Titz
Lectins play important roles in infections by pathogenic bacteria, for example, in host colonization, persistence and biofilm formation. The Gram-negative entomopathogenic bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens symbiotically lives in insect-infecting Heterorhabditis nematodes and kills the insect host upon invasion by the nematode. The P. luminescens genome harbors the gene plu2096 coding for a novel lectin that we named PllA. We analyzed the binding properties of purified PllA with a glycan array and a binding assay in solution...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970174/antimicrobial-and-antibiofilm-activities-of-nanoemulsions-containing-eucalyptus-globulus-oil-against-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-and-candida-spp
#15
Priscilla Maciel Quatrin, Camila Marina Verdi, Márcia Ebling de Souza, Samantha Nunes de Godoi, Bruna Klein, Andre Gundel, Roger Wagner, Rodrigo de Almeida Vaucher, Aline Ferreira Ourique, Roberto Christ Vianna Santos
Candida species are the main responsible microorganisms for causing fungal infections worldwide, and Candida albicans is most frequently associated with infectious processes. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a gram-negative bacterium commonly found in immunocompromised patients. The infection persistence caused by these microorganisms is often related to antimicrobial resistance and biofilm formation. In this context, the objective of the present study was to prepare and characterize nanoemulsions containing Eucalyptus globulus oil and to verify its antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities against P...
September 29, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956388/-c-di-amp-regulates-bacterial-biofilm-formation
#16
Xian Peng, Jiyao Li, Xin Xu
Bacterial biofilm plays an important role in persistent microbial infection. Delineation of the formation and development of bacterial biofilm would provide a promising strategy to treat recalcitrant infection. c-di-AMP (Cyclic diadenosine monophosphate) is a recently identified second messenger of bacteria and involved in plethora of bacterial activities, including cell growth, cell wall homeostasis, biofilm formation and microbial pathogenicity. Here we review the recent literature pertinent to the role and molecular mechanisms of c-di-AMP in regulating biofilm formation of bacteria...
September 25, 2017: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952587/microfluidics-for-antibiotic-susceptibility-and-toxicity-testing
#17
REVIEW
Jing Dai, Morgan Hamon, Sachin Jambovane
The recent emergence of antimicrobial resistance has become a major concern for worldwide policy makers as very few new antibiotics have been developed in the last twenty-five years. To prevent the death of millions of people worldwide, there is an urgent need for a cheap, fast and accurate set of tools and techniques that can help to discover and develop new antimicrobial drugs. In the past decade, microfluidic platforms have emerged as potential systems for conducting pharmacological studies. Recent studies have demonstrated that microfluidic platforms can perform rapid antibiotic susceptibility tests to evaluate antimicrobial drugs' efficacy...
October 9, 2016: Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944561/impact-of-persistent-and-nonpersistent-generic-escherichia-coli-and-salmonella-sp-recovered-from-a-beef-packing-plant-on-biofilm-formation-by-e-%C3%A2-coli-o157
#18
J Visvalingam, T C Ells, X Yang
AIMS: To examine the influence of meat plant Escherichia coli and Salmonella sp. isolates on E. coli O157 biofilm formation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Biofilm formation was quantified by crystal violet staining (A570 nm ) and viable cell numbers for up to 6 days at 15°C. All five persistent E. coli genotypes formed strong biofilms when cultured alone or co-cultured with E. coli O157, with A570 nm values reaching ≥4·8 at day 4, while only two of five nonpersistent genotypes formed such biofilms...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941912/desiccation-an-environmental-and-food-industry-stress-that-bacteria-commonly-face
#19
REVIEW
Julia Esbelin, Tiago Santos, Michel Hébraud
Water is essential for all living organisms, for animals as well as for plants and micro-organisms. For these latter, the presence of water or a humid environment with a high air relative humidity (RH) is necessary for their survival and growth. Thus, variations in the availability of water or in the air relative humidity constitute widespread environmental stresses which challenge microorganisms, and especially bacteria. Indeed, in their direct environment, bacteria are often faced with conditions that remove cell-bound water through air-drying of the atmosphere...
February 2018: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941894/development-of-non-pathogenic-bacterial-biofilms-on-the-surface-of-stainless-steel-which-are-inhibitory-to-salmonella-enterica
#20
Yoonbin Kim, Hoikyung Kim, Larry R Beuchat, Jee-Hoon Ryu
Non-pathogenic bacterial biofilms were developed on the surface of stainless steel possessing desiccation tolerance and antimicrobial activity against Salmonella enterica. Three bacteria exhibiting strong antimicrobial activities against S. enterica were isolated from various soils, foods, and food-contact surfaces. Isolates were identified as Pseudomonas extremorientalis (strain Lettuce-28), Paenibacillus peoriae (strain Lettuce-7), and Streptomyces cirratus (strain Geumsan-207). These bacteria grew rapidly and formed biofilms within 24 h on the surface of stainless steel coupons (SSCs) immersed in laboratory media (tryptic soy broth or Bennet's broth) at 25 °C...
February 2018: Food Microbiology
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