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Sonia Kapur, Anna Zajicek
How are the images of abused South Asian marriage migrants shaped by domestic violence advocates? We explore the social constructions of battered Asian Indian marriage migrants in the victim advocates' narratives. First, we find the narratives both reproduce and challenge the dominant stereotypes, utilizing some individualistic typifications while constructing these images with an understanding of the broader context of battered South Asian women's experiences. Second, depending on the issue (e.g., economic dependence or religion), the advocates paint either a multidimensional or a one-dimensional picture of their clients...
March 1, 2018: Violence Against Women
Kotaro Yuge, Kazuhiro Iwama, Chihiro Yonee, Mayumi Matsufuji, Nozomi Sano, Tomoko Saikusa, Yukako Yae, Yushiro Yamashita, Takeshi Mizuguchi, Naomichi Matsumoto, Toyojiro Matsuishi
Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder mostly caused by mutations in Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2); however, mutations in various other genes may lead to RTT-like phenotypes. Here, we report the first case of a Japanese girl with RTT caused by a novel syntaxin-binding protein 1 (STXBP1) frameshift mutation (c.60delG, p.Lys21Argfs*16). She showed epilepsy at one year of age, regression of acquired psychomotor abilities thereafter, and exhibited stereotypic hand and limb movements at 3 years of age...
March 12, 2018: Brain & Development
Tabitha C Peck, My Doan, Kimberly A Bourne, Jessica J Good
The underrepresentation of women in technical and STEM fields is a well-known problem, and stereotype threatening situations have been linked to the inability to recruit and retain women into these fields. Virtual reality enables the unique ability to perform body-swap illusions, and research has shown that these illusions can change participant behavior. Characteristically people take on the traits of the avatar they are embodying. We hypothesized that female participants embodying male avatars when a stereotype threat was made salient would demonstrate stereotype lift...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Atsuo Nishino
Neurobiology in ascidians has made many advances. Ascidians have offered natural advantages to researchers, including fecundity, structural simplicity, invariant morphology, and fast and stereotyped developmental processes. The researchers have also accumulated on this animal a great deal of knowledge, genomic resources, and modern genetic techniques. A recent connectomic analysis has shown an ultimately resolved image of the larval nervous system, whereas recent applications of live imaging and optogenetics have clarified the functional organization of the juvenile nervous system...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Julian Cespedes-Guevara, Tuomas Eerola
Basic Emotion theory has had a tremendous influence on the affective sciences, including music psychology, where most researchers have assumed that music expressivity is constrained to a limited set of basic emotions. Several scholars suggested that these constrains to musical expressivity are explained by the existence of a shared acoustic code to the expression of emotions in music and speech prosody. In this article we advocate for a shift from this focus on basic emotions to a constructionist account. This approach proposes that the phenomenon of perception of emotions in music arises from the interaction of music's ability to express core affects and the influence of top-down and contextual information in the listener's mind...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Qike Wang, Yidan Shang, Douglas S Hilton, Kiao Inthavong, Dong Zhang, Mark A Elgar
The elaborate bipectinate antennae of male moths are thought to increase their sensitivity to female sex pheromones, and so should be favoured by selection. Yet simple filamentous antennae are the most common structure among moths. The stereotypic arrangements of scales on the surface of antennae may resolve this paradox. We use computational fluid dynamics techniques to model how scales on the filamentous antennae of moths affect the passage of different particles in the airflow across the flagellum in both small and large moths...
March 14, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Randall J Harley, Joseph P Murdy, Zhirong Wang, Michael C Kelly, Tessa-Jonne F Ropp, SeHoon H Park, Patricia F Maness, Paul B Manis, Thomas M Coate
BACKGROUND: In the cochlea, auditory development depends on precise patterns of innervation by afferent and efferent nerve fibers, as well as a stereotyped arrangement of hair and supporting cells. NrCAM is a homophilic cell adhesion molecule that controls diverse aspects of nervous system development, but the function of NrCAM in cochlear development is not well understood. RESULTS: Throughout cochlear innervation, NrCAM is detectable on spiral ganglion neuron (SGN) afferent and olivocochlear efferent fibers, and on the membranes of developing hair and supporting cells...
March 14, 2018: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
Gu Li, Wang Ivy Wong
Single-sex schooling has been controversial for decades. The current study investigated the differences in friendships, dating, and past, present, and ideal sexual orientation, between 207 college students who attended single-sex secondary schools and 249 college students who attended coeducational secondary schools in Hong Kong, controlling for personal characteristics such as socioeconomic status. We found that, compared to graduates of coeducational schools, graduates of single-sex schools reported a different gender composition in intimate friendships favoring the same sex, less romantic involvement with other-sex close friends, older age at first date, fewer boyfriends or girlfriends, and more past same-sex sexuality...
March 13, 2018: Archives of Sexual Behavior
Leandro G Franco, Carlos Henrique M Wilges, Daniel P Junior, Sofia A Cerejo, Lilian T Nishimura, Isabela P Bittar
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of ketamine continuous rate infusions (CRI) at two dose rates on cardiovascular function and serum creatine kinase MB isoenzyme (CK-MB) and troponin I in healthy conscious dogs. STUDY DESIGN: Experimental, prospective, crossover, randomized, blinded study. ANIMALS: Eight adult mixed-breed dogs, aged 6±1 years and weighing 19±8.6 kg (mean±standard deviation). METHODS: Dogs were administered an intravenous bolus of ketamine (0...
December 18, 2017: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
Yoann Guntzburger, Thierry C Pauchant, Philippe A Tanguy
The complexity of industrial reality, the plurality of legitimate perspectives on risks and the role of emotions in decision-making raise important ethical issues in risk management that are usually overlooked in engineering. Using a questionnaire answered by 200 engineering students from a major engineering school in Canada, the purpose of this study was to assess how their training has influenced their perceptions toward these issues. While our results challenge the stereotypical portrait of the engineer, they also suggest that the current engineering education might fail to empower engineers to engage in ethical risk management...
March 12, 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
Lena Spangenberg, Markus Zenger, Heide Glaesmer, Elmar Brähler, Bernhard Strauss
The present study aimed to extend the knowledge regarding dimensionality, socio-demographic correlates and shifts in age stereotypes over the past 15 years using a time-sequential design. In 1996 and 2011, we assessed age stereotypes in two independent samples of the German population aged ≥ 45 years ( N  = 970 in sample 1, N  = 1545 in sample 2). Three scales with six items each were assessed. Two scales cover negative (i.e., rigidity/isolation, burden), and one scale covers positive age stereotypes (wisdom/experience)...
March 2018: European Journal of Ageing
Anthony M Rossi, Vilaiwan M Fernandes
Various regions of the developing brain coordinate their construction so that the correct types and numbers of cells are generated to build a functional network. We previously discovered that wrapping glia in the Drosophila visual system are essential for coordinating retinal and lamina development. We showed that wrapping glia, which ensheath photoreceptor axons, respond to an epidermal growth factor cue from photoreceptors by secreting insulins. Wrapping glial insulins activate the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway downstream of insulin receptor in lamina precursors to induce neuronal differentiation...
2018: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
Shalendra Singh, Ankur Khandelwal, Rashmi Datta, Ashutosh Kaushal, Gyaninder Pal Singh
High-dose continuous midazolam therapy has been used successfully for control of refractory status epilepticus. However, normal anion gap (AG) metabolic acidosis, a deleterious complication of this therapy is underrecognized. Even though previously reported in an isolated case report in a pediatric patient, we observed similar complication in an adult patient. Stereotyped normal AG metabolic acidosis along with hypotension developed on two occasions during high-dose continuous midazolam hydrochloride infusion that reverted rapidly following cessation of the infusion...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
K Jeannet Oyen, Michael E Dillon
Critical thermal limits often determine species distributions for diverse ectotherms and have become a useful tool for understanding past and predicting future range shifts in response to changing climates. Despite recently documented population declines and range shifts of bumble bees (genus Bombus ), the few measurements of thermal tolerance available for the group have relied on disparate measurement approaches. We describe a novel stereotypical behavior expressed by bumble bee individuals during entry into chill coma...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Cynthia R Johnson, Tristram Smith, Alexandra DeMand, Luc Lecavalier, Victoria Evans, Matthew Gurka, Naomi Swiezy, Karen Bearss, Lawrence Scahill
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Sleep disturbances in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are common and may impair daytime functioning as well as add to parental burden. In this well characterized sample of young children with ASD and disruptive behaviors, we examine the association of age and IQ in sleep disturbances using the Child Sleep Habits Questionnaire modified for ASD (CSHQ-ASD). We also test whether children with poor sleep have greater daytime behavioral problems than those with better sleep...
April 2018: Sleep Medicine
Bethany M Breck, Cory B Dennis, Skye N Leedahl
Reverse mentoring is a means to address the social work Grand Challenge of social isolation. Among older adults, reverse mentoring can improve social connection by increasing the digital competence of older adults so they can use technology for social benefit, and by facilitating intergenerational connections with young adult mentors. In this paper, reverse mentoring is examined within an intergenerational program that serves older adults and utilizes the native technological knowledge and skills of young adults who mentor older adult participants...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Gerontological Social Work
Leila Siciliano-Martina, Jason P Martina
Maternal deprivation can cause long-term behavioral changes in captive mammals. Studies regarding captive ungulates have also indicated behavioral shifts in the presence of the animal keeping staff; however, little is known about these effects in captive giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis). To examine this, we observed a population of reticulated giraffes composed of maternally raised and maternally deprived individuals by direct and camera observations at Binder Park Zoo, Battle Creek, Michigan. We conducted observations using a unique ethogram with special regard for behaviors that might indicate stress or anti-social tendencies...
March 12, 2018: Zoo Biology
Olivier White, Jean-Louis Thonnard, Philippe Lefèvre, Joachim Hermsdörfer
Humans have a remarkable ability to adjust the way they manipulate tools through a genuine regulation of grip force according to the task. However, rapid changes in the dynamical context may challenge this skill, as shown in many experimental approaches. Most experiments adopt perturbation paradigms that affect only one sensory modality. We hypothesize that very fast adaptation can occur if coherent information from multiple sensory modalities is provided to the central nervous system. Here, we test whether participants can switch between different and never experienced dynamical environments induced by centrifugation of the body...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Bo-Mi Song, Chi-Hon Lee
Many visual animals exploit spectral information for seeking food and mates, for identifying preys and predators, and for navigation. Animals use chromatic information in two ways. "True color vision," the ability to discriminate visual stimuli on the basis of their spectral content independent of brightness, is thought to play an important role in object identification. In contrast, "wavelength-specific behavior," which is strongly dependent on brightness, often associates with foraging, navigation, and other species-specific needs...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Xenia Meshik, Patrick R O'Neill, N Gautam
Subcellular optogenetics allows specific proteins to be optically activated or inhibited at a restricted subcellular location in intact living cells. It provides unprecedented control of dynamic cell behaviors. Optically modulating the activity of signaling molecules on one side of a cell helps optically control cell polarization and directional cell migration. Combining subcellular optogenetics with live cell imaging of the induced molecular and cellular responses in real time helps decipher the spatially and temporally dynamic molecular mechanisms that control a stereotypical complex cell behavior, cell migration...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
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