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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053849/a-network-meta-analysis-comparing-effects-of-various-antidepressant-classes-on-the-digit-symbol-substitution-test-dsst-as-a-measure-of-cognitive-dysfunction-in-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder
#1
Bernhard T Baune, Mélanie Brignone, Klaus Groes Larsen
Background: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common condition that often includes cognitive dysfunction. A systematic literature review of studies and a network meta-analysis (NMA) were carried out to assess the relative effect of antidepressants on cognitive dysfunction in MDD. Methods: MEDLINE ®, Embase ®, Cochrane, CDSR, PsychINFO ® databases, clinical trial registries, and relevant conference abstracts were searched for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effects of antidepressants/placebo on cognition...
October 19, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053230/a-randomised-control-trial-of-four-different-regimes-of-biofeedback-program-in-the-treatment-of-faecal-incontinence
#2
Christopher J Young, Assad Zahid, Cherry E Koh, Jane M Young, Christopher M Byrne, Michael J Solomon, Jenny Rex, Janet Candido
AIM: Biofeedback is an established, effective and non-invasive treatment for faecal incontinence (FI). The aim was to compare the effectiveness of four different biofeedback treatment regimes. METHOD: Randomised control trial of patients with FI, stratified into two groups (metropolitan and rural) and then randomised into two subgroups (groups 1 and 2 within metropolitan, groups 3 and 4 within rural) with varying face-to-face and telephone biofeedback components...
October 20, 2017: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053219/gum-chewing-aids-bowel-function-return-and-analgesic-requirements-after-bowel-surgery-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#3
Christopher M Byrne, Assad Zahid, Jane M Young, Michael J Solomon, Christopher J Young
AIM: The aim was to compare the effectiveness of chewing sugar-free gum after bowel resection on bowel function and length of stay. METHOD: Randomised controlled trial of patients undergoing elective open or laparoscopic bowel surgery, allocated into two groups, a chewing gum group (CG) or a non-chewing gum group (NG). Primary outcomes were time to discharge (LOS), time to first flatus (TFF) and time to first bowel motion (TBM). Secondary outcomes were complication rates, pain and total morphine equivalent (TMEq) medication for seven days after the procedure...
October 20, 2017: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052838/research-review-early-intervention-for-infants-and-young-children-with-or-at-risk-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-systematic-review
#4
REVIEW
Lorna French, Eilis M M Kennedy
BACKGROUND: There has been increased interest in early screening and intervention for young children with, or at risk of, autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This has generated a debate about the potential harms versus benefits of early identification and treatment. This review aims to identify the evidence base for early intervention in ASD. METHODS: A systematic review searching for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of interventions for children up to 6 years of age with, or at risk of, ASD was undertaken...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052275/effectiveness-of-current-policing-related-mental-health-interventions-a-systematic-review
#5
Eddie Kane, Emily Evans, Farhad Shokraneh
BACKGROUND: There are three commonly used mental health interventions associated with policing: liaison and diversion, street triage and having specialist staff embedded in police contact control rooms. Crisis intervention teams (CITs), already used in the USA, are now attracting wider interest, including in the UK. Investment in these interventions is growing, so it is important to have evidence of their effectiveness. AIM: To conduct a systematic literature review to answer questions about effectiveness of police-mental health service models for responding to people with mental disorder and suspected offending or public safety problems...
October 19, 2017: Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health: CBMH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052156/the-identification-review-and-synthesis-of-health-state-utility-values-from-the-literature
#6
REVIEW
Roberta Ara, John Brazier, Tessa Peasgood, Suzy Paisley
Systematic literature reviews of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) evidence that are to inform economic models can be challenging due to the volume of hits identified in searches using generic terms for HRQoL. Nevertheless, a robust review of the literature is required to ensure that the health state utility values (HSUVs) used in the economic model are the most appropriate available. This article provides a synopsis of literature relating to identifying, reviewing and synthesising HSUVs. The process begins with scoping the needs of the economic model, including the definitions of health states and the requirements of any reimbursement agencies...
October 19, 2017: PharmacoEconomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052083/patient-specific-devices-and-population-level-evidence-evaluating-therapeutic-interventions-with-inherent-variation
#7
Mary Jean Walker
Designing and manufacturing medical devices for specific patients is becoming increasingly feasible with developments in 3D printing and 3D imaging software. This raises the question of how patient-specific devices can be evaluated, since our 'gold standard' method for evaluation, the randomised controlled trial (RCT), requires that an intervention is standardised across a number of individuals in an experimental group. I distinguish several senses of patient-specific device, and focus the discussion on understanding the problem of variations between instances of an intervention for RCT evaluation...
October 19, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052044/the-cost-effectiveness-of-exercise-based-cardiac-rehabilitation-a-systematic-review-of-the-characteristics-and-methodological-quality-of-published-literature
#8
REVIEW
Katherine Edwards, Natasha Jones, Julia Newton, Charlie Foster, Andrew Judge, Kate Jackson, Nigel K Arden, Rafael Pinedo-Villanueva
AIM: This descriptive review aimed to assess the characteristics and methodological quality of economic evaluations of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programs according to updated economic guidelines for healthcare interventions. Recommendations will be made to inform future research addressing the impact of a physical exercise component on cost-effectiveness. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched for economic evaluations of exercise-based CR programs published in English between 2000 and 2014...
October 19, 2017: Health Economics Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052033/a-random-perturbation-therapy-in-chronic-non-specific-low-back-pain-patients-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#9
Adamantios Arampatzis, Arno Schroll, Maria Moreno Catalá, Gunnar Laube, Sabine Schüler, Karsten Dreinhofer
The purpose of the study was to assess the effectiveness of a specific rehabilitation therapy for chronic non-specific low-back pain patients, based on a random/irregular functional perturbation training induced by force disturbances to the spine. Forty patients (20 controls and 20 in the perturbation-based group) finished the whole experimental design. A random-perturbation exercise, which included variable and unpredictable disturbances, was implemented in the therapy of the perturbation-based group (13 weeks, two times per week and 1...
October 19, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051825/continuous-glucose-monitoring-in-neonates-a-review
#10
REVIEW
Christopher J D McKinlay, J Geoffrey Chase, Jennifer Dickson, Deborah L Harris, Jane M Alsweiler, Jane E Harding
Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is well established in the management of diabetes mellitus, but its role in neonatal glycaemic control is less clear. CGM has provided important insights about neonatal glucose metabolism, and there is increasing interest in its clinical use, particularly in preterm neonates and in those in whom glucose control is difficult. Neonatal glucose instability, including hypoglycaemia and hyperglycaemia, has been associated with poorer neurodevelopment, and CGM offers the possibility of adjusting treatment in real time to account for individual metabolic requirements while reducing the number of blood tests required, potentially improving long-term outcomes...
2017: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050007/comparison-of-safety-and-efficacy-of-tacrolimus-versus-infliximab-for-active-ulcerative-colitis
#11
Ken Takeuchi, Takahiro Shimoyama, Takayuki Yamamoto
BACKGROUND: This narrative review was to determine which medication, tacrolimus (TAC) or infliximab (IFX), is safer and more effective in the management of active UC. Our literature search identified 5 studies directly comparing the outcomes of TAC versus IFX for active UC. A review of the 5 studies was undertaken. SUMMARY: The incidence of serious adverse events was not significantly different between the TAC and IFX groups. The short-term clinical remission and response rates and the colectomy-free rates were similar between the groups...
October 19, 2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049323/one-time-versus-repeated-abutment-connection-for-platform-switched-implant-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
Qing-Qing Wang, Ruoxi Dai, Chris Ying Cao, Hui Fang, Min Han, Quan-Li Li
OBJECTIVE: This review aims to compare peri-implant tissue changes in terms of clinical and radiographic aspects of implant restoration protocol using one-time abutment to repeated abutment connection in platform switched implant. METHOD: A structured search strategy was applied to three electronic databases, namely, Pubmed, Embase and Web of Science. Eight eligible studies, including seven randomised controlled studies and one controlled clinical study, were identified in accordance with inclusion/exclusion criteria...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048739/pharmacotherapy-for-social-anxiety-disorder-sand
#13
REVIEW
Taryn Williams, Coenraad J Hattingh, Catherine M Kariuki, Sean A Tromp, Anton J van Balkom, Jonathan C Ipser, Dan J Stein
BACKGROUND: Recognition is growing that social anxiety disorder (SAnD) is a chronic and disabling disorder, and data from early trials demonstrate that medication may be effective in its treatment. This systematic review is an update of an earlier review of pharmacotherapy of SAnD. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of pharmacotherapy for social anxiety disorder in adults and identify which factors (methodological or clinical) predict response to treatment. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Common Mental Disorders Controlled Trials Register (CCMDCTR-Studies and CCMDCTR-References) to 17 August 2015...
October 19, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047413/itactic-implementing-treatment-algorithms-for-the-correction-of-trauma-induced-coagulopathy-study-protocol-for-a-multicentre-randomised-controlled-trial
#14
Kjersti Baksaas-Aasen, Lewis Gall, Simon Eaglestone, Claire Rourke, Nicole P Juffermans, J Carel Goslings, Paal Aksel Naess, Susan van Dieren, Sisse Rye Ostrowski, Jakob Stensballe, Marc Maegele, Simon J Stanworth, Christine Gaarder, Karim Brohi, Per I Johansson
BACKGROUND: Traumatic injury is the fourth leading cause of death globally. Half of all trauma deaths are due to bleeding and most of these will occur within 6 h of injury. Haemorrhagic shock following injury has been shown to induce a clotting dysfunction within minutes, and this early trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC) may exacerbate bleeding and is associated with higher mortality and morbidity. In spite of improved resuscitation strategies over the last decade, current transfusion therapy still fails to correct TIC during ongoing haemorrhage and evidence for the optimal management of bleeding trauma patients is lacking...
October 18, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047342/effectiveness-and-patient-safety-of-platelet-aggregation-inhibitors-in-the-prevention-of-cardiovascular-disease-and-ischemic-stroke-in-older-adults-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Maren Meinshausen, Anja Rieckert, Anna Renom-Guiteras, Moritz Kröger, Christina Sommerauer, Ilkka Kunnamo, Yolanda V Martinez, Aneez Esmail, Andreas Sönnichsen
BACKGROUND: Platelet aggregation inhibitors (PAI) are among the most frequently prescribed drugs in older people, though evidence about risks and benefits of their use in older adults is scarce. The objectives of this systematic review are firstly to identify the risks and benefits of their use in the prevention and treatment of vascular events in older adults, and secondly to develop recommendations on discontinuing PAI in this population if risks outweigh benefits. METHODS: Staged systematic review consisting of three searches...
October 16, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046921/pioglitazone-reduces-cold-induced-brown-fat-glucose-uptake-despite-induction-of-browning-in-cultured-human-adipocytes-a-randomised-controlled-trial-in-humans
#16
Rebecca K C Loh, Melissa F Formosa, Nina Eikelis, David A Bertovic, Mitchell J Anderson, Shane A Barwood, Shane Nanayakkara, Neale D Cohen, Andre La Gerche, Anne T Reutens, Kenneth S Yap, Thomas W Barber, Gavin W Lambert, Martin H Cherk, Stephen J Duffy, Bronwyn A Kingwell, Andrew L Carey
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Increasing brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity is a possible therapeutic strategy to increase energy expenditure and glucose and lipid clearance to ameliorate obesity and associated comorbidities. The thiazolidinedione (TZD) class of glucose-lowering drugs increase BAT browning in preclinical experimental models but whether these actions extend to humans in vivo is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of pioglitazone treatment on adipocyte browning and adaptive thermogenesis in humans...
October 18, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046819/interpersonal-art-psychotherapy-for-the-treatment-of-aggression-in-people-with-learning-disabilities-in-secure-care-a-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-feasibility-study
#17
Simon S Hackett, John L Taylor, Mark Freeston, Andrew Jahoda, Elaine McColl, Lindsay Pennington, Eileen Kaner
BACKGROUND: Art psychotherapy has greater potential for use with adults with mild to moderate learning disabilities as it places less of a burden on verbal interaction to achieve positive therapeutic, psychological, and behavioural goals. The feasibility study objectives include testing procedures, outcomes, validated tools, recruitment and attrition rates, acceptability, and treatment fidelity for manualised interpersonal art psychotherapy. METHODS: Adult males and females with mild to moderate learning disabilities will be recruited from four NHS secure hospitals...
2017: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046273/upright-versus-lying-down-position-in-second-stage-of-labour-in-nulliparous-women-with-low-dose-epidural-bumpes-randomised-controlled-trial
#18
(no author information available yet)
Objective To determine whether being upright in the second stage of labour in nulliparous women with a low dose epidural increases the chance of spontaneous vaginal birth compared with lying down.Design Multicentre pragmatic individually randomised controlled trial.Setting 41 UK hospital labour wards.Participants 3093 nulliparous women aged 16 or older, at term with a singleton cephalic presentation and in the second stage of labour with epidural analgesia.Interventions Women were allocated to an upright or lying down position, using a secure web based randomisation service, stratified by centre, with no masking of participants or clinicians to the trial interventions...
October 18, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045765/oral-anti-diabetic-agents-for-women-with-established-diabetes-impaired-glucose-tolerance-or-previous-gestational-diabetes-planning-pregnancy-or-pregnant-women-with-pre-existing-diabetes
#19
REVIEW
Joanna Tieu, Suzette Coat, William Hague, Philippa Middleton, Emily Shepherd
BACKGROUND: While most guidance recommends the use of insulin in women whose pregnancies are affected by pre-existing diabetes, oral anti-diabetic agents may be more acceptable to women. The effects of these oral anti-diabetic agents on maternal and infant health outcomes need to be established in pregnant women with pre-existing diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance, as well as in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus preconceptionally or during a subsequent pregnancy. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of oral anti-diabetic agents in women with established diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance or previous gestational diabetes who are planning a pregnancy, or pregnant women with pre-existing diabetes, on maternal and infant health...
October 18, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045535/select-2-a-phase-ii-double-blind-randomised-placebo-controlled-study-to-assess-the-efficacy-of-selumetinib-plus-docetaxel-as-a-second-line-treatment-for-patients-with-advanced-or-metastatic-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#20
J C Soria, A Fülöp, C Maciel, J R Fischer, G Girotto, S Lago, E Smit, G Ostoros, W E E Eberhardt, P Lishkovska, S Lovick, G Mariani, A McKeown, E Kilgour, P Smith, K Bowen, A Kohlmann, D J Carlile, P A Jänne
Background: Combination of selumetinib plus docetaxel provided clinical benefit in a previous Phase II trial for patients with KRAS-mutant advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The Phase II SELECT-2 trial investigated safety and efficacy of selumetinib plus docetaxel for patients with advanced or metastatic NSCLC. Patients and methods: Patients who had disease progression after first-line anti-cancer therapy were randomised (2:2:1) to selumetinib 75 mg BID plus docetaxel 60 mg/m2 or 75 mg/m2 (SEL+DOC 60; SEL+DOC 75), or placebo plus docetaxel 75 mg/m2 (PBO+DOC 75)...
October 3, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
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