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G Fenu, L Lorefice, L Loi, V Sechi, F Contu, G Coghe, J Frau, G Spinicci, M A Barracciu, M G Marrosu, E Cocco
BACKGROUND: Paediatric onset multiple sclerosis (POMS) is associated with reduced brain and deep grey matter volume in comparison with that in healthy controls and individuals with adult onset multiple sclerosis (AOMS). The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of POMS on adult brain volume with adjustment for other parameters, such as disease duration. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We recruited 20 POMS and 40 AOMS patients and 20 healthy controls matched for age and sex...
March 6, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Riikka Homanen
The multimillion-euro fertility industry increasingly tailors its treatments to infertile people who are willing to travel across national borders for treatments inaccessible at home, especially reproductive tissue donor treatments. Finland is the Nordic destination for access to donor eggs, particularly for Swedes and Norwegians hoping for a donor match that will achieve a child of phenotypically plausible biological descent. Finns are seen as Nordic kin, and the inheritability of "Nordicness" is reinforced at clinics...
March 7, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Emily A McCourt, Gui-Shuang Ying, Anne M Lynch, Alan G Palestine, Brandie D Wagner, Erica Wymore, Lauren A Tomlinson, Gil Binenbaum
Importance: The Colorado Retinopathy of Prematurity (CO-ROP) model uses birth weight, gestational age, and weight gain at the first month of life (WG-28) to predict risk of severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). In previous validation studies, the model performed very well, predicting virtually all cases of severe ROP and potentially reducing the number of infants who need ROP examinations, warranting validation in a larger, more diverse population. Objective: To validate the performance of the CO-ROP model in a large multicenter cohort...
March 15, 2018: JAMA Ophthalmology
Sophia Y Wang, Mariam S Hamid, David C Musch, Maria A Woodward
Importance: Nearly 2 million patients visit emergency departments (EDs) because of eye concerns annually in the United States. How hospitals currently assign these patients to treatment is important for designing systems that equitably allocate resources for eye care in urgent settings. Objective: To investigate factors associated with ophthalmology consultation for eye-related adult ED encounters to assess possible disparities by sex, race/ethnicity, language preference, or residential distance from the medical center...
March 15, 2018: JAMA Ophthalmology
Charles S Fuchs, Toshihiko Doi, Raymond W Jang, Kei Muro, Taroh Satoh, Manuela Machado, Weijing Sun, Shadia I Jalal, Manish A Shah, Jean-Phillipe Metges, Marcelo Garrido, Talia Golan, Mario Mandala, Zev A Wainberg, Daniel V Catenacci, Atsushi Ohtsu, Kohei Shitara, Ravit Geva, Jonathan Bleeker, Andrew H Ko, Geoffrey Ku, Philip Philip, Peter C Enzinger, Yung-Jue Bang, Diane Levitan, Jiangdian Wang, Minori Rosales, Rita P Dalal, Harry H Yoon
Importance: Therapeutic options are needed for patients with advanced gastric cancer whose disease has progressed after 2 or more lines of therapy. Objective: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of pembrolizumab in a cohort of patients with previously treated gastric or gastroesophageal junction cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: In the phase 2, global, open-label, single-arm, multicohort KEYNOTE-059 study, 259 patients in 16 countries were enrolled in a cohort between March 2, 2015, and May 26, 2016...
March 15, 2018: JAMA Oncology
Javier Vicente-Tejedor, Miguel Marchena, Laura Ramírez, Diego García-Ayuso, Violeta Gómez-Vicente, Celia Sánchez-Ramos, Pedro de la Villa, Francisco Germain
Light causes damage to the retina (phototoxicity) and decreases photoreceptor responses to light. The most harmful component of visible light is the blue wavelength (400-500 nm). Different filters have been tested, but so far all of them allow passing a lot of this wavelength (70%). The aim of this work has been to prove that a filter that removes 94% of the blue component may protect the function and morphology of the retina significantly. Three experimental groups were designed. The first group was unexposed to light, the second one was exposed and the third one was exposed and protected by a blue-blocking filter...
2018: PloS One
(no author information available yet)
In 2016, men aged ≥18 years were more likely than women to be current regular drinkers of alcohol (62.1% versus 47.2%). Non-Hispanic white men (65.5%) were more likely to be current regular drinkers than Hispanic men (57.8%) and non-Hispanic black men (52.9%). Non-Hispanic white women (55.6%) were more likely to be current regular drinkers than non-Hispanic black women (35.9%) and Hispanic women (31.5%).
March 16, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
De-Xin Kong, Fang Lv, Ben Hu, Li-Min Cao
Detection of triphenylmethane dyes (TDs), especially the widely used malachite green (MG) and crystal violet (CV), plays an important role in safety control of aquatic products. There are two chromatic forms of TDs: oxidized or reduced. Usually, only one form can be detected by reported ELISA antibodies. In this article, molecular shape superimposing and quantum mechanics calculation were employed to elucidate the differences between MG, CV, and their reduced chromatic forms (leucomalachite green, LMG and leucocrystal violet, LCV)...
March 15, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Md Nahid Pervez, Faizan Shafiq, Zahid Sarwar, Muhammad Munib Jilani, Yingjie Cai
In this study, the influence and optimization of the factors of a non-formaldehyde resin finishing process on cotton fabric using a Taguchi-based grey relational analysis were experimentally investigated. An L27 orthogonal array was selected for five parameters and three levels by applying Taguchi's design of experiments. The Taguchi technique was coupled with a grey relational analysis to obtain a grey relational grade for evaluating multiple responses, i.e., crease recovery angle (CRA), tearing strength (TE), and whiteness index (WI)...
March 15, 2018: Materials
Katsuyuki Taguchi, Toshihide Itoh, Matthew K Fuld, Eric Fournie, Okkyun Lee, Kyo Noguchi
OBJECTIVES: A novel imaging technique ("X-map") has been developed to identify acute ischemic lesions for stroke patients using non-contrast-enhanced dual-energy computed tomography (NE-DE-CT). Using the 3-material decomposition technique, the original X-map ("X-map 1.0") eliminates fat and bone from the images, suppresses the gray matter (GM)-white matter (WM) tissue contrast, and makes signals of edema induced by severe ischemia easier to detect. The aim of this study was to address the following 2 problems with the X-map 1...
March 14, 2018: Investigative Radiology
Oyetunde Kazeem Ekeolu, Olamide Elizabeth Adebiyi
BACKGROUND: Hematological parameters are vital diagnostic tools for understanding health dynamics of humans and animals. Franquet's fruit bat (Epomops franqueti) is host to several parasites such as protozoa, bacteria, viruses and mites. Yet, studies exploring the values of its blood components with interest for research or food purposes are scarce. Thus, this study was carried out to investigate the hematological values of the adult E. franqueti. METHODS: Seventeen (nine female and eight male) apparently healthy adult E...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
Geoffrey F Brazda, Lillian M Range, Theodore P Remley, Carolyn C White
Counseling professionals and graduate students (N = 117) recruited online read a randomly assigned one-paragraph vignette about either a non-rational or rational suicide involving an imaginary loved one. Then, they completed the Grief Experiences Questionnaire (GEQ) about how they would feel. The non-rational suicide group expected significantly more search for explanation than the rational suicide group, but were not significantly different on the other six GEQ subscales. All participants expected few distressing reactions to either vignette, suggesting a one-paragraph vignette may not be sufficient to induce the kind of grief many experience when a loved one dies by suicide...
March 15, 2018: Death Studies
Madan Upadhyay, Ranju Kharel Sitaula, Bharat Shrestha, Bhaiya Khanal, Bishnu Psd Upadhyay, Jeevan B Sherchand, Prakash Ghimire
PURPOSE: This review aims to provide a detailed update in Seasonal hypercute panuveitis (SHAPU) which is a blinding disease of unknown etiology reported only from Nepal, occurring every odd year since 1975 predominantly in children. METHODS: Data sources were literature reviewed using PubMed, Medline, and ISI Databases (since 1975 to late 2017). Search items included SHAPU, seasonal endophthalmitis, hypopyon uveitis, caterpillar induced uveitis alone or in combination with white moth, panuveitis, and review...
March 15, 2018: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
Young Hwa Kim, Karen M O'Brien
The purpose of the study was to examine the factor structure, measurement invariance, and psychometric properties of a commonly used measure of perceived career barriers (The Perception of Barriers Scale; Luzzo & McWhirter, 2001) with racially diverse college women. The results supported a 9-factor structure for the Perception of Barriers Scale; configural, metric, and scalar invariance for the 9-factors were found with Asian, African American, Latina, and White college women. All groups of women of color reported higher career barriers due to racism and higher educational barriers due to racial discrimination than White women...
March 2018: Journal of Counseling Psychology
John B McArthur, Hai Yu, Nova Tasnima, Christie M Lee, Andrew J Fisher, Xi Chen
The lack of α2-6-linkage specific sialidases limits the structural and functional studies of sialic acid-containing molecules. Photobacterium damselae α2-6-sialyltransferase (Pd2,6ST) was shown previously to have α2-6-specific, but weak, sialidase activity. Here we develop a high-throughput blue-white colony screening method to identify Pd2,6ST mutants with improved α2-6-sialidase activity from mutant libraries generated by sequential saturation mutagenesis. A triple mutant (Pd2,6ST S232L/T356S/W361F) has been identified with 101-fold improved activity, high α2-6-sialyl linkage selectivity, good activity in cleaving two common sialic acid forms N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) and N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc)...
March 15, 2018: ACS Chemical Biology
H-H Brackmann, G C White, E Berntorp, T Andersen, C Escuriola-Ettingshausen
Development of inhibitory antibodies to infused factor VIII (FVIII) concentrates continues to be the most serious complication of haemophilia A management. Induction of immune tolerance by administering high doses of FVIII concentrate (antigen) and prothrombin complex concentrates to control bleeding was originated in the 1970s in Bonn, Germany, by Dr Hans-Hermann Brackmann, and became known as the Bonn protocol. ITI transformed the life of the index patient, who was 19 years of age when he began treatment, and dramatically improved the medical landscape for all patients with haemophilia and inhibitors...
April 2018: Haemophilia: the Official Journal of the World Federation of Hemophilia
Susan Bodnar
When Donald Trump became president of the United States, I discovered that my clients who identified as Black saw me as a White clinician. With that came a host of nefarious attributions. To preserve therapeutic efficacy, and the genuine relationships with people about whom I cared, I had to distinguish myself from the president; thus, I learned not only how it feels to be seen through the bias of skin color but what I needed to do to identify as a person rather than a White person. "Welcome to my world," said one African American client...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychology
Evgeny J Chumin, Joaquín Goñi, Meredith E Halcomb, Timothy C Durazzo, Mario Džemidžić, Karmen K Yoder
BACKGROUND: Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) has been widely used to investigate the integrity of white matter (WM; indexed by fractional anisotropy, FA) in alcohol dependence and cigarette smoking. These disorders are highly comorbid, yet cigarette use has often not been adequately controlled in neuroimaging studies of alcohol dependent populations. In addition, information on white matter deficits in currently drinking, nontreatment-seeking (NTS) individuals with alcohol dependence is limited...
March 15, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Xiaoyong Huang, Shaoying Wang, Bin Li, Qi Sun, Heng Guo
In this work, we reported on high-brightness Eu3+ -activated Ca3 Lu(AlO)3 (BO3 )4 (CLAB) red-emitting phosphors. Under 397 nm excitation, the CLAB:Eu3+ phosphors showed intense red emissions at around 621 nm with CIE coordinates of (0.657, 0.343). The optimal doping concentration of Eu3+ ions was found to be 30 mol. %, and the CLAB:0.3Eu3+ sample possessed high-color purity of 93% and ultra-high internal quantum efficiency as great as 98.5%. Importantly, the CLAB:0.3Eu3+ also had good thermal stability. Finally, a white-light-emitting diode (WLED) lamp with good color-rendering index was fabricated by using a 365 nm ultraviolet chip and the phosphor blends of CLAB:0...
March 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Laurent Frey, Lilian Masarotto, Loubna El Melhaoui, Sophie Verrun, Stéphane Minoret, Guillaume Rodriguez, Agathe André, Frédéric Ritton, Pascale Parrein
New architectures of interference silver-dielectric multilayer filters inspired from induced transmission designs are investigated with the prospect of high-performance red-green-blue (RGB) complementary metal oxide semiconductor imaging. The optimized designs provide combined colorimetric, signal-to-noise ratio and sensitivity performances similar to the traditional organic color filters, but without the equirement of an external infrared (IR)-cut filter, which enables the integration of additional channels such as white or IR, in addition to RGB...
March 15, 2018: Optics Letters
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