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Stereotypes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535368/unfolding-the-folding-problem-of-the-cerebral-cortex-movin-and-groovin
#1
Yasuhiro Itoh, Alexandros Poulopoulos, Jeffrey D Macklis
The development of reproducible folding in the gyrencephalic cerebral cortex is a topic of great interest to neuroscientists. In a recent paper in Cell, del Toro et al. (2017) show that changing the adhesive properties of neurons in the normally lissencephalic mouse cortex leads to the formation of stereotyped folding.
May 22, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534217/autism-spectrum-disorder-associated-genes-and-the-development-of-dentate-granule-cells
#2
REVIEW
Hidenori Ito, Rika Morishita, Koh-Ichi Nagata
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by severe clinical symptoms such as the deficiency of the social communication, repetitive and stereotyped behaviors, and restricted interests. Although complex genetic and environmental factors are thought to contribute to the development of ASD, the precise etiologies are largely unknown. Neuroanatomical observations have been made of developmental abnormalities in different brain regions, including dentate gyrus of hippocampus, which is widely accepted as the center for learning and memory...
May 22, 2017: Medical Molecular Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531176/stigma-of-addiction-and-mental-illness-in-healthcare-the-case-of-patients-experiences-in-dental-settings
#3
Mario A Brondani, Rana Alan, Leeann Donnelly
OBJECTIVE: To explore the ways in which stigma is experienced in healthcare and dental settings by patients with a history of addiction and mental illness. METHODS: Audio-recorded, semi-structured interviews with a purposefully selected convenience sample of residents from two community treatment centres in Vancouver, Canada were conducted. The interview guide contained questions about experiences while seeking health and dental care and was based on an existing framework of labeling, stereotyping, exclusion, discrimination, and power imbalance...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529364/rape-is-it-a-lifestyle-or-behavioral-problem
#4
Zeel N Kamdar, Jayendrakumar K Kosambiya, Bansari L Chawada, Mamtarani Verma, Abhinav Kadia
INTRODUCTION: In India, girl is raped every 20 min. The majority of reports reveals youth is vulnerable group for rape victimization. A set of prejudicial, stereotyped, or false beliefs about rape, rape victims, and rapist exist in the community. AIMS/OBJECTIVES: To study the attitude and myths toward rape among college going students of Surat City. MATERIALS AND METHODS: College students of various streams were participated in the study based on attitude toward rape scale (21 items) and updated Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance Scale (22 items)...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527374/talking-about-sunbed-tanning-social-representations-and-identity-work
#5
Jennifer Taylor, Michael Murray, Alexandra Lamont
RATIONALE: Despite the publicised health risks associated with its usage, sunbed tanning remains popular in many Western countries. Previous research indicates that knowledge of the harmful effects does not necessarily lead to a reduction in sunbed use. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop a more extensive social psychological understanding of sunbed use, in the United Kingdom, by exploring the social representations of sunbed tanning held by both those who use and who have never used sunbeds...
May 9, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527095/-putting-on-my-best-normal-social-camouflaging-in-adults-with-autism-spectrum-conditions
#6
Laura Hull, K V Petrides, Carrie Allison, Paula Smith, Simon Baron-Cohen, Meng-Chuan Lai, William Mandy
Camouflaging of autistic characteristics in social situations is hypothesised as a common social coping strategy for adults with autism spectrum conditions (ASC). Camouflaging may impact diagnosis, quality of life, and long-term outcomes, but little is known about it. This qualitative study examined camouflaging experiences in 92 adults with ASC, with questions focusing on the nature, motivations, and consequences of camouflaging. Thematic analysis was used to identify key elements of camouflaging, which informed development of a three-stage model of the camouflaging process...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526515/prenatal-lipopolysaccharide-induces-hypothalamic-dopaminergic-hypoactivity-and-autistic-like-behaviors-repetitive-self-grooming-and-stereotypies
#7
Thiago B Kirsten, Maria M Bernardi
Previous investigations by our group have shown that prenatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which mimics infection by gram-negative bacteria, induces social, cognitive, and communication deficits. For a complete screening of autistic-like behaviors, the objective of this study was to evaluate if our rat model also induces restricted and repetitive stereotyped behaviors. Thus, we studied the self-grooming microstructure. We also studied the neurochemistry of hypothalamus and frontal cortex, which are brain areas related to autism to better understand central mechanisms involved in our model...
May 16, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525544/bistability-causality-and-complexity-in-cortical-networks-an-in-vitro-perturbational-study
#8
Mattia D'Andola, Beatriz Rebollo, Adenauer G Casali, Julia F Weinert, Andrea Pigorini, Rosa Villa, Marcello Massimini, Maria V Sanchez-Vives
Measuring the spatiotemporal complexity of cortical responses to direct perturbations provides a reliable index of the brain's capacity for consciousness in humans under both physiological and pathological conditions. Upon loss of consciousness, the complex pattern of causal interactions observed during wakefulness collapses into a stereotypical slow wave, suggesting that cortical bistability may play a role. Bistability is mainly expressed in the form of slow oscillations, a default pattern of activity that emerges from cortical networks in conditions of functional or anatomical disconnection...
May 19, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520929/laughing-off-the-stereotypes-age-and-aging-in-seniors-online-sex-related-humor
#9
Galit Nimrod, Liza Berdychevsky
Background and Objectives: Focusing on sex, the most salient topic featured in ageist jokes, this study aims at exploring the extent to which seniors' own humor reflects common ageist stereotypes or rather echoes contemporary consumer society representations of seniors' sexuality. Research Design and Methods: The study was based on a quantitative content analysis of 300 humorous sex-related messages posted during one full year by members of 14 leading online communities for seniors...
May 17, 2017: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507136/ocd-candidate-gene-slc1a1-eaat3-impacts-basal-ganglia-mediated-activity-and-stereotypic-behavior
#10
Isaac D Zike, Muhammad O Chohan, Jared M Kopelman, Emily N Krasnow, Daniel Flicker, Katherine M Nautiyal, Michael Bubser, Christoph Kellendonk, Carrie K Jones, Gregg Stanwood, Kenji Fransis Tanaka, Holly Moore, Susanne E Ahmari, Jeremy Veenstra-VanderWeele
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic, disabling condition with inadequate treatment options that leave most patients with substantial residual symptoms. Structural, neurochemical, and behavioral findings point to a significant role for basal ganglia circuits and for the glutamate system in OCD. Genetic linkage and association studies in OCD point to SLC1A1, which encodes the neuronal glutamate/aspartate/cysteine transporter excitatory amino acid transporter 3 (EAAT3)/excitatory amino acid transporter 1 (EAAC1)...
May 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506202/subtle-and-severe-microaggressions-among-racially-diverse-sexual-minorities
#11
Amanda Weber, Shelly-Ann Collins, Tracy Robinson-Wood, Elda Zeko-Underwood, Bianca Poindexter
In recent years, understanding prejudice and discrimination towards minorities has developed to include the investigation of microaggressions. Microaggressions are brief and commonplace verbal, behavioral or environmental indignities. They are intentional or unintentional and communicate hostile, derogatory, or negative slights towards racial and sexual minorities. The purpose of this phenomenological study is to chronicle the prevalence and type of microaggressions experienced among a sample of 18 highly educated and racially diverse sexual minorities, 24-65 years of age...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Homosexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506123/jack-d-a-mobile-social-networking-application-and-gender-performance-a-site-of-exclusion-within-a-site-of-inclusion
#12
Michael D Bartone
User-generated smartphone applications have created a new level of virtual connectivity for gay males, one in which users can create profiles and meet other users as nearby or as faraway as possible. For those within close proximity, the other users can be considered their "virtual neighbors." While the applications are theoretically designed to be places of inclusion and not exclusion, where any gay male with economic means can download an application, many profiles have been created, which exclude other users...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Homosexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505095/behavioural-profiles-of-brown-and-sloth-bears-in-captivity
#13
Giovanni Quintavalle Pastorino, Yiannis Christodoulides, Giulio Curone, Paul Pearce-Kelly, Massimo Faustini, Mariangela Albertini, Richard Preziosi, Silvia Michela Mazzola
Three brown bear (Ursusarctosarctos) individuals and two sloth bear (Melursusursinusinornatus) individuals were observed in captivity to produce behavioural profiles for each individual. Data collected through behavioural observations were used to produce activity budgets, and to identify space usage and certain aspects of social behavior. Behaviour monitoring allowed the researchers to evaluate the welfare of the animals by identifying the occurrence of stereotypic behaviours, which are sometimes associated with stress...
May 13, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503957/a-model-for-developing-disability-confidence
#14
Sally Lindsay, Sara Cancelliere
PURPOSE: Many clinicians, educators, and employers lack disability confidence which can affect their interactions with, and inclusion of people with disabilities. Our objective was to explore how disability confidence developed among youth who volunteered with children who have a disability. METHODS: We conducted 30 in-depth interviews (16 without a disability, 14 with disabilities), with youth aged 15-25. We analyzed our data using an interpretive, qualitative, thematic approach...
May 15, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503649/reliability-and-validity-study-of-a-tool-to-measure-cancer-stigma-patient-version
#15
Medine Yılmaz, Gülçin Dişsiz, Filiz Demir, Sibel Irız, Ahmet Alacacioglu
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this methodological study is to establish the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of "A Questionnaire for Measuring Attitudes toward Cancer (Cancer Stigma) - Patient version." METHODS: The sample comprised oncology patients who had active cancer treatment. The construct validity was assessed using the confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis. RESULTS: The mean age of the participants was 54.9±12.3 years...
April 2017: Asia-Pacific Journal of Oncology Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502658/spontaneous-rapid-odor-source-localization-behavior-requires-interhemispheric-communication
#16
José Esquivelzeta Rabell, Kadir Mutlu, João Noutel, Pamela Martin Del Olmo, Sebastian Haesler
Navigation, finding food sources, and avoiding danger critically depend on the identification and spatial localization of airborne chemicals. When monitoring the olfactory environment, rodents spontaneously engage in active olfactory sampling behavior, also referred to as exploratory sniffing [1]. Exploratory sniffing is characterized by stereotypical high-frequency respiration, which is also reliably evoked by novel odorant stimuli [2, 3]. To study novelty-induced exploratory sniffing, we developed a novel, non-contact method for measuring respiration by infrared (IR) thermography in a behavioral paradigm in which novel and familiar stimuli are presented to head-restrained mice...
May 22, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502614/partially-compromised-specification-causes-stochastic-effects-on-gut-development-in-c-elegans
#17
Hailey Choi, Gina Broitman-Maduro, Morris F Maduro
The C. elegans gut descends from the E progenitor cell through a series of stereotyped cell divisions and morphogenetic events. Effects of perturbations of upstream cell specification on downstream organogenesis have not been extensively investigated. Here we have assembled an allelic series of strains that variably compromise specification of E by perturbing the activation of the gut-specifying end-1 and end-3 genes. Using a marker that allows identification of all E descendants regardless of fate, superimposed with markers that identify cells that have adopted a gut fate, we have examined the fate of E lineage descendants among hundreds of embryos...
May 11, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501654/urinary-organophosphate-insecticide-metabolite-concentrations-during-pregnancy-and-children-s-interpersonal-communication-repetitive-and-stereotypic-behaviors-at-8-years-of-age-the-home-study
#18
Marisa E Millenson, Joseph M Braun, Antonia M Calafat, Dana Boyd Barr, Yen-Tsung Huang, Aimin Chen, Bruce P Lanphear, Kimberly Yolton
BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to organophosphate insecticides may be associated with autism spectrum disorders and related behaviors. This association may be modified by single nucleotide polymorphisms in the paraoxonase (PON1) enzyme. OBJECTIVE: We examined the relationship of prenatal organophosphate insecticide biomarkers with reciprocal social, repetitive, and stereotypic behaviors in 8-year old children, and modification of this relationship by child PON1 polymorphisms...
May 10, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501514/stabilizing-hdac11-with-saha-to-assay-slow-binding-benzamide-inhibitors
#19
Yinping Tian, Wenhui Lv, Xuewei Li, Congying Wang, Dayuan Wang, Peng G Wang, Jin Jin, Jie Shen
Among 18 human histone deacetylases (HDAC), HDAC11 is least studied. MS275, a benzamide HDAC inhibitor (HDACi), was stereotypically considered to selectively target Class I HDACs. We verified this slow-binding inhibitor also targeted HDAC11. In a traditional enzyme based assay, MS275 at low concentrations surprisingly behaved as an agonist. This was attributed to the poor stability of HDAC11 which lost 40% activity in 3h at 37°C. By adding 0.2μM SAHA, HDAC11 activity was stabilized during the 3-h assay period...
May 4, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499914/advances-in-understanding-the-pathophysiology-of-autism-spectrum-disorders
#20
REVIEW
Konstantin Yenkoyan, Artem Grigoryan, Katarine Fereshetyan, Diana Yepremyan
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are common heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorders with typical triad of symptoms: impaired social interaction, language and communication abnormalities, and stereotypical behavior. Despite extensive research, the etiology and pathogenesis of ASD remain largely unclear. The lack of solid knowledge on the mechanisms of these disorders decreases the opportunities for pathogenetic treatment of autism. Various theories where proposed in order to explain the pathophysiology underlying ASD...
May 9, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
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