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Flat food

Amin Albahari, Carl H Schultz
Introduction While the concept of community resilience is gaining traction, the role of spontaneous volunteers during the initial response to disasters remains controversial. In an attempt to resolve some of the debate, investigators examined the activities of a spontaneous volunteer group called Nafeer after the Sudan floods around the city of Khartoum in August of 2013. Hypothesis Can spontaneous volunteers successfully initiate, coordinate, and deliver sustained assistance immediately after a disaster? METHODS: This retrospective, descriptive case study involved: (1) interviews with Nafeer members that participated in the disaster response to the Khartoum floods; (2) examination of documents generated during the event; and (3) subsequent benchmarking of their efforts with the Sphere Handbook...
March 8, 2017: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Emma Simpson, Jennifer Bradley, Ivan Poliakov, Dan Jackson, Patrick Olivier, Ashley J Adamson, Emma Foster
Collecting large-scale population data on dietary intake is challenging, particularly when resources and funding are constrained. Technology offers the potential to develop novel ways of collecting large amounts of dietary information while making it easier, more convenient, intuitive, and engaging for users. INTAKE24 is an online multiple pass 24 h dietary recall tool developed for use in national food and nutrition surveys. The development of INTAKE24 was a four-stage iterative process of user interaction and evaluation with the intended end users, 11-24 years old...
February 9, 2017: Nutrients
Cody S Clements, Mark E Hay
The unanticipated impacts of consumers in fragmented habitats are frequently a challenge for ecosystem management. On Indo-Pacific coral reefs, crown-of-thorns sea stars (Acanthaster spp.) are coral predators whose outbreaks cause precipitous coral decline. Across large spatial scales, Acanthaster densities are lower in large no-take Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) and reefs subject to limited human exploitation. However, using a combination of observational and manipulative experiments, we found that Acanthaster densities within a network of small, no-take MPAs on reef flats in Fiji were ~2-3...
2017: PloS One
Ji Eun Kim, Jun Go, Ji Eun Sung, Hyun Ah Lee, Woo Bin Yun, Jin Tae Hong, Dae Youn Hwang
BACKGROUND: Uridine (Urd), which has been reported as a major component of RNA, plays an important role in various biological process including neuroprotection, biochemical modulation and glycolysis, although its role in constipation has yet to be established. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the laxative effects of Urd on chronic constipation. METHODS: The constipation phenotypes and their related mechanisms were investigated in the transverse colons of SD rats with loperamide (Lop)-induced constipation after treatment with 100 mg/kg of Urd...
January 26, 2017: BMC Gastroenterology
Lauren C Blekkenhorst, Richard L Prince, Natalie C Ward, Kevin D Croft, Joshua R Lewis, Amanda Devine, Sujata Shinde, Richard J Woodman, Jonathan M Hodgson, Catherine P Bondonno
SCOPE: Nitrate from vegetables improves vascular health with short term intake. Whether this translates into improved long term health outcomes has yet to be investigated. To enable reliable analysis of nitrate intake from food records there is a strong need for a comprehensive nitrate content of vegetables database. METHODS AND RESULTS: A systematic literature search (1980-2016) was performed using Medline, Agricola and CAB abstracts databases. The nitrate content of vegetables database contains 4237 records from 255 publications with data on 178 vegetables and 22 herbs and spices...
January 19, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
K S Meyer
Most marine hard-bottom habitats are isolated, separated from other similar habitats by sand or mud flats, and can be considered analogous to terrestrial islands. The extensive scientific literature on terrestrial islands provides a theoretical framework for the analysis of isolated marine habitats. More individuals and higher species richness occur on larger marine substrata, a pattern that resembles terrestrial islands. However, while larger terrestrial islands have greater habitat diversity and productivity, the higher species richness on larger marine hard substrata can be explained by simple surface area and hydrodynamic phenomena: larger substrata extend further into the benthic boundary, exposing fauna to faster current and higher food supply...
2017: Advances in Marine Biology
Monica Sharma, Rajat Sandhir, Anuradha Singh, Pankaj Kumar, Ankita Mishra, Sanjay Jachak, Sukhvinder P Singh, Jagdeep Singh, Joy Roy
Phenolic compounds (PCs) affect the bread quality and can also affect the other types of end-use food products such as chapatti (unleavened flat bread), now globally recognized wheat-based food product. The detailed analysis of PCs and their biosynthesis genes in diverse bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) varieties differing for chapatti quality have not been studied. In this study, the identification and quantification of PCs using UPLC-QTOF-MS and/or MS/MS and functional genomics techniques such as microarrays and qRT-PCR of their biosynthesis genes have been studied in a good chapatti variety, "C 306" and a poor chapatti variety, "Sonalika...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Kyung Sook Bae, Mi Sun Kim, Ji Hee Lee, Joo Won Kang, Dae In Kim, Ji Hee Lee, Chi Nam Seong
To understand the isolation and classification state of actinobacterial species with valid names for Korean indigenous isolates, isolation source, regional origin, and taxonomic affiliation of the isolates were studied. At the time of this writing, the phylum Actinobacteria consisted of only one class, Actinobacteria, including five subclasses, 10 orders, 56 families, and 330 genera. Moreover, new taxa of this phylum continue to be discovered. Korean actinobacterial species with a valid name has been reported from 1995 as Tsukamurella inchonensis isolated from a clinical specimen...
December 2016: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
Sabrina Masotti, Nika Bogdanic, Julie Arnaud, Franco Cervellati, Emanuela Gualdi-Russo
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence, distribution and intensity of tooth wear in a sample of an ancient Italian population in order to explain the pattern in terms of dietary habits and/or non-dietary tooth-use behaviors during the Early Bronze Age, with a focus on possible age-group and sex differences. DESIGN: Well-preserved permanent teeth of individuals from the Bronze Age site of Ballabio (Lecco) in northern Italy were examined for tooth wear by different methods...
February 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
Kim L Larson, Corrie Hansen, Michala Ritz, Diego Carreño
PURPOSE: Infants and children in developing countries bear the burden of diarrheal disease. Diarrheal disease is linked to unsafe drinking water and can result in serious long-term consequences, such as impaired immune function and brain growth. There is evidence that point-of-use water filtration systems reduce the prevalence of diarrhea in developing countries. In the summer of 2014, following community forums and interactive workshops, water filters were distributed to 71 households in a rural Maya community in Guatemala...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Nursing Scholarship
Qiu-Ye Lan, Yao-Jun Zhang, Gong-Cheng Liao, Rui-Fen Zhou, Zhong-Guo Zhou, Yu-Ming Chen, Hui-Lian Zhu
Dietary intake of vitamin A (VA) and carotenes has shown beneficial effects for decreasing the risk of some types of cancer, but findings on the risk of primary liver cancer (PLC) are inconsistent. This case-control study explored the associations between the dietary intake of VA and carotenes and the risk of PLC. We recruited 644 incident PLC patients (diagnosed within one month of each other) and 644 age- and gender-matched controls in Guangzhou, China. A food frequency questionnaire was used to assess habitual dietary intake...
October 11, 2016: Nutrients
Bahareh Nikooyeh, Tirang R Neyestani
BACKGROUND: Bread, as the staple food of Iranians, with average per capita consumption of 300 g d(-1) , could potentially be a good vehicle for many fortificants, including iron. In this study, iron bioavailability from flat breads (three fortified and one whole wheat unfortified) was investigated using in vitro simulation of gastrointestinal digestion and absorption in a caco-2 cell model. RESULTS: Despite having a lower ferritin/protein ratio in comparison with fortified breads, whole wheat bread showed higher iron bioavailability than the other three types of bread...
October 5, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Ji Eun Kim, Jun Go, Eun Kyoung Koh, Sung Hwa Song, Ji Eun Sung, Hyun Ah Lee, Young Hee Lee, Jin Tae Hong, Dae Youn Hwang
Several natural products containing tannins are used as traditional medicines for treatment of constipation; however, their pharmacological mechanism is not well understood. The laxative effects of gallotannin-enriched extract isolated from Galla Rhois (GEGR) were investigated using a constipation model induced by loperamide (Lop) injection. After analysis for antioxidant activity of GEGR, alterations in the excretion parameters, histological structure, mucin secretion, and related protein levels were measured in the transverse colon of Sprague Dawley (SD) rats with Lop-induced constipation following treatment with 250, 500 and 1,000 mg/ml of GEGR...
2016: PloS One
Kazuya Inoki, Taku Sakamoto, Masau Sekiguchi, Masayoshi Yamada, Takeshi Nakajima, Takahisa Matsuda, Yutaka Saito
A 73-year-old man underwent endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) of a 20-mm flat elevated lesion on the transverse colon. The morning after the procedure, he started to have severe right upper quadrant pain after his first meal. A computed tomography scan revealed free air and a stomach filled with food. He was diagnosed to have delayed post-EMR intestinal perforation. He underwent emergent colonoscopy and clipping of the perforated site. He was discharged 8 d after the endoscopic closure without the need for surgical intervention...
August 16, 2016: World Journal of Clinical Cases
Enrique Navarro, Soco Méndez, Miren Begoñe Urrutia, Udane Arambalza, Irrintzi Ibarrola
Differential utilization of phytoplankton and detrital particles present in natural sediments of mud-flats was studied in a series of experiments performed on the infaunal bivalve Cerastoderma edule. In order to assess digestive selection, parameters of food processing (organic ingestion rate: OIR, gross absorption efficiency: GAE and gut passage time: GPT) were recorded for each organic component in different combinations of food particles radio-labelled with (14)C. Experimental design included the use of both labelled diets of a sole organic component and cross-labelled diets; i...
September 2016: Marine Environmental Research
Gerd Alberti, Gerard Kanarek, Jacek Dabert
The parasitic deutonymphs of hypoderatid mites live within the subcutaneous layer of their avian hosts, where they become greatly engorged despite not having functional mouthparts. The method by which they take up nutrients has been mysterious up to now. Here, we report on the morphology of hypoderatid deutonymphs using scanning and transmission electron microscopy and describe structures that may resolve the mystery. The deutonymph of Neottialges evansi (Hypoderatidae) from the cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo is a simply organized stage lacking both mouthparts and a functional foregut...
October 2016: Journal of Morphology
Thomas Oudman, Allert I Bijleveld, Marwa M Kavelaars, Anne Dekinga, John Cluderay, Theunis Piersma, Jan A van Gils
Behavioural variation within a species is usually explained as the consequence of individual variation in physiology. However, new evidence suggests that the arrow of causality may well be in the reverse direction: behaviours such as diet preferences cause the differences in physiological and morphological traits. Recently, diet preferences were proposed to underlie consistent differences in digestive organ mass and movement patterns (patch residence times) in red knots (Calidris canutus islandica). Red knots are molluscivorous and migrant shorebirds for which the size of the muscular stomach (gizzard) is critical for the food processing rate...
September 2016: Journal of Animal Ecology
Dayeon Ryu, Bogyoung Choi, Nayoung Kim, Eunmi Koh
Ethyl carbamate (EC) is formed through a reaction between ethanol and either cyanate or N-carbamyl compounds. This study aimed to develop and validate analytical methods for EC determination in nine food matrices: apple juice, soju, milk, corn oil, rice porridge, peanut butter, beef, flat fish, and sea mustard. Differences from AOAC procedure were use of d5-EC as internal standard, dilution of alcohol content, removal of lipophilic compounds by hexane, and removal of hydrophilic polysaccharides by gel-forming...
November 15, 2016: Food Chemistry
Diego Redondo, Esther Arias, Rosa Oria, María E Venturini
BACKGROUND: Thinned fruits are agricultural by-products that contain large quantities of interesting compounds due to their early maturity stage. In this work, the phenolic profile and the antioxidant activity of six thinned stone fruits (apricot, cherry, flat peach, peach, plum and nectarine) have been investigated, focussing on proanthocyanidins. RESULTS: Thinned nectarine had the highest content of total phenols [67.43 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE) g(-1) dry weight (DW)] and total flavonoids (56...
February 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Nicholas A Ellis, Craig T Miller
The posterior pharyngeal segments of the vertebrate head give rise to the branchial skeleton, the primary site of food processing in fish. The morphology of the fish branchial skeleton is matched to a species' diet. Threespine stickleback fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus) have emerged as a model system to study the genetic and developmental basis of evolved differences in a variety of traits. Marine populations of sticklebacks have repeatedly colonized countless new freshwater lakes and creeks. Adaptation to the new diet in these freshwater environments likely underlies a series of craniofacial changes that have evolved repeatedly in independently derived freshwater populations...
May 7, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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