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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088543/transformation-of-terrestrial-organic-matter-along-thermokarst-affected-permafrost-coasts-in-the-arctic
#1
George Tanski, Hugues Lantuit, Saskia Ruttor, Christian Knoblauch, Boris Radosavljevic, Jens Strauss, Juliane Wolter, Anna M Irrgang, Justine Ramage, Michael Fritz
The changing climate in the Arctic has a profound impact on permafrost coasts, which are subject to intensified thermokarst formation and erosion. Consequently, terrestrial organic matter (OM) is mobilized and transported into the nearshore zone. Yet, little is known about the fate of mobilized OM before and after entering the ocean. In this study we investigated a retrogressive thaw slump (RTS) on Qikiqtaruk - Herschel Island (Yukon coast, Canada). The RTS was classified into an undisturbed, a disturbed (thermokarst-affected) and a nearshore zone and sampled systematically along transects...
January 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086764/an-audit-of-the-quality-of-online-immunisation-information-available-to-australian-parents
#2
K E Wiley, M Steffens, N Berry, J Leask
BACKGROUND: The Internet is increasingly a source of health information for parents, who use the Internet alongside health care providers for immunisation information. Concerns have been raised about the reliability of online immunisation information, however to date there has been no audit of the quality or quantity of what is available to Australian parents. The objective of this study was to address this gap by simulating a general online search for immunisation information, and assessing the quality and quantity of the web sites returned by the search...
January 13, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081230/characteristics-of-hiv-infected-children-at-enrollment-into-care-and-at-antiretroviral-therapy-initiation-in-central-africa
#3
Adebola Adedimeji, Andrew Edmonds, Donald Hoover, Qiuhu Shi, Jean d'Amour Sinayobye, Martin Nduwimana, Patricia Lelo, Denis Nash, Kathryn Anastos, Marcel Yotebieng
BACKGROUND: Despite the World Health Organization (WHO) regularly updating guidelines to recommend earlier initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in children, timely enrollment into care and initiation of ART in sub-Saharan Africa in children lags behind that of adults. The impact of implementing increasingly less restrictive ART guidelines on ART initiation in Central Africa has not been described. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data are from the Central Africa International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) pediatric cohort of 3,426 children (0-15 years) entering HIV care at 15 sites in Burundi, DRC, and Rwanda...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073530/variation-in-the-abundance-of-pseudo-nitzschia-and-domoic-acid-with-surf-zone-type
#4
Alan L Shanks, Steven G Morgan, Jamie MacMahan, Ad J H M Reniers, Raphael Kudela, Marley Jarvis, Jenna Brown, Atsushi Fujimura, Lisa Ziccarelli, Chris Griesemer
Most harmful algal blooms (HAB) originate away from the shore and, for them to endanger human health, they must be first transported to shore after which they must enter the surf zone where they can be feed upon by filter feeders. The last step in this sequence, entrance into the surf zone, depends on surf zone hydrodynamics. During two 30-day periods, we sampled Pseudo-nitzschia and particulate domoic acid (pDA) in and offshore of a more dissipative surf zone at Sand City, California (2010) and sampled Pseudo-nitzschia in and out of reflective surf zones at a beach and rocky shores at Carmel River State Beach, California (2011)...
May 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070695/barth-syndrome-connecting-cardiolipin-to-cardiomyopathy
#5
REVIEW
Nikita Ikon, Robert O Ryan
The Barth syndrome (BTHS) is caused by an inborn error of metabolism that manifests characteristic phenotypic features including altered mitochondrial membrane phospholipids, lactic acidosis, organic acid-uria, skeletal muscle weakness and cardiomyopathy. The underlying cause of BTHS has been definitively traced to mutations in the tafazzin (TAZ) gene locus on chromosome X. TAZ encodes a phospholipid transacylase that promotes cardiolipin acyl chain remodeling. Absence of tafazzin activity results in cardiolipin molecular species heterogeneity, increased levels of monolysocardiolipin and lower cardiolipin abundance...
January 9, 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069849/lower-versus-higher-income-populations-in-the-alternative-quality-contract-improved-quality-and-similar-spending
#6
Zirui Song, Sherri Rose, Michael E Chernew, Dana Gelb Safran
As population-based payment models become increasingly common, it is crucial to understand how such payment models affect health disparities. We evaluated health care quality and spending among enrollees in areas with lower versus higher socioeconomic status in Massachusetts before and after providers entered into the Alternative Quality Contract, a two-sided population-based payment model with substantial incentives tied to quality. We compared changes in process measures, outcome measures, and spending between enrollees in areas with lower and higher socioeconomic status from 2006 to 2012 (outcome measures were measured after the intervention only)...
January 1, 2017: Health Affairs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068140/mental-strategies-as-mediators-of-the-link-between-attachment-and-ptsd
#7
Paulo Correia Ferrajão, Deborah Badoud, Rui Aragão Oliveira
The authors analyzed the relationship between attachment dimensions (avoidance and anxiety) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms through the mediation of the mental strategies organization, that is, behavioral and intrapsychic strategies used to cope with traumatic events and symptoms, among a sample of war veterans. Sample was composed of Portuguese war veterans (N = 60): 30 veterans suffered from chronic PTSD (nonrecovered) and 30 veterans had remission from PTSD (recovered). Assessment of mental strategies was retrieved from 1 interview assessed by 3 judges, and attachment patterns and PTSD symptoms were assessed through self-report measures...
January 9, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067797/unconventional-pathways-of-secretion-contribute-to-inflammation
#8
REVIEW
Michael J D Daniels, David Brough
In the conventional pathway of protein secretion, leader sequence-containing proteins leave the cell following processing through the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi body. However, leaderless proteins also enter the extracellular space through mechanisms collectively known as unconventional secretion. Unconventionally secreted proteins often have vital roles in cell and organism function such as inflammation. Amongst the best-studied inflammatory unconventionally secreted proteins are interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-1α, IL-33 and high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1)...
January 5, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063709/radical-change-of-zn-speciation-in-pig-slurry-amended-soil-key-role-of-nano-sized-sulfide-particles
#9
Thiago Augusto Formentini, Samuel Legros, Cristovão Vicente Scapulatempo Fernandes, Adilson Pinheiro, Maureen Le Bars, Clément Levard, Fábio Joel Kochem Mallmann, Milton da Veiga, Emmanuel Doelsch
Spreading livestock manure as fertilizer on farmlands is a widespread practice. It represents the major source of heavy metal(loid)s (HM) input in agricultural soils. Since zinc (Zn) is present at high concentrations in manure, it poses special environmental concerns related to phytotoxicity, groundwater contamination, and introduction in the food chain. Therefore, investigations on the fate and behavior of manure-borne Zn, when it enters the soil environment, are necessary to predict the environmental effects...
January 4, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063383/push-pull-strategy-in-the-regulation-of-postembryonic-root-development
#10
REVIEW
Goh Choe, Ji-Young Lee
Unlike animals, plants continue to grow throughout their lives. The stem cell niche, protected in meristems of shoots and roots, enables this process. In the root, stem cells produce precursors for highly organized cell types via asymmetric cell divisions. These precursors, which are "transit-amplifying cells," actively divide for several rounds before entering into differentiation programs. In this review, we highlight positive feedback regulation between shoot- and root-ward signals during the postembryonic root growth, which is reminiscent of a "push-pull strategy" in business parlance...
January 4, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062933/single-cycle-induction-chemotherapy-for-resectable-advanced-hypopharyngeal-cancer
#11
Torahiko Nakashima, Ryuji Yasumatsu, Kaori Asai, Hideoki Uryu, Ryunosuke Kogo, Takashi Nakagawa
BACKGROUND: The role of induction chemotherapy (IC) in the treatment of resectable advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma has not been elucidated, and the most effective IC regimen for chemoselection is still unknown. At our institute we have not used the triple combination of docetaxel, cisplatin, fluorouracil (TPF) for chemoselection, but rather the double combination of docetaxel + cisplatin (TP). The aim of this study is to report the outcome of patients with advanced hypopharyngeal cancer treated by single cycle of IC with TP followed by chemoradiation (CRT) or surgery...
January 6, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062079/negligible-cytotoxicity-induced-by-different-titanium-dioxide-nanoparticles-in-fish-cell-lines
#12
Azucena Bermejo-Nogales, Mona Connolly, Philipp Rosenkranz, María-Luisa Fernández-Cruz, José M Navas
Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) have a wide number of applications in cosmetic, solar and paint industries due to their photocatalyst and ultraviolet blocking properties. The continuous increase in the production of TiO2-NPs enhances the risk for this manufactured nanomaterial to enter water bodies through treated effluents or agricultural amendments. TiO2-NPs have shown very low toxicity in a number of aquatic organisms. However, there are no conclusive data about their deleterious effects and on their possible mechanisms of toxic action...
January 3, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057805/cns-targeted-autoimmunity-leads-to-increased-influenza-mortality-in-mice
#13
Justin D Glenn, Matthew D Smith, Pei Xue, Yee Chan-Li, Samuel Collins, Peter A Calabresi, Maureen R Horton, Katharine A Whartenby
The discovery that central nervous system (CNS)-targeted autoreactive T cells required a process of licensing in the lung revealed an unexpected relationship between these organs. The clinical and immunological significance of this finding is bidirectional in that it showed not only a mechanism by which T cells become pathogenic before entering the CNS, but also the potential for this process to influence lung immunity as well. Epidemiological studies have shown that people with multiple sclerosis (MS) suffer from increased morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases, independent of immunosuppressive therapies...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057104/-the-role-of-sabin-inactivated-poliovirus-vaccine-in-the-final-phase-of-global-polio-eradication
#14
S Z Dong, W B Zhu
Global polio eradication has entered its final phase, but still faces enormous challenges. The Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan (2013-2018) set the target for making the world polio-free by 2018. Meanwhile, the World Heath Organization Global Action Plan (GAP Ⅲ) recommended that polioviruses be stored under strict conditions after eradication of the wild poliovirus. At least one dose of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) would be required for each newborn baby in the world to ensure successful completion of the final strategy and GAP Ⅲ...
December 6, 2016: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056251/-the-progression-of-parenteral-and-enteral-nutrition-based-on-new-guidelines
#15
W Chen, J C Yu, Z J Li, G H Wu
As people are getting a better understanding of organism's metabolism and the concept of disease treatment is being continuously updated, parenteral and enteral nutrition become an inter discipline subject that serves for the clinic and involves a number of disciplines. Just in the past five years, related guidelines at home and abroad have been published as much as more than 40. In order to better serve the clinical decision making, this text attempts to give a carding and interpretation from the three aspects of nutrition screening and assessment, the implementing of nutritional intervention and the progress of special nutrition support...
January 1, 2017: Zhonghua Wai Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Surgery]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053339/xivth-little-brain-big-brain-next-generation-enteric-neuroscience
#16
Arthur Beyder, Guillaume de Lartigue, Jean-Eric Ghia, Jill M Hoffman
Little Brain Big Brain has been a biannual meeting organized and attended exclusively by young investigators in neurogastroenterology since 1989. The XIVth meeting featured cutting-edge work advancing several novel hypotheses in the main themes of motility, inflammation and metabolism.
January 5, 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051935/adjusting-to-chronic-health-conditions
#17
Vicki S Helgeson, Melissa Zajdel
Research on adjustment to chronic disease is critical in today's world, in which people are living longer lives, but lives are increasingly likely to be characterized by one or more chronic illnesses. Chronic illnesses may deteriorate, enter remission, or fluctuate, but their defining characteristic is that they persist. In this review, we first examine the effects of chronic disease on one's sense of self. Then we review categories of factors that influence how one adjusts to chronic illness, with particular emphasis on the impact of these factors on functional status and psychosocial adjustment...
January 3, 2017: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049146/dissecting-bacterial-cell-wall-entry-and-signaling-in-eukaryotic-cells-an-actin-dependent-pathway-parallels-platelet-activating-factor-receptor-mediated-endocytosis
#18
Lip Nam Loh, Geli Gao, Elaine I Tuomanen
: The Gram-positive bacterial cell wall (CW) peptidoglycan-teichoic acid complex is released into the host environment during bacterial metabolism or death. It is a highly inflammatory Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) ligand, and previous in vivo studies have demonstrated its ability to recapitulate pathological features of pneumonia and meningitis. We report that an actin-dependent pathway is involved in the internalization of the CW by epithelial and endothelial cells, in addition to the previously described platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFr)-dependent uptake pathway...
January 3, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048034/tu-ab-209-03-identifying-useful-features-for-visual-search-model-observers
#19
H Gifford
Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT), a limited-angle tomographic technique by its nature has multiple optimal system configurations, which can lead to many potential changes to the existing and new DBT systems entering the US market. With the availability of computational tools such as for modeling imaging physics, it is becoming increasingly important to conduct virtual trials for a rigorous, preclinical and task-based assessment of DBT. For such virtual assessment to be successful, it is critical to: (1) develop model-observer approaches that can account for patient data statistics stemming from realistic or real breast backgrounds as well as lesion characteristics, thereby performing given tasks effectively and (2) validate the model-observer approaches and their performance trends/levels with physical measurements from a prototype or real DBT system and a physical phantom ensemble...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047981/tu-ab-209-00-model-observer-design-and-its-validation-for-task-based-evaluation-of-digital-breast-tomosynthesis
#20
Stephen Glick
Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT), a limited-angle tomographic technique by its nature has multiple optimal system configurations, which can lead to many potential changes to the existing and new DBT systems entering the US market. With the availability of computational tools such as for modeling imaging physics, it is becoming increasingly important to conduct virtual trials for a rigorous, preclinical and task-based assessment of DBT. For such virtual assessment to be successful, it is critical to: (1) develop model-observer approaches that can account for patient data statistics stemming from realistic or real breast backgrounds as well as lesion characteristics, thereby performing given tasks effectively and (2) validate the model-observer approaches and their performance trends/levels with physical measurements from a prototype or real DBT system and a physical phantom ensemble...
June 2016: Medical Physics
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