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Flat food

Qiu-Ye Lan, Yao-Jun Zhang, Gong-Cheng Liao, Rui-Fen Zhou, Zhong-Guo Zhou, Yu-Ming Chen, Hui-Lian Zhu
Dietary intake of vitamin A (VA) and carotenes has shown beneficial effects for decreasing the risk of some types of cancer, but findings on the risk of primary liver cancer (PLC) are inconsistent. This case-control study explored the associations between the dietary intake of VA and carotenes and the risk of PLC. We recruited 644 incident PLC patients (diagnosed within one month of each other) and 644 age- and gender-matched controls in Guangzhou, China. A food frequency questionnaire was used to assess habitual dietary intake...
October 11, 2016: Nutrients
Bahareh Nikooyeh, Tirang R Neyestani
BACKGROUND: Bread, as the staple food of Iranians with average per capita consumption of 300 g/d, could be potentially a good vehicle for many fortificants including iron. In this study, iron bioavailability from flat breads (three fortified and one whole wheat unfortified) was investigated using in vitro simulation of gastrointestinal digestion and absorption in caco-2 cell model. RESULTS: Despite having lower ferritin/protein ratio in comparison with fortified breads, whole wheat bread showed higher iron bioavailability than the other three types of bread...
October 5, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Ji Eun Kim, Jun Go, Eun Kyoung Koh, Sung Hwa Song, Ji Eun Sung, Hyun Ah Lee, Young Hee Lee, Jin Tae Hong, Dae Youn Hwang
Several natural products containing tannins are used as traditional medicines for treatment of constipation; however, their pharmacological mechanism is not well understood. The laxative effects of gallotannin-enriched extract isolated from Galla Rhois (GEGR) were investigated using a constipation model induced by loperamide (Lop) injection. After analysis for antioxidant activity of GEGR, alterations in the excretion parameters, histological structure, mucin secretion, and related protein levels were measured in the transverse colon of Sprague Dawley (SD) rats with Lop-induced constipation following treatment with 250, 500 and 1,000 mg/ml of GEGR...
2016: PloS One
Kazuya Inoki, Taku Sakamoto, Masau Sekiguchi, Masayoshi Yamada, Takeshi Nakajima, Takahisa Matsuda, Yutaka Saito
A 73-year-old man underwent endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) of a 20-mm flat elevated lesion on the transverse colon. The morning after the procedure, he started to have severe right upper quadrant pain after his first meal. A computed tomography scan revealed free air and a stomach filled with food. He was diagnosed to have delayed post-EMR intestinal perforation. He underwent emergent colonoscopy and clipping of the perforated site. He was discharged 8 d after the endoscopic closure without the need for surgical intervention...
August 16, 2016: World Journal of Clinical Cases
Enrique Navarro, Soco Méndez, Miren Begoñe Urrutia, Udane Arambalza, Irrintzi Ibarrola
Differential utilization of phytoplankton and detrital particles present in natural sediments of mud-flats was studied in a series of experiments performed on the infaunal bivalve Cerastoderma edule. In order to assess digestive selection, parameters of food processing (organic ingestion rate: OIR, gross absorption efficiency: GAE and gut passage time: GPT) were recorded for each organic component in different combinations of food particles radio-labelled with (14)C. Experimental design included the use of both labelled diets of a sole organic component and cross-labelled diets; i...
September 2016: Marine Environmental Research
Gerd Alberti, Gerard Kanarek, Jacek Dabert
The parasitic deutonymphs of hypoderatid mites live within the subcutaneous layer of their avian hosts, where they become greatly engorged despite not having functional mouthparts. The method by which they take up nutrients has been mysterious up to now. Here, we report on the morphology of hypoderatid deutonymphs using scanning and transmission electron microscopy and describe structures that may resolve the mystery. The deutonymph of Neottialges evansi (Hypoderatidae) from the cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo is a simply organized stage lacking both mouthparts and a functional foregut...
October 2016: Journal of Morphology
Thomas Oudman, Allert I Bijleveld, Marwa M Kavelaars, Anne Dekinga, John Cluderay, Theunis Piersma, Jan A van Gils
Behavioural variation within a species is usually explained as the consequence of individual variation in physiology. However, new evidence suggests that the arrow of causality may well be in the reverse direction: behaviours such as diet preferences cause the differences in physiological and morphological traits. Recently, diet preferences were proposed to underlie consistent differences in digestive organ mass and movement patterns (patch residence times) in red knots (Calidris canutus islandica). Red knots are molluscivorous and migrant shorebirds for which the size of the muscular stomach (gizzard) is critical for the food processing rate...
September 2016: Journal of Animal Ecology
Dayeon Ryu, Bogyoung Choi, Nayoung Kim, Eunmi Koh
Ethyl carbamate (EC) is formed through a reaction between ethanol and either cyanate or N-carbamyl compounds. This study aimed to develop and validate analytical methods for EC determination in nine food matrices: apple juice, soju, milk, corn oil, rice porridge, peanut butter, beef, flat fish, and sea mustard. Differences from AOAC procedure were use of d5-EC as internal standard, dilution of alcohol content, removal of lipophilic compounds by hexane, and removal of hydrophilic polysaccharides by gel-forming...
November 15, 2016: Food Chemistry
Diego Redondo, Esther Arias, Rosa Oria, María E Venturini
BACKGROUND: Thinned fruits are agricultural by-products that contain large quantities of interesting compounds due to their early maturity stage. In this work, the phenolic profile and the antioxidant activity of 6 thinned stone fruits (apricot, cherry, flat peach, peach, plum and nectarine) have been investigated, focussing on proanthocyanidins. RESULTS: Thinned nectarine had the highest content of total phenols (67.43 mg GAE g(-1) DW) and total flavonoids (56...
May 24, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Nicholas A Ellis, Craig T Miller
The posterior pharyngeal segments of the vertebrate head give rise to the branchial skeleton, the primary site of food processing in fish. The morphology of the fish branchial skeleton is matched to a species' diet. Threespine stickleback fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus) have emerged as a model system to study the genetic and developmental basis of evolved differences in a variety of traits. Marine populations of sticklebacks have repeatedly colonized countless new freshwater lakes and creeks. Adaptation to the new diet in these freshwater environments likely underlies a series of craniofacial changes that have evolved repeatedly in independently derived freshwater populations...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Eleanor Raffan, Rowena J Dennis, Conor J O'Donovan, Julia M Becker, Robert A Scott, Stephen P Smith, David J Withers, Claire J Wood, Elena Conci, Dylan N Clements, Kim M Summers, Alexander J German, Cathryn S Mellersh, Maja L Arendt, Valentine P Iyemere, Elaine Withers, Josefin Söder, Sara Wernersson, Göran Andersson, Kerstin Lindblad-Toh, Giles S H Yeo, Stephen O'Rahilly
Sequencing of candidate genes for obesity in Labrador retriever dogs identified a 14 bp deletion in pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) with an allele frequency of 12%. The deletion disrupts the β-MSH and β-endorphin coding sequences and is associated with body weight (per allele effect of 0.33 SD), adiposity, and greater food motivation. Among other dog breeds, the deletion was only found in the closely related flat-coat retriever (FCR), where it is similarly associated with body weight and food motivation. The mutation is significantly more common in Labrador retrievers selected to become assistance dogs than pets...
May 10, 2016: Cell Metabolism
Yan Zhao, Linyan Bai, Jianzhong Feng, Xiaosong Lin, Li Wang, Lijun Xu, Qiyun Ran, Kui Wang
Multiple cropping provides China with a very important system of intensive cultivation, and can effectively enhance the efficiency of farmland use while improving regional food production and security. A multiple cropping index (MCI), which represents the intensity of multiple cropping and reflects the effects of climate change on agricultural production and cropping systems, often serves as a useful parameter. Therefore, monitoring the dynamic changes in the MCI of farmland over a large area using remote sensing data is essential...
2016: Sensors
E M Pires, R M Nogueira, D S Pina, C L M Manica, L R A Faroni, P S A Moreira
Results obtained in studies can contribute to the advancement of science and innovative methods and techniques for developing practical activities. Reporting conditions that may restrict the implementation of research is critical to ensure the optimal development of further technical studies. The objective of this study was to assess the walking stability of R. dominica on a flat and smooth surface. The study was based on the determination of mortality, morphology and walking stability of the insect outside the grain mass, on a flat and smooth surface...
April 19, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
David L Cheung
The conformational change exhibited by proteins at liquid interfaces, such as the air-water and oil-water interfaces, has long been of interest both for understanding protein structure outside of native environments and for applications in areas including food technology and pharmaceuticals. Using molecular simulation, this article studies the conformations of two peptides derived from myoglobin, for which the emulsification behavior has been studied. Both peptides were found to readily adsorb onto the air-water interface, with one of these (experimentally, the more effective stabilizer) adopting a flat, extended conformation and the other peptide remaining close to its solution conformation...
May 10, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Kedong Yin, Eva-Maria Zetsche, Paul J Harrison
Benthic algae or microphytobenthos (MPB) in intertidal flats play an important role in the sediment and overlying water ecosystems. We hypothesize that there are effects of sediment texture on the vertical distribution of MPB using chlorophyll a (chl a) as a proxy for MPB biomass and present results over a 2.5-year period. Four sites were sampled monthly: two sandy sites (A10 and A12) and two muddy sites (A0 and A14) on the intertidal flats of the Fraser River Estuary. At the two sandy sites, pigments were distributed down to 10 cm...
July 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Cisse Hedegaard Porsby, Lone Gram
Molluscan shellfish can cause food borne diseases and here we investigated if addition of Vibrio-antagonising bacteria could reduce Vibrio vulnificus in model oyster systems and prevent its establishment in live animals. Phaeobacter inhibens, which produces an antibacterial compound, tropodithietic acid (TDA), inhibited V. vulnificus as did pure TDA (MIC of 1-3.9 μM). P. inhibens DSM 17395 (at 10(6) cfu/ml) eradicated 10(5) cfu/ml V. vulnificus CMCP6 (a rifampicin resistant variant) from a co-culture oyster model system (oyster juice) whereas the pathogen grew to 10(7) cfu/ml when co-cultured with a TDA negative Phaeobacter mutant...
August 2016: Food Microbiology
V Lavelli, P S C Sri Harsha, P Ferranti, A Scarafoni, S Iametti
Type-2 diabetes is continuously increasing worldwide. Hence, there is a need to develop functional foods that efficiently alleviate damage due to hyperglycaemia complications while meeting the criteria for a sustainable food processing technology. Inhibition of mammalian α-amylase and α-glucosidase was studied for white grape skin samples recovered from wineries and found to be higher than that of the drug acarbose. In white grape skins, quercetin and kaempferol derivatives, analysed by UPLC-DAD-MS, and the oligomeric series of catechin/epicatechin units and their gallic acid ester derivatives up to nonamers, analysed by MALDI-TOF-MS were identified...
March 2016: Food & Function
Tyler L Lewis, Patricia J Heglund, Mark S Lindberg, Joel A Schmutz, Joshua H Schmidt, Adam J Dubour, Jennifer Rover, Mark R Bertram
Shrinking lakes were recently observed for several Arctic and Subarctic regions due to increased evaporation and permafrost degradation. Along with lake drawdown, these processes often boost aquatic chemical concentrations, potentially impacting trophic dynamics. In particular, elevated chemical levels may impact primary productivity, which may in turn influence populations of primary and secondary consumers. We examined trophic dynamics of 18 shrinking lakes of the Yukon Flats, Alaska, that had experienced pronounced increases in nutrient (>200 % total nitrogen, >100 % total phosphorus) and ion concentrations (>100 % for four major ions combined) from 1985-1989 to 2010-2012, versus 37 stable lakes with relatively little chemical change over the same period...
June 2016: Oecologia
M Sampaio, M Buciumeanu, B Henriques, F S Silva, J C M Souza, J R Gomes
In the oral cavity, abrasive wear is predictable at exposed tooth or restorative surfaces, during mastication and tooth brushing. Also, wear can occur at contacting surfaces between the Ti-based prosthetic structures and implants in presence of abrasive compounds from food or toothpaste. Thus, the aim of this work was to compare the abrasive wear resistance of PEEK and Ti6Al4V on three-body abrasion related to different hydrated silica content and loads. Surfaces of Ti6Al4V or PEEK cylinders (8mm diameter and 4mm height) were wet ground on SiC papers and then polished with 1µm diamond paste...
July 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Rebecca S Lazarus, Barnett A Rattner, Peter C McGowan, Robert C Hale, Natalie K Karouna-Renier, Richard A Erickson, Mary Ann Ottinger
From 2011 to 2013, a large-scale ecotoxicological study was conducted in several Chesapeake Bay (USA) tributaries (Susquehanna River and flats, the Back, Baltimore Harbor/Patapsco Rivers, Anacostia/ middle Potomac, Elizabeth and James Rivers) and Poplar Island as a mid-Bay reference site. Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) diet and the transfer of contaminants from fish to osprey eggs were evaluated. The most bioaccumulative compounds (biomagnification factor > 5) included p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), total polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and bromodiphenyl ether (BDE) congeners 47, 99, 100, and 154...
June 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
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