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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829932/amelogenesis-imperfecta-case-study
#1
C Leevailoj, S Lawanrattanakul, K Mahatumarat
Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) refers to a group of rare genetic disorders that involve tooth development and that are passed down through families as a dominant trait. This condition is characterized by abnormal enamel formation caused by gene mutations that alter the quality and/or quantity of enamel. This dental problem can impact both primary and permanent dentition, varies among affected individuals, and results in esthetic and functional problems. This condition caused the patient in the current case report to have a lack of confidence when speaking...
September 2017: Operative Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829925/aya-myeloma-real-world-single-center-experience-over-last-5-years
#2
Uday Yanamandra, Neha Saini, Pooja Chauhan, Tanya Sharma, Alka Khadwal, Gaurav Prakash, Neelam Varma, Deepesh Lad, Subhash Varma, Pankaj Malhotra
INTRODUCTION: Multiple myeloma (MM) is considered as a disease of the old with the reported median age of 60-70 years. The disease occurred a decade earlier in the Indian subcontinent. The literature on MM in adolescents and young adult (AYA) is limited. We studied the disease characteristics and outcomes of the AYA-MM in the real-world setting. PATIENTS AND METHODS: It is a retrospective single-center study conducted at a tertiary care center from North India. Records of all consecutive patients with AYA-MM (15-39 years of age) who were managed from January 1, 2010, to December 30, 2015, were reviewed...
August 22, 2017: Journal of Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829910/oxycodone-for-cancer-related-pain
#3
REVIEW
Mia Schmidt-Hansen, Michael I Bennett, Stephanie Arnold, Nathan Bromham, Jennifer S Hilgart
BACKGROUND: Many people with cancer experience moderate to severe pain that requires treatment with strong opioids, such as oxycodone and morphine. Strong opioids are, however, not effective for pain in all people, neither are they well-tolerated by all people. The aim of this review was to assess whether oxycodone is associated with better pain relief and tolerability than other analgesic options for adults with cancer pain. This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in 2015, Issue 2 on oxycodone for cancer-related pain...
August 22, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829652/pediatric-prehospital-refusal-of-medical-assistance-association-with-suspected-abuse-or-neglect
#4
Felicia Mix, Lucas A Myers, Anuradha Luke, Matthew D Sztajnkrycer
INTRODUCTION: Unlike adult refusal of medical assistance (RMA), pediatric refusal is not initiated by the patient. This lack of autonomy may permit neglect by the guardian through denial of necessary treatment. The purpose of the current study was to determine whether pediatric RMA was associated with suspected abuse or neglect (SAN). METHODS: This was a retrospective single EMS agency cross-sectional analysis of calls between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2015 for patients <18 years of age resulting in RMA...
August 22, 2017: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829533/vitamin-k-supplementation-for-cystic-fibrosis
#5
REVIEW
Vanitha A Jagannath, Vidhu Thaker, Anne B Chang, Amy I Price
BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disorder which can lead to multiorgan dysfunction. Malabsorption of fat and fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K) may occur and can cause subclinical deficiencies of some of these vitamins. Vitamin K is known to play an important role in both blood coagulation and bone formation. Supplementation with vitamin K appears to be one way of addressing the deficiency, but there is very limited agreement on the appropriate dose and frequency of use of these supplements...
August 22, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829223/metabolic-syndrome-in-hispanic-youth-results-from-the-hispanic-community-children-s-health-study-study-of-latino-youth
#6
Samantha A Reina, Maria M Llabre, Denise C Vidot, Carmen R Isasi, Krista Perreira, Mercedes Carnethon, Christina M Parrinello, Linda C Gallo, Guadalupe X Ayala, Alan Delamater
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MetS), a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors, is being diagnosed in youth. Specific diagnostic criteria used to define MetS influence prevalence estimates and populations considered at risk for cardiovascular disease. The National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP), the World Health Organization (WHO), and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) provide three MetS definitions used in medical research. This study examined concordance among these definitions in 1137 children 10-16 years of age, who participated in the Hispanic Community Children's Health Study/Study of Latino Youth...
August 22, 2017: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829109/adult-orbital-and-adnexal-xanthogranulomatous-disease
#7
Michael J Davies, Kevin Whitehead, Gary Quagliotto, Dominic Wood, Rajan S Patheja, Timothy J Sullivan
PURPOSE: Adult xanthogranulomatous disease of the orbit and ocular adnexa is a rare disease that can cause serious morbidity and mortality. Ophthalmologists are commonly the first clinicians to come in contact with affected patients and an understanding of the clinical features is essential. DESIGN: We present a retrospective case series of patients seen in the oculoplastic unit of a large tertiary referral hospital over a 20-year period. METHODS: The clinical files of 7 patients with adult xanthogranulomatous disease of the orbit and ocular adnexa were reviewed...
August 22, 2017: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828950/evaluation-of-interobserver-agreement-for-postoperative-pain-and-sedation-assessment-in-cats
#8
Javier Benito, Beatriz P Monteiro, Guy Beauchamp, B Duncan X Lascelles, Paulo V Steagall
OBJECTIVE To evaluate agreement between observers with different training and experience for assessment of postoperative pain and sedation in cats by use of a dynamic and interactive visual analog scale (DIVAS) and for assessment of postoperative pain in the same cats with a multidimensional composite pain scale (MCPS). DESIGN Randomized, controlled, blinded study. ANIMALS 45 adult cats undergoing ovariohysterectomy. PROCEDURES Cats received 1 of 3 preoperative treatments: bupivacaine, IP; meloxicam, SC with saline (0...
September 1, 2017: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828893/kawasaki-disease-and-coronary-artery-aneurysms-from-childhood-to-adulthood
#9
Manjiri Joshi, Robert Tulloh
Kawasaki disease is an acute, systemic vasculitis of childhood and confers a 25% risk of developing coronary artery aneurysms. Its etiology is unknown, but the incidence is increasing rapidly with linked gene polymorphisms having been identified. A constellation of symptoms, epidemics and seasonality all implicate an unidentified infective or environmental cause. Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy, aspirin and steroids all form the mainstay of acute treatment and reduces the incidence of coronary artery aneurysms if given before 7 days...
August 22, 2017: Future Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828306/active-surveillance-for-adverse-events-among-patients-who-underwent-renal-transplantation-a-prospective-observational-study
#10
Padmanabhan Guruprasad, Kamal Kishore, Sandeep Mahajan, Sandeep Aggarwal
AIM: Renal transplantation is the treatment of choice for end-stage renal disease patients. Renal transplant recipients, however, have to be on lifelong therapy with immunosuppressants, which are associated with a number of adverse events (AEs). The safety profile of these immunosuppressants is not clear with respect to the Indian population. This study was conducted to find the frequency and pattern of all AEs experienced by Indian renal transplant recipients during the initial 3 months posttransplantation...
July 2017: Perspectives in Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828210/short-and-long-term-antidepressant-effects-of-ketamine-in-a-rat-chronic-unpredictable-stress-model
#11
Yinghong Jiang, Yiqiang Wang, Xiaoran Sun, Bo Lian, Hongwei Sun, Gang Wang, Zhongde Du, Qi Li, Lin Sun
OBJECTIVE: This research was aimed to evaluate the behaviors of short- or long-term antidepressant effects of ketamine in rats exposed to chronic unpredictable stress (CUS). BACKGROUND: Ketamine, a glutamate noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist, regulates excitatory amino acid functions, such as anxiety disorders and major depression, and plays an important role in synaptic plasticity and learning and memory. METHODS: After 42 days of CUS model, male rats received either a single injection of ketamine (10 mg/kg; day 43) or 15 daily injections (days 43-75)...
August 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827861/the-prospective-24-week-assessment-of-cost-efficacy-of-and-compliance-to-antidepressant-medications-in-a-rural-setting-pacecar-study
#12
T S Sathyanarayana Rao, J Shivanand Manohar, Rajesh Raman, M S Darshan, Abhinav Tandon, K N Karthik, N Saraswathi, Keya Das, G T Harsha, Swetha Patil Kunkeri, Chittaranjan Andrade
BACKGROUND: Anxiety and depression are common mental health disorders that are responsible for considerable societal burden. There are no data on cost-efficacy and medication compliance related to the treatment of these disorders in rural India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All consenting adults (n = 455) diagnosed with generalized anxiety or (unipolar) depressive disorders in Suttur village, Karnataka, were treated with open-label fluoxetine (20-60 mg/day), sertraline (50-150 mg/day), escitalopram (10-20 mg/day), desvenlafaxine (50-150 mg/day), duloxetine (30-90 mg/day), amitriptyline (75-150 mg/day), or clomipramine (75-150 mg/day) in a structured, monotherapy dosing plan...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827836/sub-therapeutic-nevirapine-concentration-during-antiretroviral-treatment-initiation-among-children-living-with-hiv-implications-for-therapeutic-drug-monitoring
#13
Bindu Parachalil Gopalan, Kayur Mehta, Reena R D'souza, Niharika Rajnala, Hemanth Kumar A K, Geetha Ramachandran, Anita Shet
Nevirapine, a component of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-limited settings, known for auto-induction of metabolism, is initiated at half therapeutic dose until day 14 ('lead-in period'), and subsequently escalated to full dose. However, studies have shown that this dosing strategy based on adult studies may not be appropriate in children, given that younger children have higher drug clearance rates. In this prospective cohort study, we studied trough plasma nevirapine levels by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) at days 7, 14 (lead-in period) and 28 (full dose period) after ART initiation amongst HIV-1 infected children initiating nevirapine-based ART in southern India...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827270/study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial-of-meniscal-surgery-compared-with-exercise-and-patient-education-for-treatment-of-meniscal-tears-in-young-adults
#14
Søren Thorgaard Skou, Martin Lind, Per Hölmich, Hans Peter Jensen, Carsten Jensen, Muhammad Afzal, Uffe Jørgensen, Jonas Bloch Thorlund
INTRODUCTION: Arthroscopic surgery is a very common orthopaedic procedure. While several trials have investigated the effect of knee arthroscopy for middle-aged and older patients with meniscal tears, there is a paucity of trials comparing meniscal surgery with non-surgical treatment for younger adults. The aim of this randomised controlled trial (RCT) is to investigate if early arthroscopic surgery is superior to exercise therapy and education, with the option of later surgery if needed, in improving pain, function and quality of life in younger adults with meniscal tears...
August 21, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827258/protocol-for-a-randomised-placebo-controlled-pilot-study-for-assessing-feasibility-and-efficacy-of-faecal-microbiota-transplantation-in-a-paediatric-ulcerative-colitis-population-pedifetch-trial
#15
Nikhil Pai, Jelena Popov
INTRODUCTION: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic, relapsing condition characterised by colonic inflammation. Increasing prevalence in early-age diagnosis provides opportunities for additional complications in later life as a result of prolonged exposure to inflammatory and therapeutic insults, necessitating novel avenues for therapeutics which may result in fewer side effects. Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has previously demonstrated potential therapeutic benefit in an adult randomised-controlled trial and several recurrent Clostridium difficile infection studies...
August 21, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827050/initial-experience-with-peroral-endoscopic-myotomy-for-treatment-of-achalasia-in-children
#16
William C Kethman, Chad M Thorson, Tiffany J Sinclair, William E Berquist, Stephanie D Chao, James K Wall
BACKGROUND: Achalasia is a primary esophageal motility disorder characterized by aperistalsis of the esophagus and failed relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter that presents rarely in childhood. The peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) procedure is an emerging treatment for achalasia in adults that has recently been introduced into pediatric surgical practice. METHODS: This is a prospective case series of all children referred to Stanford University Lucile Packard Children's Hospital with manometry-confirmed achalasia who underwent a POEM procedure from 2014 to 2016...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826709/rosette-forming-glioneuronal-tumor-of-the-fourth-ventricle-in-children-case-report-and-literature-review
#17
Cynthia Morris, Zachary D Prudowsky, Vilaas Shetty, Thomas Geller, Samer K Elbabaa, Miguel Guzman, Mohamed S AbdelBaki
BACKGROUND: Rosette-forming glioneuronal tumor of the fourth ventricle (RGNT) is a rare World Health Organization (WHO) grade I neoplasm. Gross total resection (GTR) is the treatment of choice, and there is no firm evidence for other treatment options when GTR is not feasible. CASE DESCRIPTION: We describe a case of a 6-year-old boy who, following an initial subtotal resection of his fourth ventricular RGNT, received an individualized chemotherapy protocol with vincristine, etoposide and carboplatin for three cycles...
August 4, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826456/chronic-pulmonary-aspergillosis-as-a-cause-of-smear-negative-tb-and-or-tb-treatment-failure-in-nigerians
#18
R O Oladele, N K Irurhe, P Foden, A S Akanmu, T Gbaja-Biamila, A Nwosu, H A Ekundayo, F T Ogunsola, M D Richardson, D W Denning
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) as an alternative diagnosis of smear-negative tuberculosis (TB) and treatment failure in TB patients in Nigeria. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional multicentre survey in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive and negative adult patients at the end of their TB treatment in clinics in Lagos and Ilorin states. All were assessed using clinical examination, chest X-ray (CXR) and aspergillus immunoglobulin G (IgG) serology, and some for sputum fungal culture...
September 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826449/a-community-based-isoniazid-preventive-therapy-for-the-prevention-of-childhood-tuberculosis-in-ethiopia
#19
D G Datiko, M A Yassin, S J Theobald, L E Cuevas
BACKGROUND: Although children in contact with adults with tuberculosis (TB) should receive isoniazid (INH) preventive therapy (IPT), this is rarely implemented. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether a community-based approach to provide IPT at the household level improves uptake and adherence in Ethiopia. METHODS: Contacts of adults with smear-positive pulmonary TB (PTB+) were visited at home and examined by health extension workers (HEWs). Asymptomatic children aged <5 years were offered IPT and followed monthly...
September 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826280/severe-therapy-resistant-asthma-in-children-translational-approaches-to-uncover-sub-phenotypes
#20
Aldara Martin Alonso, Valentina Fainardi, Sejal Saglani
Paediatric severe therapy resistant asthma (STRA) affects a very small proportion of all children with asthma, but results in significant morbidity, has a high risk of mortality and utilises approximately half of all healthcare resources for childhood asthma. children with STRA need add-on 'beyond guidelines' therapies because of poor control despite maximal conventional treatments and optimisation of basic asthma management. however, STRA is heterogeneous with marked phenotypic variation between patients and mechanisms from adult severe asthma cannot be extrapolated to children...
August 21, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
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