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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430938/characterization-of-yjjj-toxin-of-escherichia-coli
#1
Yuki Maeda, Chun-Yi Lin, Yojiro Ishida, Masayori Inouye, Yoshihiro Yamaguchi, Sangita Phadtare
Reminiscent of eukaryotic apoptotic programmed cell death, bacteria also contain a large number of suicide genes, which are in general co-expressed with their cognate antitoxic genes. These systems called the toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are associated with cellular dormancy, and play major roles in biofilm formation and persistent multi-drug resistance of many human pathogens. In recent years, the study on TA system toxins has become a hot topic due to the health implications of these toxins by virtue of their role in bacterial pathogenicity...
April 19, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422332/biofilm-dispersal-multiple-elaborate-strategies-for-dissemination-of-bacteria-with-unique-properties
#2
REVIEW
Cyril Guilhen, Christiane Forestier, Damien Balestrino
In most environments, microorganisms evolve in a sessile mode of growth, designated as biofilm, which is characterized by cells embedded in a self-produced extracellular matrix. Although a biofilm is commonly described as a "cozy house" where resident bacteria are protected from aggression, bacteria are able to break their biofilm bonds and escape to colonize new environments. This regulated process is observed in a wide variety of species; it is referred to as biofilm dispersal, and is triggered in response to various environmental and biological signals...
April 19, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421881/factors-pivotal-for-designing-of-nanoantimicrobials-an-exposition
#3
Bushra Jamil, Muhammad Imran
Understanding the interplay between bacterial pathogens and antimicrobials is a key to realize the control over infections causing morbidity and mortality. An important current issue of contemporary medicine and microbiology is the search for new strategies for adequate therapy of infectious diseases associated with rapidly emerging multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens. Recently, a great deal of progress has been made in the field of nanobiotechnology towards the development of various nanoantimicrobials (NAMs) as novel therapeutic solution...
April 19, 2017: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407427/microenvironmental-characteristics-and-physiology-of-biofilms-in-chronic-infections-of-cf-patients-are-strongly-affected-by-the-host-immune-response
#4
REVIEW
Peter Ø Jensen, Mette Kolpen, Kasper N Kragh, Michael Kühl
In vitro studies of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other pathogenic bacteria in biofilm aggregates have yielded detailed insight into their potential growth modes and metabolic flexibility under exposure to gradients of substrate and electron acceptor. However, the growth pattern of P. aeruginosa in chronic lung infections of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients is very different from what is observed in vitro, for example, in biofilms grown in flow chambers. Dense in vitro biofilms of P. aeruginosa exhibit rapid O2 depletion within <50-100 μm due to their own aerobic metabolism...
April 2017: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407421/central-venous-catheters-and-biofilms-where-do-we-stand-in-2017
#5
REVIEW
Marie Gominet, Fabrice Compain, Christophe Beloin, David Lebeaux
The use of central venous catheters (CVC) is associated with a risk of microbial colonization and subsequent potentially severe infection. Microbial contamination of the catheter leads to the development of a microbial consortia associated with the CVC surface and embedded in an extracellular matrix, named biofilm. This biofilm provides bacterial cells the ability to survive antimicrobial agents and the host immune system and to disseminate to other sites of the body. The best preventive strategy is to avoid any unnecessary catheterization or to reduce indwelling duration when a CVC is required...
April 2017: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396544/synthetic-p-ppgpp-analogue-inhibitor-of-stringent-response-in-mycobacteria
#6
Kirtimaan Syal, Kelly Flentie, Neerupma Bhardwaj, Krishnagopal Maiti, Narayanaswamy Jayaraman, Christina L Stallings, Dipankar Chatterji
Bacteria elicit an adaptive response against hostile conditions such as starvation and other kind of stresses. Their ability to survive such conditions depends on, in part, stringent response pathways. (p)ppGpp, considered to be the master regulator of stringent response, is a novel target for inhibiting the survival of the bacteria. In mycobacteria, the (p)ppGpp synthetase activity of bifunctional Rel is critical for its stress response and persistence inside the host. Our aim was to design an inhibitor of (p)ppGpp synthesis, follow efficiency through enzyme kinetics, and assess its phenotypic effects in mycobacteria...
April 10, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376782/image-analysis-driven-single-cell-analytics-for-systems-microbiology
#7
Athanasios D Balomenos, Panagiotis Tsakanikas, Zafiro Aspridou, Anastasia P Tampakaki, Konstantinos P Koutsoumanis, Elias S Manolakos
BACKGROUND: Time-lapse microscopy is an essential tool for capturing and correlating bacterial morphology and gene expression dynamics at single-cell resolution. However state-of-the-art computational methods are limited in terms of the complexity of cell movies that they can analyze and lack of automation. The proposed Bacterial image analysis driven Single Cell Analytics (BaSCA) computational pipeline addresses these limitations thus enabling high throughput systems microbiology. RESULTS: BaSCA can segment and track multiple bacterial colonies and single-cells, as they grow and divide over time (cell segmentation and lineage tree construction) to give rise to dense communities with thousands of interacting cells in the field of view...
April 4, 2017: BMC Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373968/streptococcus-suis-serotype-2-biofilms-inhibit-the-formation-of-neutrophil-extracellular-traps
#8
Fang Ma, Li Yi, Ningwei Yu, Guangyu Wang, Zhe Ma, Huixing Lin, Hongjie Fan
Invasive infections caused by Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (SS2) has emerged as a clinical problem in recent years. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are an important mechanism for the trapping and killing of pathogens that are resistant to phagocytosis. Biofilm formation can protect bacteria from being killed by phagocytes. Until now, there have only been a few studies that focused on the interactions between bacterial biofilms and NETs. SS2 in both a biofilm state and a planktonic cell state were incubated with phagocytes and NETs, and bacterial survival was assessed...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362301/assessing-the-population-dynamics-of-escherichia-coli-in-a-metropolitan-river-after-an-extreme-flood-event
#9
Nicole M Masters, Aaron Wiegand, Jasmin M Thompson, Tara L Vollmerhausen, Eva Hatje, Mohammad Katouli
We investigated Escherichia coli populations in a metropolitan river after an extreme flood event. Between nine and 15 of the 23 selected sites along the river were sampled fortnightly over three rounds. In all, 307 E. coli were typed using the PhP typing method and were grouped into common (C) or single (S) biochemical phenotypes (BPTs). A representative from each of the 31 identified C-BPTs was tested for 58 virulence genes (VGs) associated with intestinal and extra-intestinal E. coli, resistance to 22 antibiotics, production of biofilm and cytotoxicity to Vero cells...
April 2017: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357473/effect-of-anaerobiasis-or-hypoxia-on-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-inhibition-of-aspergillus-fumigatus-biofilm
#10
Rajesh Anand, Karl V Clemons, David A Stevens
Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) and Aspergillus fumigatus (Af) are the major bacterial and fungal pathogens in the airways of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. This is likely related to their ability to form biofilms. Both microbes have been associated with CF disease progression. The interplay between these two pathogens has been studied under aerobic conditions, though accumulating data indicates that much of the CF airway is hypoxic or anaerobic. We studied the microbial interaction in these latter environments...
March 29, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314729/efficacy-of-a-sonicating-swab-for-removal-and-capture-of-listeria-monocytogenes-in-biofilm-on-stainless-steel
#11
Tobyn A Branck, Matthew J Hurley, Gianna N Prata, Christina A Crivello, Patrick J Marek
Listeria monocytogenes is of great concern in food processing facilities because it persists in biofilms, potentiating biotransfer. Stainless steel is commonly used for food contact surfaces and transport containers. L. monocytogenes biofilm on stainless steel served as a model system for surface sampling to test the performance of a sonicating swab in comparison to a standard cotton swab. Swab performance and consistency were determined using total viable counts. Stainless steel coupons sampled with both swabs were examined with SEM to visualize biofilms and surface structures (i...
March 17, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303897/synergistic-efficacy-of-bisbenzimidazole-and-carbonyl-cyanide-3-chlorophenylhydrazone-combination-against-mdr-bacterial-strains
#12
Devapriya Sinha, Stuti Pandey, Raja Singh, Vinod Tiwari, Kirti Sad, Vibha Tandon
Activation of efflux systems and the formation of biofilm are majorly adapted by microbes to resist antimicrobial agents. PPEF (bisbenzimidazole) targeting topoisomerase IA is observed to be an effective bactericidal agent against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains and thus can be developed as potent broad-spectrum antibiotic against MDR strains. PPEF treatment did not cause target specific mutation instead it leads to up-regulation of efflux gene in E. coli K12 as a mechanism of resistance...
March 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274550/explorative-gene-analysis-of-antibiotic-tolerance-related-genes-in-adherent-and-biofilm-cells-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#13
Keiji Murakami, Tsuneko Ono, Yasuki Noma, Issei Minase, Takashi Amoh, Yasuhiko Irie, Katsuhiko Hirota, Yoichiro Miyake
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic tolerance has attracted worldwide attention, as it leads to chronic, refractory, and persistent infections that are difficult to control. Bacterial biofilms are well known to be more tolerant to antibiotics compared to planktonic bacteria. We previously revealed that adherent bacteria on a solid surface also exhibited tolerance to antibiotics before forming a biofilm. However, little is known about the mechanisms of antibiotic tolerance for adherent or biofilm cells...
March 5, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258231/antibiotic-tolerance-and-the-alternative-lifestyles-of-staphylococcus-aureus
#14
REVIEW
Long M G Bui, Brian P Conlon, Stephen P Kidd
Staphylococcus aureus has an incredible ability to survive, either by adapting to environmental conditions or defending against exogenous stress. Although there are certainly important genetic traits, in part this ability is provided by the breadth of modes of growth S. aureus can adopt. It has been proposed that while within their host, S. aureus survives host-generated and therapeutic antimicrobial stress via alternative lifestyles: a persister sub-population, through biofilm growth on host tissue or by growing as small colony variants (SCVs)...
February 28, 2017: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258142/activation-mechanism-and-cellular-localization-of-membrane-anchored-alginate-polymerase-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#15
M Fata Moradali, Shirin Ghods, Bernd H A Rehm
The exopolysaccharide, alginate, produced by the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa represents a survival advantage by contributing to formation of characteristic biofilms during infection. Membrane anchored proteins Alg8 (catalytic subunit) and Alg44 (co-polymerase) constitute the alginate polymerase which is being activated by the second messenger molecule c-di-GMP, but the mechanism of activation remains elusive. To shed light on the c-di-GMP mediated activation of alginate polymerization in vivo, an in silico structural model of Alg8 fused to the c-di-GMP binding PilZ domain informed by the structure of cellulose synthase, BcsA, was developed...
March 3, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237889/giardia-duodenalis-induces-pathogenic-dysbiosis-of-human-intestinal-microbiota-biofilms
#16
Jennifer K Beatty, Sarah V Akierman, Jean-Paul Motta, Stacy Muise, Matthew L Workentine, Joe J Harrison, Amol Bhargava, Paul L Beck, Kevin P Rioux, Gordon Webb McKnight, John L Wallace, Andre G Buret
Giardia duodenalis is a prevalent cause of acute diarrheal disease worldwide. However, recent outbreaks in Italy and Norway have revealed a link between giardiasis and the subsequent development of chronic post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome. While the mechanisms underlying the causation of post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome remain obscure, recent findings suggest that alterations in gut microbiota communities are linked to the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome. In the present study, we use a laboratory biofilm system to culture and enrich mucosal microbiota from human intestinal biopsies...
February 22, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237677/growth-viability-and-architecture-of-biofilms-of-listeria-monocytogenes-formed-on-abiotic-surfaces
#17
Fernanda Barbosa Dos Reis-Teixeira, Virgínia Farias Alves, Elaine Cristina Pereira de Martinis
The pathogenic bacterium Listeria monocytogenes can persist in food processing plants for many years, even when appropriate hygienic measures are in place, with potential for contaminating ready-to-eat products and, its ability to form biofilms on abiotic surfaces certainly contributes for the environmental persistence. In this research, L. monocytogenes was grown in biofilms up 8 days attached to stainless steel and glass surfaces, contributing for advancing the knowledge on architecture of mature biofilms, since many literature studies carried out on this topic considered only early stages of cell adhesion...
February 9, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169510/differences-in-internalization-and-growth-of-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-within-the-apoplast-of-edible-plants-spinach-and-lettuce-compared-with-the-model-species-nicotiana-benthamiana
#18
Kathryn M Wright, Louise Crozier, Jacqueline Marshall, Bernhard Merget, Ashleigh Holmes, Nicola J Holden
Internalization of food-borne bacteria into edible parts of fresh produce plants represents a serious health risk. Therefore, internalization of verocytotoxigenic E. coli O157:H7 isolate Sakai was assessed in two species associated with outbreaks, spinach (Spinacia oleracea) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and compared to the model species Nicotiana benthamiana. Internalization occurred in the leaves and roots of spinach and lettuce throughout a 10 day time-course. The plant species, tissue type and inoculum dose all impacted the outcome...
February 7, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167931/the-active-component-of-aspirin-salicylic-acid-promotes-staphylococcus-aureus-biofilm-formation-in-a-pia-dependent-manner
#19
Cristian Dotto, Andrea Lombarte Serrat, Natalia Cattelan, María S Barbagelata, Osvaldo M Yantorno, Daniel O Sordelli, Monika Ehling-Schulz, Tom Grunert, Fernanda R Buzzola
Aspirin has provided clear benefits to human health. But salicylic acid (SAL) -the main aspirin biometabolite- exerts several effects on eukaryote and prokaryote cells. SAL can affect, for instance, the expression of Staphylococcus aureus virulence factors. SAL can also form complexes with iron cations and it has been shown that different iron chelating molecules diminished the formation of S. aureus biofilm. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether the iron content limitation caused by SAL can modify the S...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167629/il-10-plays-opposing-roles-during-staphylococcus-aureus-systemic-and-localized-infections
#20
John M Leech, Keenan A Lacey, Michelle E Mulcahy, Eva Medina, Rachel M McLoughlin
IL-10 is a potent anti-inflammatory mediator that plays a crucial role in limiting host immunopathology during bacterial infections by controlling effector T cell activation. Staphylococcus aureus has previously been shown to manipulate the IL-10 response as a mechanism of immune evasion during chronic systemic and biofilm models of infection. In the present study, we demonstrate divergent roles for IL-10 depending on the site of infection. During acute systemic S. aureus infection, IL-10 plays an important protective role and is required to prevent bacterial dissemination and host morbidity by controlling effector T cells and the associated downstream hyperactivation of inflammatory phagocytes, which are capable of host tissue damage...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
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