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I-Li Tan, Alexandre Wojcinski, Harikrishna Rallapalli, Zhimin Lao, Reeti M Sanghrajka, Daniel Stephen, Eugenia Volkova, Andrey Korshunov, Marc Remke, Michael D Taylor, Daniel H Turnbull, Alexandra L Joyner
The main cell of origin of the Sonic hedgehog (SHH) subgroup of medulloblastoma (MB) is granule cell precursors (GCPs), a SHH-dependent transient amplifying population in the developing cerebellum. SHH-MBs can be further subdivided based on molecular and clinical parameters, as well as location because SHH-MBs occur preferentially in the lateral cerebellum (hemispheres). Our analysis of adult patient data suggests that tumors with Smoothened ( SMO ) mutations form more specifically in the hemispheres than those with Patched 1 ( PTCH1 ) mutations...
March 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Wen-Wen Yong, Huan Lu, Han Li, Shu Wang, Ming-Tian Zhang
Artificial photosynthesis is a chemical process that seeks to capture energy from sunlight to produce solar fuels. Light absorption by a robust and efficient photosensitizer is one of the key steps in solar energy conversion. However, common photosensitizers, including [Ru(bpy)3]2+, remain far from the ideal. In this work, we exploited the performance of conjugated polymers (CPs) as photosensitizers in photodriven hydrogen evolution in aqueous solution (pH 6). Interestingly, CPs, such as poly(fluorene-co-phenylene) derivative (PFP, 429 mmolH2•gCP-1•h-1), exhibit steady and high reactivity towards hydrogen evolution; this performance can rival that of a phosphonated [Ru(bpy)3]2+ (RuP) under the same conditions, indicating that CPs are promising metal-free photosensitizers for future application in photocatalysis...
March 12, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Francesco Ceci, Paolo Castellucci, Stefano Fanti
As precision medicine evolves, the contribution of molecular imaging to the management of prostate cancer (PCa) patients, especially for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging, is gaining importance. Highly successful approaches to measure the expression of the prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) have been introduced recently. PSMA, the glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCP-II), is a membrane bound metallo-peptidase that is overexpressed in 90-100% of PCa cells. Due to its selective over-expression, PSMA is a reliable tissue marker for prostate cancer and is considered an ideal target for tumor specific imaging and therapy...
March 8, 2018: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
In Sil Jeong, Youngjin Park, Hyun Aae Ryu, Hyun Sook An, Ju Hye Han, Sung-Whan Kim
BACKGROUND: Even though mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have angiogenic property, their cytokine secretory capacity is limited to treat ischemic vascular disorders. In present study, we produced genome-edited MSCs that secreted dual chemokine granulocyte chemotactic protein-2 (GCP-2) and stromal-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) and determined their therapeutic potential in the context of experimental ischemia. METHODS: GCP-2 and SDF-1α genes were integrated into safe harbor site at the safe harbor genomic locus of amniotic mesenchymal stem cells (AMM) via transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALEN)...
February 15, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Huachan Gan, Jinxuan Lin, Zhi Jiang, Qicheng Chen, Lixing Cao, Zhiqiang Chen
BACKGROUND: Most patients who undergo abdominal surgery recover bowel movements within a week; however, some suffer prolonged intestinal paralysis or postoperative ileus (POI) leading to complications, such as infection and intestinal adhesions, which can extend hospitalization and increase readmission rates, and consequently increasing healthcare costs. Chinese medicine is effective for accelerating the recovery of gastrointestinal function after abdominal surgery. Xiangbin prescription (XBP) is the standard prescription for this purpose in our hospital; however, randomized controlled trials of it have not yet been conducted...
February 27, 2018: Trials
Alexandre Hugo Llanos, Carlos Guillermo Benítez Silva, Karina Tamie Ichimura, Estela Sanches Rebeis, Marcela Giudicissi, Marcelo Munhóes Romano, Luciana Saraiva
The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the effect of different forms of periodontal diseases on Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL). Fifty-two patients with Aggressive Periodontitis (AP) or Chronic Periodontitis (CP) were included: nine patients with Localized Aggressive Periodontitis (LAP), thirty-three patients with Generalized Aggressive Periodontitis (GAP) and ten patients with Generalized Chronic Periodontitis (GCP). Oral Health Impact Profile questionnaires (OHIP-14) were distributed after a clinical examination that measured the following periodontal parameters: tooth loss, bleeding on probing (BoP), probing depth (PD), gingival recession (REC) and clinical attachment level (CAL)...
2018: Brazilian Oral Research
M C Grassi, G Alessandri, S Pasquariello, M Milioni, D Enea, M Ceccanti, G V Caprara, G La Torre
OBJECTIVE: To examine the extent to which a effect does exist between Positivity (POS), smoking and socio-demographic factors in determining quitting smoking in subjects participating in a Group Counselling Program (GCP) for smoking cessation. METHODS: 481 subjects were contacted through a telephone call. A logistic regression analysis was carried out. Possible interaction between sociodemographic variables and POS level was tested using the Synergism Index (SI)...
January 2018: La Clinica Terapeutica
Milla de Andrade Machado, Julio C Pieczarka, Fernando H R Silva, Patricia C M O'Brien, Malcolm A Ferguson-Smith, Cleusa Y Nagamachi
The genus Gymnotus (Gymnotiformes) contains over 40 species of freshwater electric fishes exhibiting a wide distribution throughout Central and South America, and being particularly prevalent in the Amazon basin. Cytogenetics has been an important tool in the cytotaxonomy and elucidation of evolutionary processes in this genus, including the unraveling the variety of diploid chromosome number (2n = from 34 to 54), the high karyotype diversity among species with a shared diploid number, different sex chromosome systems, and variation in the distribution of several Repetitive DNAs and colocation and association between those sequences...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Jeremia P O Held, Andreas R Luft, Janne M Veerbeek
Introduction: Retraining the paretic upper limb after stroke should be intense and specific to be effective. Hence, the best training is daily life use, which is often limited by motivation and effort. Tracking and feedback technology have the potential to encourage self-administered, context-specific training of upper limb use in the patients' home environment. The aim of this study is to investigate post-intervention and long-term effects of a wrist-worn activity tracking device providing multimodal feedback on daily arm use in hemiparetic subjects beyond 3 months post-stroke...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Tim Hülsen, Kent Hsieh, Yang Lu, Stephan Tait, Damien J Batstone
Resource recovery, preferably as high value products, is becoming an integral part of modern wastewater treatment, with conversion to heterotrophic or phototrophic/photosynthetic microbes a key option to minimise dissipation, and maximise recovery. This study compares the treatment capacities of purple phototrophic bacteria (PPB) and microalgae of five agri-industrial wastewaters (pork, poultry, red meat, dairy and sugar) to recover carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorous as a microbial product. The mediators have different advantages, with PPB offering moderate removals (up to 74% COD, 80% NH4-N, 55% PO4-P) but higher yields (>0...
January 29, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Kyuengbo Min, Masami Iwamoto, Shinji Kakei, Hideyuki Kimpara
Humans are able to robustly maintain desired motion and posture under dynamically changing circumstances, including novel conditions. To accomplish this, the brain needs to optimize the synergistic control between muscles against external dynamic factors. However, previous related studies have usually simplified the control of multiple muscles using two opposing muscles, which are minimum actuators to simulate linear feedback control. As a result, they have been unable to analyze how muscle synergy contributes to motion control robustness in a biological system...
January 30, 2018: Neural Computation
Xing Liao, Dan-Dan Yu, Yan-Ming Xie, Yu-Bo Guo, Xiao-Xiao Zhang, Chang-Zheng Fan, Wei Chen, Jun-Jie Jiang, Yong-Yan Wang
Clinical practice guideline (CPG) should be concise and readability, which can be possible to implement CPG into practice smoothly. A formal published CPG can't load its developing process and details. An editorial explanation of CPG is much useful to show details and logic process of developing CPG. Although there are many different standards for developing CPG, being nothing to do with process management of CPG. By referring to editorial explanation on international standards, a request for CPG was investigated in this study...
December 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
S Y Broeckx, J H Spaas, K Chiers, L Duchateau, L Van Hecke, L Van Brantegem, M Dumoulin, A M Martens, F Pille
The safety of the intra-articular use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is scarcely reported. Therefore, the goal of this study was to investigate the safety of a single intra-articular injection with allogeneic chondrogenic induced MSCs combined with equine plasma (=the investigational product: IVP) compared to a saline (0.9% NaCl) placebo control (=control product: CP). Sixteen healthy experimental horses were randomly assigned to receive a single intra-articular injection with either the IVP (n=8) or the CP (n=8) in the left metacarpophalangeal joint...
December 27, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
Nian-Cun Qiu, Xiao-Xia Cen, Miao-E Liu, Qing Liu, Si-Luo Zha, Cheng-Xiang Shan, Wei Zhang, Ling-Di Wang, Yang Wang, Ming Qiu
OBJECTIVE: The study investigated the use of great curvature plication with duodenal-jejunal bypass (GCP-DJB) in a type 2 diabetic with obesity rat model. METHODS: Twenty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were given a high fat and sugar diet with subsequent intraperitoneal injection of a small dosage of streptozotocin (30 mg/kg) and randomly assigned to either GCP-DJB (n = 12) or Sham surgery (n = 10). Body weight, peripheral blood glucose, and fasting serum insulin were assayed, and insulin resistance index (IRI) was calculated, before and at 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks after surgery...
December 16, 2017: Obesity Surgery
Janice Kim, Harpreet Singh, Kassa Ayalew, Kristina Borror, Michelle Campbell, Laura Lee Johnson, Alyson Karesh, Ni A Khin, Joanne R Less, Jerry Menikoff, Lori Minasian, Sandra A Mitchell, Elektra J Papadopoulos, Richard L Piekarz, Kevin A Prohaska, Susan Thompson, Rajeshwari Sridhara, Richard Pazdur, Paul G Kluetz
Cancer therapeutics frequently lead to symptomatic adverse events (AEs) that can affect treatment tolerability. The National Cancer Institute has developed a patient-reported outcome (PRO) version of the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (PRO-CTCAE) to assess symptomatic AEs by direct patient self-report. While longitudinal assessment of patient-reported symptomatic AEs holds promise to better inform treatment tolerability, using PRO measures to assess symptomatic AEs has raised several regulatory and good clinical practice (GCP) issues among those who conduct cancer clinical trials...
December 13, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Željka Ban, Biserka Žinić, Robert Vianello, Carsten Schmuck, Ivo Piantanida
We demonstrate here for the first time that a guanidiniocarbonyl-pyrrole (GCP) unit can be applied for the fine recognition of single stranded RNA sequences-an intuitively unexpected result since so far binding of the GCP unit to ds-DNA or ds-RNA relied strongly on minor or major groove interactions, as shown in previous work. Two novel nucleobase-GCP isosteric conjugates differing in the flexibility of GCP unit revealed a fluorimetric recognition of various single stranded RNA, which could be additionally regulated by pH...
December 13, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Reiner Mengel, Theresa Heim, Miriam Thöne-Mühling
AIM: The aim of this case-series study is to evaluate the prevalence of mucositis, peri-implantitis, and survival and success rates of oxide-coated implants in subjects treated for periodontitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-four subjects treated for generalized chronic periodontitis (GCP) and five treated for generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAP) were orally rehabilitated with a total of 130 dental implants. Subjects were examined 2 to 4 weeks prior to extraction of non-retainable teeth and at insertion of superstructure...
November 28, 2017: International Journal of Implant Dentistry
Sarinnapha M Vasunilashorn, Tamara G Fong, Asha Albuquerque, Edward R Marcantonio, Eva M Schmitt, Douglas Tommet, Yun Gou, Thomas G Travison, Richard N Jones, Sharon K Inouye
BACKGROUND: Delirium has been associated with more rapid cognitive decline. However, it is unknown whether increased delirium severity is associated with a higher rate of long-term cognitive decline. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate delirium severity and the presence and rate of cognitive decline over 36 months following surgery. METHODS: We examined patients from the Successful Aging after Elective Surgery Study, who were age ≥70 years undergoing major elective surgery (N = 560)...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Mark Ruddy, David P FitzPatrick, Kenneth T Stanton
Impaction bone grafting is a method of restoring bone stock to patients who have suffered significant bone loss due to revision total hip surgery. The procedure requires morsellised cancellous bone (MCB) to be impacted into the site of bone loss in order to stabilise the prosthesis with the aim of long term resorption and reintegration of the impacted bone graft. Due to financial cost and the potential to transmit disease, the use of supplementary material, known as an extender, is frequently used to increase the graft material volume...
November 13, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Maojin Liang, Junpeng Zhang, Jiahao Liu, Yuebo Chen, Yuexin Cai, Xianjun Wang, Junbo Wang, Xueyuan Zhang, Suijun Chen, Xianghui Li, Ling Chen, Yiqing Zheng
Activation of the auditory cortex by visual stimuli has been reported in deaf children. In cochlear implant (CI) patients, a residual, more intense cortical activation in the frontotemporal areas in response to photo stimuli was found to be positively associated with poor auditory performance. Our study aimed to investigate the mechanism by which visual processing in CI users activates the auditory-associated cortex during the period after cochlear implantation as well as its relation to CI outcomes. Twenty prelingually deaf children with CI were recruited...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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