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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941410/the-contribution-of-human-non-human-animal-chimeras-to-stem-cell-research
#1
REVIEW
Sonya Levine, Laura Grabel
Chimeric animals are made up of cells from two separate zygotes. Human/non-human animal chimeras have been used for a number of research purposes, including human disease modeling. Pluripotent stem cell (PSC) research has relied upon the chimera approach to examine the developmental potential of stem cells, to determine the efficacy of cell replacement therapies, and to establish a means of producing human organs. Based on ethical issues, this work has faced pushback from various sources including funding agencies...
September 14, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941392/liquid-phase-combinatorial-synthesis-of-1-2-5-trisubstituted-benzimidazole-derivatives-as-human-dhodh-inhibitors
#2
Nikum D Sitwala, Vivek K Vyas, Bhavesh C Variya, Snehal S Patel, Chirag C Mehta, Dharmraj N Rana, Manjunath D Ghate
The synthesis of 1,2,5-trisubstituted benzimidazole derivatives was carried out using liquid phase combinatorial approach using soluble polymer assisted support (PEG5000). Synthesised compounds were characterised by FTIR, ESI-MS, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR. The purity of compounds was confirmed with HPLC analysis. Compounds were also docked into the binding site of human dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (hDHODH). The synthesised compounds were screened for hDHODH enzyme inhibition assay using brequinar as standard compound...
August 30, 2017: Bioorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941355/a-novel-method-to-detect-bias-in-short-read-ngs-data
#3
Jamie Alnasir, Hugh P Shanahan
Detecting sources of bias in transcriptomic data is essential to determine signals of Biological significance. We outline a novel method to detect sequence specific bias in short read Next Generation Sequencing data. This is based on determining intra-exon correlations between specific motifs. This requires a mild assumption that short reads sampled from specific regions from the same exon will be correlated with each other. This has been implemented on Apache Spark and used to analyse two D. melanogaster eye-antennal disc data sets generated at the same laboratory...
September 23, 2017: Journal of Integrative Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938769/recent-advances-in-avian-egg-science-a-review
#4
Philippe B Wilson
Eggs and egg products form an integral part of the food chain. As such, research into egg structure, function, and production has made an important contribution to the field of poultry science. The past decade has seen significant advances in avian egg science research, with work supplementing our understanding of the nature of the avian egg, and its biological, chemical, and physical properties. Eggshell color, strength, and chemical composition, poultry nutrition, and genetics have all been intensively studied recently, with significant progress being made in a number of these areas...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938768/dual-functioning-ovaries-and-atresia-in-chickens-is-it-a-coincidence
#5
D A T Sutherland, C F Honaker, P B Siegel
During the course of a QTL study involving an intercross between White Plymouth Rock chickens and Red Jungle Fowl, certain reproductive anomalies such as atresia and double ovary-oviduct became evident. Observed in reciprocal pedigreed F1 crosses were 2 full-sib pullets with dual functioning ovaries. One also had complete functioning left and right oviducts. The other had asymmetrical reproductive tracts with a typical left oviduct and a rudimentary right oviduct. In addition, there were 3 females with atresia...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938749/the-testicular-transcriptome-associated-with-spermatogonia-differentiation-initiated-by-gonadotrophin-stimulation-in-the-juvenile-rhesus-monkey-macaca-mulatta
#6
Suresh Ramaswamy, William H Walker, Paula Aliberti, Rahil Sethi, Gary R Marshall, Alyxzandria Smith, Seyedmehdi Nourashrafeddin, Alicia Belgorosky, Uma R Chandran, Mark P Hedger, Tony M Plant
STUDY QUESTION: What is the genetic landscape within the testis of the juvenile rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) that underlies the decision of undifferentiated spermatogonia to commit to a pathway of differentiation when puberty is induced prematurely by exogenous LH and FSH stimulation? SUMMARY ANSWER: Forty-eight hours of gonadotrophin stimulation of the juvenile monkey testis resulted in the appearance of differentiating B spermatogonia and the emergence of 1362 up-regulated and 225 down-regulated testicular mRNAs encoding a complex network of proteins ranging from enzymes regulating Leydig cell steroidogenesis to membrane receptors, and from juxtacrine and paracrine factors to transcriptional factors governing spermatogonial stem cell fate...
October 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938739/sequence-variants-of-khdrbs1-as-high-penetrance-susceptibility-risks-for-primary-ovarian-insufficiency-by-mis-regulating-mrna-alternative-splicing
#7
Binbin Wang, Lin Li, Ying Zhu, Wei Zhang, Xi Wang, Beili Chen, Tengyan Li, Hong Pan, Jing Wang, Kehkooi Kee, Yunxia Cao
STUDY QUESTION: Does a novel heterozygous KHDRBS1 variant, identified using whole-exome sequencing (WES) in two patients with primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) in a pedigree, cause defects in mRNA alternative splicing? SUMMARY ANSWER: The heterozygous variant of KHDRBS1 was confirmed to cause defects in alternative splicing of many genes involved in DNA replication and repair. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Studies in mice revealed that Khdrbs1 deficient females are subfertile, which manifests as delayed sexual maturity and significantly reduced numbers of secondary and pre-antral follicles...
October 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938737/complex-catsper-dependent-and-independent-ca2-i-signalling-in-human-spermatozoa-induced-by-follicular-fluid
#8
Sean G Brown, Sarah Costello, Mark C Kelly, Mythili Ramalingam, Ellen Drew, Stephen J Publicover, Christopher L R Barratt, Sarah Martins Da Silva
STUDY QUESTION: Does progesterone in human follicular fluid (hFF) activate CatSper and do other components of hFF modulate this effect and/or contribute separately to hFF-induced Ca2+ signaling? SUMMARY ANSWER: hFF potently stimulates CatSper and increases [Ca2+]i, primarily due to high concentrations of progesterone, however, other components of hFF also contribute to [Ca2+]i signaling, including modulation of CatSper channel activity and inhibition of [Ca2+]i oscillations...
October 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938718/looking-back-forward-looking
#9
Scott C Edmunds, Nicole A Nogoy, Hans Zauner, Peter Li, Christopher I Hunter, Xiao Si Zhe, Laurie Goodman
GigaScience is now 5 years old, having been launched at the 2012 Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology conference. Anyone who has attended what is the largest computational biology conference since then has had the opportunity to join us for each birthday celebration-and receive 1 of our fun T-shirts as a party prize. Since launching, we have pushed our agenda of openness, transparency, reproducibility, and reusability. Here, we look back at our first 5 years and what we have done to forward our open science goals in scientific publishing...
September 1, 2017: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938683/possible-benefits-from-post-mastectomy-radiotherapy-in-node-negative-breast-cancer-patients-a-multicenter-analysis-in-korea-krog-14-22
#10
Hae Jin Park, Kyung Hwan Shin, Jin Ho Kim, Seung Do Ahn, Su Ssan Kim, Yong Bae Kim, Won Park, Yeon-Joo Kim, Hyun Soo Shin, Jin Hee Kim, Sun Young Lee, Kyubo Kim, Kyung Ran Park, Bae Kwon Jeong
PURPOSE: This study was performed to identify a subset of patients who may benefit from post-mastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) among node-negative breast cancer patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 1,828 patients with pT1-2N0 breast cancer, treated with mastectomy without PMRT from 2005 to 2010 at 10 institutions. Univariate and multivariate analyses for locoregional recurrence (LRR) and any first recurrence (AFR) were performed according to clinicopathologic factors and biologic subtypes...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938650/genomic-variants-link-to-hepatitis-c-racial-disparities
#11
Matthew M Yeh, Sarag Boukhar, Benjamin Roberts, Nairanjana Dasgupta, Sayed S Daoud
Chronic liver diseases are one of the major public health issues in United States, and there are substantial racial disparities in liver cancer-related mortality. We previously identified racially distinct alterations in the expression of transcripts and proteins of hepatitis C (HCV)-induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) between Caucasian (CA) and African American (AA) subgroups. Here, we performed a comparative genome-wide analysis of normal vs. HCV+ (cirrhotic state), and normal adjacent tissues (HCCN) vs...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938647/long-non-coding-rna-malat1-for-promoting-metastasis-and-proliferation-by-acting-as-a-cerna-of-mir-144-3p-in-osteosarcoma-cells
#12
Yong Wang, Yueyang Zhang, Tao Yang, Wei Zhao, Ningning Wang, Pengcheng Li, Xiandong Zeng, Weiguo Zhang
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in various biological processes and diseases including osteosarcoma. Long non-coding RNA metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) is overly expressed in osteosarcoma. But the function and mechanism it works on in osteosarcoma proliferation and metastasis mediated by Rho associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase 1 (ROCK1) and Rho associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase 2 (ROCK2) remain unclear. In the present study, an elevated MALAT1 was found in osteosarcoma tissues and cell lines, and the elevated MALAT1 was correlated with a poor prognosis in osteosarcoma patients...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938616/identification-of-potential-cancer-related-pseudogenes-in-lung-adenocarcinoma-based-on-cerna-hypothesis
#13
Yunzhen Wei, Zhiqiang Chang, Cheng Wu, Yinling Zhu, Kun Li, Yan Xu
Pseudogenes are initially regarded as non-functional genomic fossils resulted from inactivating gene mutations during evolution. Far from being silent, pseudogenes are proved to regulate the expression of protein-coding genes through function as microRNA sponge in vivo. The aim of our study was to propose an integrative systems biology approach to identify disease pseudogenes base on competitive endogenous RNA (ceRNA) hypothesis. Here, we applied our method to lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) RNASeq data from TCGA and identified 33 candidate pseudogenes...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938599/a-pathways-based-prediction-model-for-classifying-breast-cancer-subtypes
#14
Tong Wu, Yunfeng Wang, Ronghui Jiang, Xinliang Lu, Jiawei Tian
Breast cancer is highly heterogeneous and is classified into four subtypes characterized by specific biological traits, treatment responses, and clinical prognoses. We performed a systemic analysis of 698 breast cancer patient samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas project database. We identified 136 breast cancer genes differentially expressed among the four subtypes. Based on unsupervised clustering analysis, these 136 core genes efficiently categorized breast cancer patients into the appropriate subtypes. Functional enrichment based on Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis identified six functional pathways regulated by these genes: JAK-STAT signaling, basal cell carcinoma, inflammatory mediator regulation of TRP channels, non-small cell lung cancer, glutamatergic synapse, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938597/3-decylcatechol-induces-autophagy-mediated-cell-death-through-the-ire1%C3%AE-jnk-p62-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells
#15
Da-Hye Go, Yu Geon Lee, Da-Hye Lee, Jin-A Kim, In-Hwa Jo, Yeon Soo Han, Yong Hun Jo, Kwang-Youn Kim, Young-Kyo Seo, Jae-Hak Moon, Chang Hwa Jung, Tae-Il Jeon
The natural, phenolic lipid urushiol exhibits both antioxidant and anticancer activities; however, its biological activity on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has not been previously investigated. Here, we demonstrate that an urushiol derivative, 3-decylcatechol (DC), induces human HCC Huh7 cell death by induction of autophagy. DC initiates the autophagic process by activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway via Unc-51-like autophagy activating kinase 1, leading to autophagosome formation...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938582/effect-of-hepatic-steatosis-on-the-progression-of-chronic-hepatitis-b-a-prospective-cohort-and-in-vitro-study
#16
Yangqin Chen, Chunlei Fan, Yuhan Chen, Hui Liu, Shanshan Wang, Peiling Dong, Lei Li, Huiguo Ding
AIM: To characterize the effect of hepatic steatosis (HS) on the progression of chronic hepatitis B. METHODS: A total of 162 chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients confirmed by liver biopsy were involved in this study. All subjects were prospectively followed-up for 5 years in real-life clinical practice. Fibrosis stage was determined using aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI). The end-point was cirrhosis, liver cancer or death. The effects of steatosis on the biological behavior of hepatocellular carcinoma cells were investigated using oleic acid-induced lipid accumulation in HepG2, HLE, PLC, and SMMC-7721 cells...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938578/quantitative-dot-blot-analysis-qdb-a-versatile-high-throughput-immunoblot-method
#17
Geng Tian, Fangrong Tang, Chunhua Yang, Wenfeng Zhang, Jonas Bergquist, Bin Wang, Jia Mi, Jiandi Zhang
Lacking access to an affordable method of high throughput immunoblot analysis for daily use remains a big challenge for scientists worldwide. We proposed here Quantitative Dot Blot analysis (QDB) to meet this demand. With the defined linear range, QDB analysis fundamentally transforms traditional immunoblot method into a true quantitative assay. Its convenience in analyzing large number of samples also enables bench scientists to examine protein expression levels from multiple parameters. In addition, the small amount of sample lysates needed for analysis means significant saving in research sources and efforts...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938576/computational-prediction-of-human-disease-related-micrornas-by-path-based-random-walk
#18
Israel Mugunga, Ying Ju, Xiangrong Liu, Xiaoyang Huang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small, endogenous RNAs that are 21-25 nucleotides in length. In animals and plants, miRNAs target specific genes for degradation or translation repression. Discovering disease-related miRNA is fundamental for understanding the pathogenesis of diseases. The association between miRNA and a disease is mainly determined via biological investigation, which is complicated by increased biological information due to big data from different databases. Researchers have utilized different computational methods to harmonize experimental approaches to discover miRNA that articulates restrictively in specific environmental situations...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938573/iatc-mhyb-a-hybrid-multi-label-classifier-for-predicting-the-classification-of-anatomical-therapeutic-chemicals
#19
Xiang Cheng, Shu-Guang Zhao, Xuan Xiao, Kuo-Chen Chou
Recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO), drug compounds have been classified into 14 main ATC (Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical) classes according to their therapeutic and chemical characteristics. Given an uncharacterized compound, can we develop a computational method to fast identify which ATC class or classes it belongs to? The information thus obtained will timely help adjusting our focus and selection, significantly speeding up the drug development process. But this problem is by no means an easy one since some drug compounds may belong to two or more than two ATC classes...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938572/osthole-inhibits-bone-metastasis-of-breast-cancer
#20
Chunyu Wu, Zhenping Sun, Baofeng Guo, Yiyi Ye, Xianghui Han, Yuenong Qin, Sheng Liu
Bone is one of the most common sites for breast cancer metastasis, which greatly contributes to patient morbidity and mortality. Osthole, a major extract from Cnidium monnieri (L.), exhibits many biological and pharmacological activities, however, its potential as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of breast cancer bone metastases remain poorly understood. In this study, we set out to investigate whether osthole could inhibit breast cancer metastasis to bone in mice and clarified the potential mechanism of this inhibition...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
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