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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728350/the-association-between-smoking-or-passive-smoking-and-cardiovascular-diseases-using-a-bayesian-hierarchical-model-based-on-the-2008-2013-korea-community-health-survey
#1
WhanHee Lee, SungHee Hwang, HaYoung Choi, Ho Kim
Objectives: Smoking and passive smoking have been extensively reported as risk factors of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Despite the biological mechanisms underlying the impact of hazardous chemical substances contained in tobacco in cardiovascular diseases, studies investigating the association between smoking and passive smoking with morbidity are at an inchoate stage in Korea. Therefore, this study aimed to estimate the risks of smoking and passive smoking on cardiovascular morbidity at the national and regional levels...
June 22, 2017: Epidemiology and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728349/occupational-risk-factors-among-iranian-farmworkers-a-review-of-the-available-evidence
#2
Mahin Ghafari, Zahra Cheraghi, Amin Doosti-Irani
Objectives: Farming is one of the most important components of most economies. There is not a comprehensive picture of the health status and work-related hazards among Iranian farmers. We aimed to determine the gaps in the current knowledge regarding the occupational health of Iranian farmworkers. Methods: Electronic databases including Medline, Web of Science, Scopus, and Embase, as well as national databases including the Scientific Information Database, MagIran, and Barakat Knowledge System, were searched for articles published until March 2017...
July 2, 2017: Epidemiology and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728166/whole-genome-sequencing-revealed-novel-prognostic-biomarkers-and-promising-targets-for-therapy-of-ovarian-clear-cell-carcinoma
#3
Hiroaki Itamochi, Tetsuro Oishi, Nao Oumi, Satoshi Takeuchi, Kosuke Yoshihara, Mikio Mikami, Nobuo Yaegashi, Yasuhisa Terao, Kazuhiro Takehara, Kimio Ushijima, Hidemichi Watari, Daisuke Aoki, Tadashi Kimura, Toshiaki Nakamura, Yoshihito Yokoyama, Junzo Kigawa, Toru Sugiyama
BACKGROUND: Ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC) is mostly resistant to standard chemotherapy that results in poor patient survival. To understand the genetic background of these tumours, we performed whole-genome sequencing of OCCC tumours. METHODS: Tumour tissue samples and matched blood samples were obtained from 55 Japanese women diagnosed with OCCC. Whole-genome sequencing was performed using the Illumina HiSeq platform according to standard protocols. RESULTS: Alterations to the switch/sucrose non-fermentable (SWI/SNF) subunit, the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signalling pathway, and the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)/Ras signalling pathway were found in 51%, 42%, and 29% of OCCC tumours, respectively...
July 20, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728135/prostate-cancer-risk-and-dna-methylation-signatures-in-aging-rats-following-developmental-bpa-exposure-a-dose-response-analysis
#4
Gail S Prins, Shu-Hua Ye, Lynn Birch, Xiang Zhang, Ana Cheong, Han Lin, Esther Calderon-Gierszal, Jacob Groen, Wen-Yang Hu, Shuk-Mei Ho, Richard B van Breemen
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have uncovered heightened prostatic susceptibility to hormone-induced neoplasia from early-life exposure to low-dose bisphenol A (BPA). However, significant data gaps remain that are essential to address for biological relevance and necessary risk assessment. OBJECTIVES: A complete BPA dose-response analysis of prostate lesions across multiple prostatic lobes was conducted that included internal BPA dosimetry, progression to adenocarcinoma with aging and mechanistic connections to epigenetically reprogramed genes...
July 11, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728121/effect-of-residual-h2o2-from-advanced-oxidation-processes-on-subsequent-biological-water-treatment-a-laboratory-batch-study
#5
Feifei Wang, Doris van Halem, Gang Liu, Karin Lekkerkerker-Teunissen, Jan Peter van der Hoek
H2O2 residuals from advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) may have critical impacts on the microbial ecology and performance of subsequent biological treatment processes, but little is known. The objective of this study was to evaluate how H2O2 residuals influence sand systems with an emphasis on dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal, microbial activity change and bacterial community evolution. The results from laboratory batch studies showed that 0.25 mg/L H2O2 lowered DOC removal by 10% while higher H2O2 concentrations at 3 and 5 mg/L promoted DOC removal by 8% and 28%...
July 15, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728119/nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-mediated-inflammation-correlates-with-calcium-overload-under-arsenic-trioxide-induced-myocardial-damage-in-gallus-gallus
#6
Siwen Li, Yu Wang, Hongjing Zhao, Ying He, Jinglun Li, Guangshun Jiang, Mingwei Xing
Arsenic is a known environmental pollutant and highly hazardous toxin to human health. Due to the biological accumulation, arsenic produces a variety of cardiovascular diseases. However, the exact mechanism is still unclear. Here, our objective was to evaluate myocardial damage and determine the potential mechanism under arsenic exposure in chickens. Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) (1.25 mg/kg BW, corresponding 15 mg/kg feed) was administered as basal diet to male Hy-line chickens (one-day-old) for 4, 8 and 12 weeks...
July 14, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728117/alzheimer-s-disease-markers-in-the-aged-sheep-ovis-aries
#7
Suzanne J Reid, Natasha E Mckean, Kristen Henty, Erik Portelius, Kaj Blennow, Skye R Rudiger, C Simon Bawden, Renee R Handley, Paul J Verma, Richard L M Faull, Henry J Waldvogel, Henrik Zetterberg, Russell G Snell
This study reports the identification and characterization of markers of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in aged sheep (Ovis aries) as a preliminary step toward making a genetically modified large animal model of AD. Importantly, the sequences of key proteins involved in AD pathogenesis are highly conserved between sheep and human. The processing of the amyloid-β (Aβ) protein is conserved between sheep and human, and sheep Aβ1-42/Aβ1-40 ratios in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are also very similar to human. In addition, total tau and neurofilament light levels in CSF are comparable with those found in human...
June 24, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728110/development-of-a-bioanalytical-test-battery-for-water-quality-monitoring-fingerprinting-identified-micropollutants-and-their-contribution-to-effects-in-surface-water
#8
Peta A Neale, Rolf Altenburger, Selim Aït-Aïssa, François Brion, Wibke Busch, Gisela de Aragão Umbuzeiro, Michael S Denison, David Du Pasquier, Klára Hilscherová, Henner Hollert, Daniel A Morales, Jiří Novák, Rita Schlichting, Thomas-Benjamin Seiler, Helene Serra, Ying Shao, Andrew J Tindall, Knut Erik Tollefsen, Timothy D Williams, Beate I Escher
Surface waters can contain a diverse range of organic pollutants, including pesticides, pharmaceuticals and industrial compounds. While bioassays have been used for water quality monitoring, there is limited knowledge regarding the effects of individual micropollutants and their relationship to the overall mixture effect in water samples. In this study, a battery of in vitro bioassays based on human and fish cell lines and whole organism assays using bacteria, algae, daphnids and fish embryos was assembled for use in water quality monitoring...
July 9, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728067/an-optimized-hplc-uv-method-for-quantitatively-determining-sesquiterpenes-in-nardostachyos-radix-et-rhizoma
#9
Vu Ngoc Han Le, Trong Quan Khong, Min Kyun Na, Kyung Tae Kim, Jong Seong Kang
Nardostachyos Radix et Rhizoma (NR), the root and rhizome from either Nardostachys jatamansi Batal or Nardostachys jatamansi DC, is known to have biological functions including neuro-protective and anti-pancreatitis activity. The main bioactive compounds within NR are all classified as sesquiterpenes, and include desoxo-narchinol A, nardosinonediol, and nardosinone. Although NR is a valuable herb that is widely used in many Asian countries, robust quality control protocols for NR are still in question, especially those that can analyze the three main active compounds...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728040/measures-and-predictors-of-varenicline-adherence-in-the-treatment-of-nicotine-dependence
#10
Annie R Peng, Mark Morales, E Paul Wileyto, Larry W Hawk, Paul Cinciripini, Tony P George, Neal L Benowitz, Nicole L Nollen, Caryn Lerman, Rachel F Tyndale, Robert Schnoll
INTRODUCTION: While adherence to medication in smoking cessation clinical trials is strongly associated with clinical outcome, very few studies have evaluated the validity of pill count as a measure of adherence relative to a biological assay, and evaluated a broad range of correlates of adherence. METHODS: In a smoking cessation clinical trial of varenicline, we compared pill counts collected over 4 different time periods to varenicline salivary levels taken after 2weeks of treatment, as well as evaluated predictors of adherence to varenicline...
July 12, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728020/neuroscience-inspired-artificial-intelligence
#11
REVIEW
Demis Hassabis, Dharshan Kumaran, Christopher Summerfield, Matthew Botvinick
The fields of neuroscience and artificial intelligence (AI) have a long and intertwined history. In more recent times, however, communication and collaboration between the two fields has become less commonplace. In this article, we argue that better understanding biological brains could play a vital role in building intelligent machines. We survey historical interactions between the AI and neuroscience fields and emphasize current advances in AI that have been inspired by the study of neural computation in humans and other animals...
July 19, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728010/advances-in-point-of-care-technologies-for-molecular-diagnostics
#12
REVIEW
Mohammad Zarei
Advances in miniaturization, nanotechnology, and microfluidics, along with developments in cloud-connected point-of-care (POC) diagnostics technologies are pushing the frontiers of POC devices toward low-cost, user-friendly, and enhanced sensitivity molecular-level diagnostics. The combination of various bio-sensing platforms within smartphone-integrated electronic readers provides accurate on-site and on-time diagnostics based on various types of chemical and biological targets. Further, 3D printing technology shows a huge potential toward fabrication and improving the performance of POC devices...
July 11, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728003/evaluation-of-the-effects-of-low-energetic-microwave-irradiation-on-anaerobic-digestion
#13
Bert Bastiaens, Rob Van den Broeck, Lise Appels, Raf Dewil
The present study investigates the effects of microwave irradiation on the performance of anaerobic digestion processes. A first set of experiments is performed to distinguish the upper limit of the applied energy levels. Secondly, the effects of these treatments on the performance of the digestion process are evaluated in 3 experimental setups: (i) monitoring the acetic acid degradation, (ii) performing a biological methane potential (BMP) assay and (iii) conducting a specific methanogenic activity (SMA) test...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727999/drug-ion-co-delivery-multi-functional-nanocarrier-to-regenerate-infected-tissue-defect
#14
Jung-Hwan Lee, Ahmed El-Fiqi, Nandin Mandakhbayar, Hae-Hyoung Lee, Hae-Won Kim
Regeneration of infected tissues is a globally challenging issue in medicine and dentistry. Common clinical therapies involving a complete removal of infected areas together with a treatment of antimicrobial drugs are often suboptimal. Biomaterials with anti-bacterial and pro-regenerative potential can offer a solution to this. Here we design a novel nanocarrier based on a mesoporous silicate-calcium glass by doping with Ag ions and simultaneously loading antimicrobial drugs onto mesopores. The nanocarriers could controllably release multiple ions (silver, calcium, and silicate) and drugs (tetracycline or chlorohexidine) to levels therapeutically relevant, and effectively internalize to human dental stem cells (∼90%) with excellent viability, ultimately stimulating odontogenic differentiation...
July 12, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727982/genome-wide-dna-methylation-profile-of-prepubertal-porcine-testis
#15
Xi Chen, Liu-Hong Shen, Li-Xuan Gui, Fang Yang, Jie Li, Sui-Zhong Cao, Zhi-Cai Zuo, Xiao-Ping Ma, Jun-Liang Deng, Zhi-Hua Ren, Zhong-Xu Chen, Shu-Min Yu
The biological structure and function of the mammalian testis undergo important developmental changes during prepuberty and DNA methylation is dynamically regulated during testis development. In this study, we generated the first genome-wide DNA methylation profile of prepubertal porcine testis using methyl-DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP) combined with high-throughput sequencing (MeDIP-seq). Over 190 million high-quality reads were generated, containing 43642 CpG islands. There was an overall downtrend of methylation during development, which was clear in promoter regions but less so in gene-body regions...
July 21, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727967/whither-psychology
#16
Diane F Halpern
Contemporary psychology is experiencing tremendous growth in neuroscience, and there is every indication that it will continue to gain in popularity notwithstanding the scarcity of academic positions for newly minted Ph.Ds. Despite the general perception that brain correlates "explain" or "cause" the mind and behavior, these correlates have not yet proven useful in understanding psychological processes, although they offer the possibility of early identification of some disorders. Other recent developments in psychology include increased emphasis on applications and more global representation among researchers and participants...
July 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727939/phytohormone-and-genome-variations-in-vitis-amurensis-resistant-to-downy-mildew
#17
Ling Yin, Junjie Qu, Shuhan Deng, Shaoli Liu, Jiang Lu, Yali Zhang
Downy mildew (DM) resistance is a highly desirable agronomic trait in grape breeding. High variation in Plasmopara viticola resistance was found in Vitis cultivars. Some accessions show high P. viticola resistance even under conditions highly conducive to DM. Here, leaf disc inoculation experiments revealed that Vitis amurensis 'Zuoshaner' exhibited DM resistance with necrotic spots, whereas the V. amurensis × V. vinifera hybrid cultivar 'Zuoyouhong' was susceptible. Changes in plant hormones accumulation profiles, differed between the cultivars...
July 20, 2017: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727919/comprehensive-multiphase-cmp-nmr-monitoring-of-the-structural-changes-and-molecular-flux-within-a-growing-seed
#18
Blythe Fortier-McGill, Rudraksha Dutta Majumdar, Leayen Lam, Ronald Soong, Yalda Liaghati Mobarhan, Andre Sutrisno, Ries de Visser, Myrna J Simpson, Heather Wheeler, Malcolm Campbell, Antonie Gorissen, Andre J Simpson
A relatively recent technique termed Comprehensive Multiphase (CMP) NMR spectroscopy was used to study the growth and associated metabolomic changes of 13C-labeled wheat seeds and germinated seedlings. CMP-NMR enables the study of all phases in intact samples: liquid, gel-like, semi-solid and solid, by combining all required electronics into a single NMR probe and can be used for investigating biological processes such as seed germination. All components, from the most liquid like (i.e. dissolved metabolites) to the most rigid or solid like (seed coat) were monitored in-situ over 4 days...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727917/a-3d-printed-portable-optical-sensing-platform-for-smartphones-capable-of-detecting-the-herbicide-2-4-dichlorophenoxyacetic-acid
#19
Yijia Wang, Mohamed Maarouf Ali Zeinhom, Mingming Yang, Rongrong Sun, Shengfu Wang, Jordan N Smith, Charles Timchalk, Lei Li, Yuehe Lin, Dan Du
Onsite rapid detection of herbicide and herbicide residuals in environmental and biological specimens is important for agriculture, environment, food safety, and health care. Traditional method for herbicide detection requires expensive laboratory equipment and a long turn-round time. In this work, we developed a single-stripe microliter plate smartphone colorimetric device for rapid and low-cost in-field test. This portable smartphone platform is capable of screening 8 samples in a microplate single-stripe...
July 20, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727915/improving-accuracy-diversity-and-speed-with-prime-macrocycle-conformational-sampling
#20
Dan Sindhikara, Steven A Spronk, Tyler Day, Ken Borrelli, Daniel L Cheney, Shana L Posy
A novel method for exploring macrocycle conformational space, Prime Macrocycle Conformational Sampling (Prime-MCS), is introduced and evaluated in the context of other available algorithms (Molecular Dynamics, LowModeMD in MOE, and MacroModel Baseline Search). The algorithms were benchmarked on a dataset of 208 macrocycles which was curated for diversity from the Cambridge Structural Database, the Protein Databank, and the Biologically Interesting Molecule Reference Dictionary. The algorithms were evaluated in terms of accuracy (ability to reproduce the crystal structure), diversity (coverage of conformational space), and computational speed...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
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