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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922832/fast-spiking-parvalbumin-interneurons-are-frequently-myelinated-in-the-cerebral-cortex-of-mice-and-humans
#1
J Stedehouder, J J Couey, D Brizee, B Hosseini, J A Slotman, C M F Dirven, G Shpak, A B Houtsmuller, S A Kushner
Myelination, the insulating ensheathment of axons by oligodendrocytes, is thought to both optimize signal propagation and provide metabolic support. Despite the well-established physiological importance of myelination to neuronal function, relatively little is known about the myelination of GABAergic interneurons in the cerebral cortex. Here, we report that a large fraction of myelin in mouse cerebral cortex ensheaths GABAergic interneurons, reaching up to 80% in hippocampal subregions. Moreover, we find that a very high proportion of neocortical and hippocampal parvalbumin (PV) interneurons exhibit axonal myelination...
October 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921928/inverted-formins-a-sub-family-of-atypical-formins
#2
REVIEW
Anna Hegsted, Curtis V Yingling, David Pruyne
Formins are a family of regulators of actin and microtubule dynamics that are present in almost all eukaryotes. These proteins are involved in many cellular processes, including cytokinesis, stress fiber formation, and cell polarization. Here we review one sub-family of formins, the inverted formins. Inverted formins as a group break several formin stereotypes, having atypical biochemical properties and domain organization, and they have been linked to kidney disease and neuropathy in humans. In this review, we will explore recent research on members of the inverted formin sub-family in mammals, zebrafish, fruit flies, and worms...
September 16, 2017: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921735/three-shades-of-grey-detecting-brain-abnormalities-in-children-with-autism-by-using-source-voxel-and-surface-based-morphometry
#3
Edoardo Pappaianni, Roma Siugzdaite, Sofie Vettori, Paola Venuti, Remo Job, Alessandro Grecucci
Autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in social interactions, communication and stereotyped behavior. Recent evidence from neuroimaging supports the hypothesis that ASD deficits in adults may be related to abnormalities in a specific frontal-temporal network (Autism-specific Structural Network, ASN). To see whether these results extend to younger children and to better characterize these abnormalities, we applied three morphometric methods on brain grey matter of children with and without ASD...
September 16, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921103/biofeedback-based-videogame-balance-training-in-autism
#4
Brittany G Travers, Andrea H Mason, Leigh Ann Mrotek, Anthony Ellertson, Douglas C Dean, Courtney Engel, Andres Gomez, Olga I Dadalko, Kristine McLaughlin
The present study examined the effects of a visual-based biofeedback training on improving balance challenges in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Twenty-nine youth with ASD (7-17 years) completed an intensive 6-week biofeedback-based videogame balance training. Participants exhibited training-related balance improvements that significantly accounted for postural-sway improvements outside of training. Participants perceived the training as beneficial and enjoyable. Significant moderators of training included milder stereotyped and ritualistic behaviors and better starting balance...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919799/maple-syrup-urine-disease-mechanisms-and-management
#5
REVIEW
Patrick R Blackburn, Jennifer M Gass, Filippo Pinto E Vairo, Kristen M Farnham, Herjot K Atwal, Sarah Macklin, Eric W Klee, Paldeep S Atwal
Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inborn error of metabolism caused by defects in the branched-chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex, which results in elevations of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) in plasma, α-ketoacids in urine, and production of the pathognomonic disease marker, alloisoleucine. The disorder varies in severity and the clinical spectrum is quite broad with five recognized clinical variants that have no known association with genotype. The classic presentation occurs in the neonatal period with developmental delay, failure to thrive, feeding difficulties, and maple syrup odor in the cerumen and urine, and can lead to irreversible neurological complications, including stereotypical movements, metabolic decompensation, and death if left untreated...
2017: Application of Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918924/challenge-accepted-social-media-as-a-stereotype-change-agent
#6
EDITORIAL
Michelle M Silva, Julie A Freischlag
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918700/dementia-and-migration-family-care-patterns-merging-with-public-care-services
#7
Mette Sagbakken, Ragnhild Storstein Spilker, Reidun Ingebretsen
This article focuses on cognitive impairment and dementia in the context of transnational migration. Based on data from focus group discussions and interviews, we conclude that to adjust to the needs of care within ethnic-minority communities, it is important to consider not only the availability of household and kin members but also the present understanding of obligation and reciprocity underlying the perception of care. Another important issue to realize is that caregivers, women in particular, might feel obliged to conform to a traditional caregiver role, but without the support from a wider extended family, and in the context of other pressing roles and duties...
September 1, 2017: Qualitative Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918504/autism-spectrum-disorders-and-disease-modeling-using-stem-cells
#8
REVIEW
Anita Brito, Fabiele Baldino Russo, Alysson Renato Muotri, Patricia Cristina Baleeiro Beltrão-Braga
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) represent a variety of disorders characterized as complex lifelong neurodevelopment disabilities, which may affect the ability of communication and socialization, including typical comportments like repetitive and stereotyped behavior. Other comorbidities are usually present, such as echolalia, hypotonia, intellectual disability and difficulties in processing figured speech. Furthermore, some ASD individuals may present certain abilities, such as eidetic memory, outstanding musical or painting talents and special mathematical skills, among others...
September 16, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917948/effects-of-methamphetamine-on-alloparental-behavior-in-male-and-female-prairie-voles
#9
Adam N Perry, Richard J Ortiz, Keziah R Hernandez, Bruce S Cushing
Psychostimulant abuse is associated with a variety of impairments in social functioning, including an increased frequency of depression and aggression and deficits in social cognition. Psychostimulants reduce social investigation in rats and mice; however, it is less clear how other forms of social behavior (e.g., prosocial behavior) are affected. Females are also generally more sensitive to the effects of psychostimulants on locomotion and stereotyped behavior, which suggests that females might also display greater disruption of prosocial behavior...
September 13, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917622/does-gender-matter-an-analysis-of-men-s-and-women-s-accounts-of-responding-to-symptoms-of-lung-cancer
#10
Alice MacLean, Kate Hunt, Sarah Smith, Sally Wyke
Men are often portrayed - in research studies, 'common-sense' accounts and popular media - as reluctant users of health services. They are said to avoid going to the GP whenever possible, while women are portrayed, in presumed opposition, as consulting more readily, more frequently and with less serious complaints. Such stereotypes may inadvertently encourage doctors to pay greater heed to men's symptoms in 'routine' consultations. Although previous research has challenged this view with evidence, and suggested that links between gender identities and help-seeking are complex and fluid, gender comparative studies remain uncommon, and particularly few studies (either qualitative or quantitative) compare men and women with similar morbidity...
September 8, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917155/crossing-the-gender-boundaries-the-gender-experiences-of-male-nursing-students-in-initial-nursing-clinical-practice-in-taiwan
#11
Hsing-Yuan Liu, Yun Ling Li
BACKGROUND: The initial nursing clinical practice is the necessary practicum required for nursing students. Because of the changing learning style, many of them are under great pressure for environmental change and therefore their daily routine is severe affected. Interacting directly with patients in a female-dominated occupation, along with the general gender stereotypes, the impact is especially significant to male nursing students than to female nursing students. PURPOSE: The purpose of this preliminary qualitative study is to explore the gendered experiences of male nursing students during their first initial nursing clinical practice...
September 1, 2017: Nurse Education Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915993/marching-to-a-different-drummer-a-cross-cultural-comparison-of-young-adolescents-who-challenge-gender-norms
#12
Chunyan Yu, Xiayun Zuo, Robert W Blum, Deborah L Tolman, Anna Kågesten, Kristin Mmari, Sara De Meyer, Kristien Michielsen, Sharmistha Basu, Rajib Acharya, Qiguo Lian, Chaohua Lou
PURPOSE: Little is known about how gender norms regulate adolescents' lives across different cultural settings. This study aims to illustrate what is considered as violating gender norms for boys and girls in four urban poor sites as well as the consequences that follow the challenging of gender norms. METHODS: Data were collected as part of the Global Early Adolescent Study, a 15-country collaboration to explore gender norms and health in early adolescence. The current study analyzed narrative and in-depth interviews conducted in urban poor sites in two middle-income (Shanghai, China; and New Delhi, India) and two high-income countries (Baltimore, U...
October 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915992/-boys-should-have-the-courage-to-ask-a-girl-out-gender-norms-in-early-adolescent-romantic-relationships
#13
Sara De Meyer, Anna Kågesten, Kristin Mmari, Juliet McEachran, Elisa Chilet-Rosell, Caroline W Kabiru, Beatrice Maina, Elena M Jerves, Candace Currie, Kristien Michielsen
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study is to explore how gender norms emerge in romantic relationships among early adolescents (EAs) living in five poor urban areas. METHODS: Data were collected as part of the Global Early Adolescent Study. The current research analyzed data from interviews with 30 EAs (aged 11-13 years) living in five poor urban sites: Baltimore, Cuenca, Edinburgh, Ghent, and Nairobi. All interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed in English using Atlas...
October 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915888/stigmatization-of-people-who-inject-drugs-pwid-by-pharmacists-in-tajikistan-sociocultural-context-and-implications-for-a-pharmacy-based-prevention-approach
#14
Umedjon Ibragimov, Hannah L Cooper, Regine Haardörfer, Kristin L Dunkle, William A Zule, Frank Y Wong
BACKGROUND: Pharmacies are an important source of sterile syringes for people who inject drugs (PWID) in Tajikistan who are under high risk of HIV and hepatitis C virus. Accessibility of sterile syringes at pharmacies without prescription may depend on pharmacists' attitudes towards PWID. This qualitative inquiry examines meanings and processes of stigmatization of PWID among pharmacists and pharmacy students in Tajikistan. METHODS: We conducted semi-structured interviews with 19 pharmacists and 9 students (N = 28) in the cities of Dushanbe and Kulob, Tajikistan...
September 16, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914607/cortex-wide-bold-fmri-activity-reflects-locally-recorded-slow-oscillation-associated-calcium-waves
#15
Miriam Schwalm, Florian Schmid, Lydia Wachsmuth, Hendrik Backhaus, Andrea Kronfeld, Felipe Aedo Jury, Pierre-Hugues Prouvot, Consuelo Fois, Franziska Albers, Timo van Alst, Cornelius Faber, Albrecht Stroh
Spontaneous slow oscillation-associated slow wave activity represents an internally generated state which is characterized by alternations of network quiescence and stereotypical episodes of neuronal activity - slow wave events. However, it remains unclear which macroscopic signal is related to these active periods of the slow wave rhythm. We used optic fiber-based calcium recordings of local neural populations in cortex and thalamus to detect neurophysiologically defined slow calcium waves in isoflurane anesthetized rats...
September 15, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914212/-from-being-a-child-to-being-ill-changes-in-thinking-about-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
K Neuvel
In 1984 the public consciousness about Alzheimer's disease radically changed. Suddenly, especially in the media, a tremendous interest in the phenomenon arose. In the years before, there was hardly any public knowledge about 'Alzheimer's disease'. Mental deterioration was seen as a natural and inevitable part of a human being's course of life. Starting in 1984 however, this deterioration was seen as the most dreaded disease that could struck a person. The disease seemed to rob a person from its most essential abilities: the ability to think, to communicate and to be an individual...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914159/positive-stereotype-validation-the-bolstering-effects-of-activating-positive-stereotypes-after-intellectual-performance
#17
Jason K Clark, Kelsey C Thiem, Sungha Kang
Past research has found that members of stigmatized groups may feel more certain of poor performance when negative stereotypes are made accessible after finishing a task (i.e., stereotype validation). However, no research to date has identified the potential effects of activating positive stereotypes after performance. Based on past research and theory, we hypothesized that such positive stereotype validation may serve to bolster-rather than hinder-important beliefs related to one's abilities and future task performance...
August 1, 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913950/do-transgender-children-gender-stereotype-less-than-their-peers-and-siblings
#18
Kristina R Olson, Elizabeth A Enright
In the present work, we ask whether socially transitioned, transgender children differ from other children in their endorsement of gender stereotypes and response to others' gender nonconformity. We compare transgender children (N = 56) to a group of siblings of transgender children (N = 37), and a group of unrelated control participants (N = 56) during middle childhood (ages 6-8 years old). Our results indicate that transgender children and the siblings of transgender children endorse gender stereotypes less than the control group...
September 15, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912750/current-and-emerging-technologies-for-probing-molecular-signatures-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#19
REVIEW
Ari Ercole, Sandra Magnoni, Gloria Vegliante, Roberta Pastorelli, Jakub Surmacki, Sarah Elizabeth Bohndiek, Elisa R Zanier
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is understood as an interplay between the initial injury, subsequent secondary injuries, and a complex host response all of which are highly heterogeneous. An understanding of the underlying biology suggests a number of windows where mechanistically inspired interventions could be targeted. Unfortunately, biologically plausible therapies have to-date failed to translate into clinical practice. While a number of stereotypical pathways are now understood to be involved, current clinical characterization is too crude for it to be possible to characterize the biological phenotype in a truly mechanistically meaningful way...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912162/regional-cellular-environment-shapes-phenotypic-variations-of-hippocampal-and-neocortical-chandelier-cells
#20
Yugo Ishino, Michael J Yetman, Serena M Sossi, André Steinecke, Yasufumi Hayano, Hiroki Taniguchi
Different cortical regions processing distinct information, such as the hippocampus and the neocortex, share common cellular components and circuit motifs but form unique networks by modifying these cardinal units. Cortical circuits include diverse types of GABAergic interneurons (INs) that shape activity of excitatory principal neurons (PNs). Canonical IN types conserved across distinct cortical regions have been defined by their morphological, electrophysiological, and neurochemical properties. However, it remains largely unknown whether canonical IN types undergo specific modifications in distinct cortical regions and display "regional variants"...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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