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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581062/dental-evidence-for-wild-tuber-processing-among-titicaca-basin-foragers-7000-ybp
#1
James T Watson, Randall Haas
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this work is to characterize dental wear in a skeletal sample dating to the Middle/Late Archaic period transition (8,000-6,700 cal. B.P.) from the Lake Titicaca Basin, Peru to better define subsistence behaviors of foragers prior to incipient sedentism and food production. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The dental sample consists of 251 teeth from 11 individuals recovered from the site of Soro Mik'aya Patjxa (SMP), the earliest securely dated burial assemblage in the Lake Titicaca Basin and the only burial assemblage in the region from an unequivocal forager context...
June 5, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533337/development-of-a-medium-density-combined-species-snp-array-for-pacific-and-european-oysters-crassostrea-gigas-and-ostrea-edulis
#2
Alejandro P Gutierrez, Frances Turner, Karim Gharbi, Richard Talbot, Natalie R Lowe, Carolina Peñaloza, Mark McCullough, Paulo A Prodöhl, Tim P Bean, Ross D Houston
SNP arrays are enabling tools for high-resolution studies of the genetic basis of complex traits in farmed and wild animals. Oysters are of critical importance in many regions from both an ecological and economic perspective, and oyster aquaculture forms a key component of global food security. The aim of our study was to design a combined-species medium density SNP array for Pacific oyster (C. gigas) and European flat oyster (O. edulis), and to test the performance of this array on farmed and wild populations from multiple locations, with a focus on European populations...
May 22, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511436/glycaemic-and-insulin-response-to-equi-quantity-of-selected-common-indian-staples-in-individuals-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#3
Neha V Paharia, Kasturi Sen Ray
INTRODUCTION: Diet therapy is one of the corner stone's in the management of diabetes. Keeping the blood sugar level as close to normal is the main focus of dietary management of diabetes. A typical Indian meal is largely composed of Carbohydrates (CHO). Consumption of staple cereals, forms the major source of CHO in the Indian diet. However, CHO metabolism is seen to be completely deranged in a person with type 2 diabetes. It is necessary to select the cereal which has lower postprandial glycaemic impact for subjects with compromised metabolic status...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489869/interaction-between-birds-and-macrofauna-within-food-webs-of-six-intertidal-habitats-of-the-wadden-sea
#4
Sabine Horn, Camille de la Vega, Ragnhild Asmus, Philipp Schwemmer, Leonie Enners, Stefan Garthe, Kirsten Binder, Harald Asmus
The determination of food web structures using Ecological Network Analysis (ENA) is a helpful tool to get insight into complex ecosystem processes. The intertidal area of the Wadden Sea is structured into diverse habitat types which differ in their ecological functioning. In the present study, six different intertidal habitats (i.e. cockle field, razor clam field, mud flat, mussel bank, sand flat and seagrass meadow) were analyzed using ENA to determine similarities and characteristic differences in the food web structure of the systems...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458515/united-states-experience-of-insulin-degludec-alone-or-in-combination-for-type-1-and-type-2-diabetes
#5
REVIEW
Marc Rendell
Insulin degludec has been the product of a sophisticated and systematic biochemical engineering program which began with the release of insulin detemir. The goal was to produce a long-lasting basal insulin with low individual variability. Certainly, this goal has been achieved. Degludec has a duration of action approaching twice that of glargine. Another advantage of degludec is in its lack of unpredictable copolymerization of added aspart. In several studies, degludec has shown lower rates of nocturnal hypoglycemia than glargine...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441323/gold-nanoplates-for-a-localized-surface-plasmon-resonance-based-boric-acid-sensor
#6
Marlia Morsin, Muhamad Mat Salleh, Akrajas Ali Umar, Mohd Zainizan Sahdan
Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) properties of metallic nanostructures, such as gold, are very sensitive to the dielectric environment of the material, which can simply be adjusted by changing its shape and size through modification of the synthesizing process. Thus, these unique properties are very promising, particularly for the detection of various types of chemicals, for example boric acid which is a non-permitted preservative employed in food preparations. For the sensing material, gold (Au) nanoplates with a variety of shapes, i...
April 25, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426718/effects-of-dietary-beef-pork-chicken-and-salmon-on-intestinal-carcinogenesis-in-a-j-min-mice
#7
Christina Steppeler, Marianne Sødring, Bjørg Egelandsdal, Bente Kirkhus, Marije Oostindjer, Ole Alvseike, Lars Erik Gangsei, Ellen-Margrethe Hovland, Fabrice Pierre, Jan Erik Paulsen
The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified red meat as "probably carcinogenic to humans" (Group 2A). In mechanistic studies exploring the link between intake of red meat and CRC, heme iron, the pigment of red meat, is proposed to play a central role as a catalyzer of luminal lipid peroxidation and cytotoxicity. In the present work, the novel A/J Min/+ mouse was used to investigate the effects of dietary beef, pork, chicken, or salmon (40% muscle food (dry weight) and 60% powder diet) on Apc-driven intestinal carcinogenesis, from week 3-13 of age...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379172/very-low-volume-sprint-interval-exercise-suppresses-subjective-appetite-lowers-acylated-ghrelin-and-elevates-glp-1-in-overweight-individuals-a-pilot-study
#8
Adrian Holliday, Andrew K Blannin
High-intensity exercise has been shown to elicit a transient suppression of appetite and create a more anorexigenic profile of appetite-associated hormones. It is yet to be fully elucidated whether such a response is observed following very low-volume, intermittent exercise at supramaximal intensity in those who are overweight. Eight overweight individuals (BMI 27.7 ± 1.7 kg·m²) completed resting (REST) and exercise (EX) trials in a counterbalanced order. EX consisted of 4 × 30 s "flat-out" cycling on an ergometer (adapted Wingate test)...
April 5, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340767/lectin-functionalized-zno-nanoarrays-as-a-3d-nano-biointerface-for-bacterial-detection
#9
Laibao Zheng, Yi Wan, Peng Qi, Yan Sun, Dun Zhang, Liangmin Yu
The detection of pathogenic bacteria is essential in various fields, such as food safety, water environmental analysis, or clinical diagnosis. Although rapid and selective techniques have been achieved based on the fast and specific binding of recognitions elements and target, the sensitive detection of bacterial pathogens was limited by their low targets-binding efficiency. The three-dimensional (3D) nano-biointerface, compared with the two-dimensional (2D) flat substrate, has a much higher binding capacity, which can offer more reactive sites to bind with bacterial targets, resulting in a great improvement of detection sensitivity...
May 15, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270255/a-qualitative-analysis-of-the-spontaneous-volunteer-response-to-the-2013-sudan-floods-changing-the-paradigm
#10
Amin Albahari, Carl H Schultz
Introduction While the concept of community resilience is gaining traction, the role of spontaneous volunteers during the initial response to disasters remains controversial. In an attempt to resolve some of the debate, investigators examined the activities of a spontaneous volunteer group called Nafeer after the Sudan floods around the city of Khartoum in August of 2013. Hypothesis Can spontaneous volunteers successfully initiate, coordinate, and deliver sustained assistance immediately after a disaster? METHODS: This retrospective, descriptive case study involved: (1) interviews with Nafeer members that participated in the disaster response to the Khartoum floods; (2) examination of documents generated during the event; and (3) subsequent benchmarking of their efforts with the Sphere Handbook...
March 8, 2017: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208763/iterative-development-of-an-online-dietary-recall-tool-intake24
#11
Emma Simpson, Jennifer Bradley, Ivan Poliakov, Dan Jackson, Patrick Olivier, Ashley J Adamson, Emma Foster
Collecting large-scale population data on dietary intake is challenging, particularly when resources and funding are constrained. Technology offers the potential to develop novel ways of collecting large amounts of dietary information while making it easier, more convenient, intuitive, and engaging for users. INTAKE24 is an online multiple pass 24 h dietary recall tool developed for use in national food and nutrition surveys. The development of INTAKE24 was a four-stage iterative process of user interaction and evaluation with the intended end users, 11-24 years old...
February 9, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166257/size-matters-predator-outbreaks-threaten-foundation-species-in-small-marine-protected-areas
#12
Cody S Clements, Mark E Hay
The unanticipated impacts of consumers in fragmented habitats are frequently a challenge for ecosystem management. On Indo-Pacific coral reefs, crown-of-thorns sea stars (Acanthaster spp.) are coral predators whose outbreaks cause precipitous coral decline. Across large spatial scales, Acanthaster densities are lower in large no-take Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) and reefs subject to limited human exploitation. However, using a combination of observational and manipulative experiments, we found that Acanthaster densities within a network of small, no-take MPAs on reef flats in Fiji were ~2-3...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122499/uridine-stimulate-laxative-effect-in-the-loperamide-induced-constipation-of-sd-rats-through-regulation-of-the-machrs-signaling-pathway-and-mucin-secretion
#13
Ji Eun Kim, Jun Go, Ji Eun Sung, Hyun Ah Lee, Woo Bin Yun, Jin Tae Hong, Dae Youn Hwang
BACKGROUND: Uridine (Urd), which has been reported as a major component of RNA, plays an important role in various biological process including neuroprotection, biochemical modulation and glycolysis, although its role in constipation has yet to be established. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the laxative effects of Urd on chronic constipation. METHODS: The constipation phenotypes and their related mechanisms were investigated in the transverse colons of SD rats with loperamide (Lop)-induced constipation after treatment with 100 mg/kg of Urd...
January 26, 2017: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105786/development-of-a-reference-database-for-assessing-dietary-nitrate-in-vegetables
#14
Lauren C Blekkenhorst, Richard L Prince, Natalie C Ward, Kevin D Croft, Joshua R Lewis, Amanda Devine, Sujata Shinde, Richard J Woodman, Jonathan M Hodgson, Catherine P Bondonno
SCOPE: Nitrate from vegetables improves vascular health with short term intake. Whether this translates into improved long term health outcomes has yet to be investigated. To enable reliable analysis of nitrate intake from food records there is a strong need for a comprehensive nitrate content of vegetables database. METHODS AND RESULTS: A systematic literature search (1980-2016) was performed using Medline, Agricola and CAB abstracts databases. The nitrate content of vegetables database contains 4237 records from 255 publications with data on 178 vegetables and 22 herbs and spices...
January 19, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065293/islands-in-a-sea-of-mud-insights-from-terrestrial-island-theory-for-community-assembly-on-insular-marine-substrata
#15
REVIEW
K S Meyer
Most marine hard-bottom habitats are isolated, separated from other similar habitats by sand or mud flats, and can be considered analogous to terrestrial islands. The extensive scientific literature on terrestrial islands provides a theoretical framework for the analysis of isolated marine habitats. More individuals and higher species richness occur on larger marine substrata, a pattern that resembles terrestrial islands. However, while larger terrestrial islands have greater habitat diversity and productivity, the higher species richness on larger marine hard substrata can be explained by simple surface area and hydrodynamic phenomena: larger substrata extend further into the benthic boundary, exposing fauna to faster current and higher food supply...
2017: Advances in Marine Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018403/comparative-analysis-of-phenolic-compound-characterization-and-their-biosynthesis-genes-between-two-diverse-bread-wheat-triticum-aestivum-varieties-differing-for-chapatti-unleavened-flat-bread-quality
#16
Monica Sharma, Rajat Sandhir, Anuradha Singh, Pankaj Kumar, Ankita Mishra, Sanjay Jachak, Sukhvinder P Singh, Jagdeep Singh, Joy Roy
Phenolic compounds (PCs) affect the bread quality and can also affect the other types of end-use food products such as chapatti (unleavened flat bread), now globally recognized wheat-based food product. The detailed analysis of PCs and their biosynthesis genes in diverse bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) varieties differing for chapatti quality have not been studied. In this study, the identification and quantification of PCs using UPLC-QTOF-MS and/or MS/MS and functional genomics techniques such as microarrays and qRT-PCR of their biosynthesis genes have been studied in a good chapatti variety, "C 306" and a poor chapatti variety, "Sonalika...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888457/korean-indigenous-bacterial-species-with-valid-names-belonging-to-the-phylum-actinobacteria
#17
REVIEW
Kyung Sook Bae, Mi Sun Kim, Ji Hee Lee, Joo Won Kang, Dae In Kim, Ji Hee Lee, Chi Nam Seong
To understand the isolation and classification state of actinobacterial species with valid names for Korean indigenous isolates, isolation source, regional origin, and taxonomic affiliation of the isolates were studied. At the time of this writing, the phylum Actinobacteria consisted of only one class, Actinobacteria, including five subclasses, 10 orders, 56 families, and 330 genera. Moreover, new taxa of this phylum continue to be discovered. Korean actinobacterial species with a valid name has been reported from 1995 as Tsukamurella inchonensis isolated from a clinical specimen...
December 2016: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871014/tooth-wear-pattern-analysis-in-a-sample-of-italian-early-bronze-age-population-proposal-of-a-3-d-sampling-sequence
#18
Sabrina Masotti, Nika Bogdanic, Julie Arnaud, Franco Cervellati, Emanuela Gualdi-Russo
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence, distribution and intensity of tooth wear in a sample of an ancient Italian population in order to explain the pattern in terms of dietary habits and/or non-dietary tooth-use behaviors during the Early Bronze Age, with a focus on possible age-group and sex differences. DESIGN: Well-preserved permanent teeth of individuals from the Bronze Age site of Ballabio (Lecco) in northern Italy were examined for tooth wear by different methods...
February 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802369/acceptance-and-impact-of-point-of-use-water-filtration-systems-in-rural-guatemala
#19
Kim L Larson, Corrie Hansen, Michala Ritz, Diego Carreño
PURPOSE: Infants and children in developing countries bear the burden of diarrheal disease. Diarrheal disease is linked to unsafe drinking water and can result in serious long-term consequences, such as impaired immune function and brain growth. There is evidence that point-of-use water filtration systems reduce the prevalence of diarrhea in developing countries. In the summer of 2014, following community forums and interactive workshops, water filters were distributed to 71 households in a rural Maya community in Guatemala...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Nursing Scholarship
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27727160/the-association-between-dietary-vitamin-a-and-carotenes-and-the-risk-of-primary-liver-cancer-a-case-control-study
#20
Qiu-Ye Lan, Yao-Jun Zhang, Gong-Cheng Liao, Rui-Fen Zhou, Zhong-Guo Zhou, Yu-Ming Chen, Hui-Lian Zhu
Dietary intake of vitamin A (VA) and carotenes has shown beneficial effects for decreasing the risk of some types of cancer, but findings on the risk of primary liver cancer (PLC) are inconsistent. This case-control study explored the associations between the dietary intake of VA and carotenes and the risk of PLC. We recruited 644 incident PLC patients (diagnosed within one month of each other) and 644 age- and gender-matched controls in Guangzhou, China. A food frequency questionnaire was used to assess habitual dietary intake...
October 11, 2016: Nutrients
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