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L Garcin, M Le Roch, C-A Agbessi, J-B Lobut, A Lecoeur, G Benoist
"Purple drank" is a dangerous hallucinogenic cocktail commonly used by teenagers, made popular by American rappers and social networks. It combines codeine-based cough syrup, antihistamines such as promethazine, and soda. Unknown by caregivers, it may be responsible for serious neuropsychological complications. We report the effects of this new risky behavior in three patients: a 14-year-old girl and her boyfriend, both found in an initial state of drowsiness, followed by hallucinations and anticholinergic toxidrome; and another teenager whose chronic use led to addiction with increasing doses...
September 23, 2016: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
Paige Zhang, Emily Austin, Margaret Thompson, Steve Lin
A 39-year-old homeless man was found confused and incoherent after ingesting an estimated total of 200 tablets of various medications. He presented to the emergency department with delirium, tachycardia, clonus and hyperthermia of 38.0°C. His condition worsened rapidly with his temperature rising to 39.9°C despite active cooling. The patient was subsequently sedated, intubated, paralysed and admitted to the intensive care unit, where he remained for 38 days. His initial presentation of a large mixed drug overdose manifested as serotonin syndrome, which had a protracted course complicated by ethanol withdrawal...
2016: BMJ Case Reports
Cornel N Stanciu, Thomas M Penders, Eden M Rouse
BACKGROUND: Dextromethorphan (DXM) in combination with antihistamines and/or pseudoephedrine is widely available as an over-the counter remedy commonly used for relief of colds and cough. In supra-therapeutic amounts, DXM has psychoactive effects. These cough preparations have been adopted by many young users of recreational drugs for these effects. OBJECTIVES: This paper aims to highlight the increasingly prevalent practice of Robotripping, review pharmacokinetic and dynamic data and discuss potential tolerance and withdrawal from the substance as well as treatment modalities...
August 2016: American Journal on Addictions
Kelly E Wood, Matthew D Krasowski
INTRODUCTION: Stimulant medications are approved to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children over the age of 6 years. Fatal ingestion of stimulants by children has been reported, although most ingestions do not result in severe toxicity. Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate, a once daily long-acting stimulant, is a prodrug requiring conversion to its active form, dextroamphetamine, in the bloodstream. Based on its unique pharmacokinetics, peak levels of d-amphetamine are delayed...
June 8, 2016: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
P Leveau
Acute pesticide poisoning in children is rare but potentially serious. Some clinical patterns (toxidromes) are suggestive of the drug class: cholinergic crisis for organophosphate or carbamate insecticides; neurological syndrome for rodenticides; digestive and respiratory syndrome for herbicides. Treatment is symptomatic and only a few patients are treated with an antidote: atropine and pralidoxime for organophosphate insecticides, vitamin K for anticoagulant rodenticides.
July 2016: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
N A F Verheijden, B C Koch, Z Brkic, J Alsma, S C E Klein Nagelvoort-Schuit
Intentional or accidental intoxications are common in the emergency department, but are not always sufficiently recognised. When intoxication is suspected, the causative agent or combination of agents often remain unclear, making these patients a diagnostic challenge. We present here a 45-year-old woman who was admitted due to altered consciousness. The clinical presentation fitted the anticholinergic toxidrome and an intoxication with venlafaxine (her known prescribed medication) was suspected. Plasma venlafaxine concentrations, however, were very low...
March 2016: Netherlands Journal of Medicine
James H Diaz
The American Association of Poison Control Centers has continued to report approximately 50,000 telephone calls or 8% of incoming calls annually related to plant exposures, mostly in children. Although the frequency of plant ingestions in children is related to the presence of popular species in households, adolescents may experiment with hallucinogenic plants; and trekkers and foragers may misidentify poisonous plants as edible. Since plant exposures have continued at a constant rate, the objectives of this review were (1) to review the epidemiology of plant poisonings; and (2) to propose a rapid toxidromic classification system for highly toxic plant ingestions for field use by first responders in comparison to current classification systems...
March 2016: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
Eric Roberts, Michael D Gooch
Poisoning is the leading cause of injury-related mortality in the United States. Data suggest that nonmedical use of pharmaceuticals is increasing, along with a proportional increase in subsequent adverse events. The widespread use of illegal drugs contributes to the challenge, because these drugs may produce a wide array of clinical presentations that warrant time-critical recognition and treatment. Common legal and illegal poisonings highlighting clinical presentations in terms of toxidromes as a means of categorically recognizing these emergencies is the focus of this article...
March 2016: Nursing Clinics of North America
A Batisse, M Grégoire, M Marillier, M Fortias, S Djezzar
BACKGROUND: The pattern of recreational drug use has changed over the last decade and now includes a multitude of substances sold as "research chemicals" or new psychoactive substances, "NPS". In France, synthetic cathinones emerged in 2008 (while first mentioned by the French police force in 2007 first alerts among users appeared in 2008) and have grown to be popular drugs of abuse. Under the Official Journal dated 11th June 2010, only mephedrone has been listed as narcotics but "designer drugs" have synthesized new substitute cathinones in order to avoid anti-drug laws...
August 2016: L'Encéphale
Bhavini Shah, Tom Heaps
Novel Psychoactive Substances (NPS), sometimes referred to as Legal Highs, are newly available drugs with psychoactive properties that are not currently prohibited by United Nations Drug Conventions. Despite many of these compounds still being 'legal' and readily available via online mail-order companies and high-street 'headshops', their rapid emergence in the UK has been associated with increasing hospital admissions, enquiries on TOXBASE® and fatalities. It is therefore vital that Acute Physicians have a good understanding of the issues in recognizing, investigating and managing patients presenting to the AMU with toxicity due to legal highs...
2015: Acute Medicine
Andreas Erdmann, Dominique Werner, Olivier Hugli, Bertrand Yersin
UNLABELLED: Drug poisoning is a common cause for attendance in the emergency department. Several toxicology centres suggest performing urinary drug screens, even though they rarely influence patient management. STUDY OBJECTIVES: Measuring the impact on patient management, in a University Emergency Department with approximately 40 000 admissions annually, of a rapid urinary drug screening test using specifically focused indications. Drug screening was restricted to patients having a first psychotic episode or cases demonstrating respiratory failure, coma, seizures, a sympathomimetic toxidrome, severe opiate overdose necessitating naloxone, hypotension, ventricular arrhythmia, acquired long QT or QRS >100 ms, and high-degree heart block...
2015: Swiss Medical Weekly
Sebastian Kummer, Annette Rickert, Thomas Daldrup, Ertan Mayatepek
UNLABELLED: We report on two patients who ingested psychoactive scopolamine that was synthesized at home from butylscopolamine (Buscopan®), which is available as over-the-counter antispasmodic in nearly 100 countries worldwide. Patient 1 presented with severe central anticholinergic toxidrome, while patient 2 suffered from minor symptoms. An empty blister of Buscopan® was found in the patients' home, but initially was not suspected to be causative for the observed central anticholinergic symptoms, as Buscopan® is not able to pass the blood-brain barrier in its native form...
July 2016: European Journal of Pediatrics
Ahmet Kağan Özkaya, Ekrem Güler, Nihal Karabel, Ali Rıza Namlı, Yalçın Göksügür
Hallucinogenic plant poisoning in children is a significant problem for the emergency physician. We describe the case of a boy who had slurred speech, fever, hallucinations, tachycardia, dilated pupils, confusion and disorientation. He had no history of drug use or toxin intake. All signs and symptoms were improved by supportive therapy within 48 hours. It turned out that the patient had ingested seeds of Datura stramonium in a neighbor's garden two days previously. The medical history should be taken repeatedly in cases of unknown etiology, and physicians should keep in mind the possibility that unexplained anticholinergic toxidromes could be the result of exposure to toxic plants, in particular those containing atropine and atropine derivates...
January 2015: Turkish Journal of Pediatrics
Elli Tyrkkö, Mikael Andersson, Robert Kronstrand
BACKGROUND: New psychoactive substances (NPSs) are substitutes for classical drugs of abuse and there are now compounds available from all groups of classical drugs of abuse. During 2014, the number of synthetic cathinones increased dramatically and, together with phenylethylamines, they dominate the NPS markets in the European Union. In total, 31 cathinones and 9 phenylethylamines were encountered in 2014. The aim of this article was to summarize the existing knowledge about the basic pharmacology, metabolism, and human toxicology of relevant synthetic cathinones and phenylethylamines...
April 2016: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
Tee L Guidotti
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a hazard primarily in the oil and gas industry, agriculture, sewage and animal waste handling, construction (asphalt operations and disturbing marshy terrain), and other settings where organic material decomposes under reducing conditions, and in geothermal operations. It is an insoluble gas, heavier than air, with a very low odor threshold and high toxicity, driven by concentration more than duration of exposure. Toxicity presents in a unique, reliable, and characteristic toxidrome consisting, in ascending order of exposure, of mucosal irritation, especially of the eye ("gas eye"), olfactory paralysis (not to be confused with olfactory fatigue), sudden but reversible loss of consciousness ("knockdown"), pulmonary edema (with an unusually favorable prognosis), and death (probably with apnea contributing)...
2015: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Melissa Faria, Natàlia Garcia-Reyero, Francesc Padrós, Patrick J Babin, David Sebastián, Jérôme Cachot, Eva Prats, Mark Arick Ii, Eduardo Rial, Anja Knoll-Gellida, Guilaine Mathieu, Florane Le Bihanic, B Lynn Escalon, Antonio Zorzano, Amadeu M V M Soares, Demetrio Raldúa
Terrorist use of organophosphorus-based nerve agents and toxic industrial chemicals against civilian populations constitutes a real threat, as demonstrated by the terrorist attacks in Japan in the 1990 s or, even more recently, in the Syrian civil war. Thus, development of more effective countermeasures against acute organophosphorus poisoning is urgently needed. Here, we have generated and validated zebrafish models for mild, moderate and severe acute organophosphorus poisoning by exposing zebrafish larvae to different concentrations of the prototypic organophosphorus compound chlorpyrifos-oxon...
2015: Scientific Reports
Simon Clark, Jerry W Catt, Terrell Caffery
A woman in her mid-50s contacted her social worker and expressed intent to commit suicide by ingesting prescription medications. On arrival of emergency responders, the patient was found unconscious with an empty bottle of amitriptyline. Time of ingestion was estimated using the social worker's contact with local authorities. The patient's presentation at the emergency department (ED) exemplified tricyclic antidepressant toxidrome with a poor prognosis, based on measurable criteria and physical findings. Respiratory and cardiovascular collapse was managed emergently...
2015: BMJ Case Reports
Yaron Finkelstein, Gautam Goel, Janine R Hutson, Jeffrey Armstrong, Carl R Baum, Paul Wax, Jeffrey Brent
OBJECTIVES: Drug misuse is a disturbing, common practice among youth. One in 4 American adolescents reports consuming prescription medications without a clinical indication. We sought to explore current trends of drug misuse in adolescents. METHODS: Using the 37 participating sites of the ToxIC (Toxicology Investigators Consortium) Case Registry, a cross-country surveillance tool, we conducted an observational cohort study of all adolescents (aged 13-18 years) who presented to emergency departments with drug misuse and required a bedside medical toxicology consultation between January 2010 and June 2013...
October 13, 2015: Pediatric Emergency Care
Olof Beck, Lisa Franzen, Matilda Bäckberg, Patrick Signell, Anders Helander
CONTEXT: In the recent years, there have been an increasing number of new psychoactive substances (NPS) available through marketing and sale on the Internet. The stimulant 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is a potent dopamine reuptake inhibitor, which can cause serious intoxications requiring intensive care and even fatality. This report from the STRIDA project presents the prevalence, laboratory results, and clinical features in a series of intoxications involving MDPV over a 5-year period...
November 2015: Clinical Toxicology
Diana M Gerardi, Tanya K Murphy, Megan Toufexis, Camille Hanks
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to report an acute onset of symptoms erroneously attributed to serotonin syndrome in a child who had been given both anticholinergic and serotonergic agents. CASE SUMMARY: A 9-year-old girl with chronic anxiety and gastrointestinal problems was prescribed oral sertraline 6.25 mg daily, as well as hyoscyamine, ondansetron, montelukast, and a course of nitazoxanide. She was also routinely given diphenhydramine and omeprazole. Three days after increasing sertraline to 12...
December 2015: Pediatric Emergency Care
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