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Liuqi Peng, Xuan Mei, Jun He, Jiekun Xu, Weiku Zhang, Ruizheng Liang, Min Wei, David G Evans, Xue Duan
2D nanomaterials have attracted considerable research interest in drug delivery systems, owing to their intriguing quantum size and surface effect. Herein, Gd3+ -doped monolayered-double-hydroxide (MLDH) nanosheets are prepared via a facile bottom-up synthesis method, with a precisely controlled composition and uniform morphology. MLDH nanosheets as drug carrier are demonstrated in coloading of doxorubicin and indocyanine green (DOX&ICG), with an ultrahigh drug loading content (LC) of 797.36% and an encapsulation efficiency (EE) of 99...
March 14, 2018: Advanced Materials
O S Eng, R A Nelson, I Konstantinidis, J Chao, L Erhunmwunsee, D J Raz, J Y Kim
Trimodality therapy with neoadjuvant chemoradiation followed by surgery has emerged as the standard of care for the treatment of locally advanced esophageal cancer. Yet, there is considerable variation in survival within this population. We sought to analyze factors associated with survival after trimodality therapy in esophageal adenocarcinoma. We identified 4,679 patients from the National Cancer Database (NCDB) of the American College of Surgeons who received chemotherapy and radiation prior to surgery for esophageal adenocarcinoma from 2006 to 2013...
March 8, 2018: Diseases of the Esophagus: Official Journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
Penny Fang, Wen Jiang, Rajayogesh Davuluri, Cai Xu, Sunil Krishnan, Radhe Mohan, Albert C Koong, Charles C Hsu, Steven H Lin
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Neoadjuvant chemoradiation (nCRT) can reduce tumor infiltrating lymphocytes. We examined absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) nadir during nCRT for esophageal cancer (EC) and pathologic complete response (pCR). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with stage I-IVA EC (n = 313) treated 2007-2013 with nCRT followed by surgery were analyzed. ALC was obtained before, during/weekly, and one month after CRT. pCR was defined as no viable tumor cells at surgery...
March 9, 2018: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
Branislav Jeremić, Francesc Casas, Pavol Dubinsky, Antonio Gomez-Caamano, Nikola Čihorić, Gregory Videtic, Ivan Igrutinovic
While there are no established pretreatment predictive and prognostic factors in patients with stage IIIA/pN2 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) indicating a benefit to surgery as a part of trimodality approach, little is known about treatment-related predictive and prognostic factors in this setting. A literature search was conducted to identify possible treatment-related predictive and prognostic factors for patients for whom trimodality approach was reported on. Overall survival was the primary endpoint of this study...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Yun Jia, Hong Li, Jingfeng Wang, Hu Meng, Zhenhua Yang
The spectra of k-mer frequencies can reveal the structures and evolution of genome sequences. We confirmed that the trimodal spectrum of 8-mers in human genome sequences is distinguished only by CG2, CG1 and CG0 8-mer sets respectively. This phenomenon is called independent selection law. The three types of CG 8-mers were considered as different functional elements. We conjectured that (1) nucleosome binding motifs are mainly characterized by CG1 8-mers and (2) the core structural units of CpG island sequences are predominantly characterized by CG2 8-mers...
March 6, 2018: Genomics
James M Bardes, Kenji Inaba, Morgan Schellenberg, Daniel Grabo, Aaron Strumwasser, Kazuhide Matsushima, Damon Clark, Niquelle Brown, Demetrios Demetriades
BACKGROUND: The distribution of trauma deaths was classically described as trimodal. With advances in both technology and trauma systems, this was re-evaluated and found to be bimodal in the early 2000s. Over the last decade there have been continued improvements in trauma and ICU care, related to damage control techniques and evidence based ICU pathways. A better understanding of the distribution of trauma deaths may be used to improve trauma systems. This study aimed to evaluate the contemporary distribution of trauma deaths after the widespread implementation of modern trauma and critical care principles...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Yoichi Hamai, Jun Hihara, Manabu Emi, Takaoki Furukawa, Yuji Murakami, Ikuno Nishibuchi, Yasushi Nagata, Yuta Ibuki, Ichiko Yamakita, Tomoaki Kurokawa, Morihito Okada
BACKGROUND: The accurate prediction of a pathologic complete response (ypT0N0M [LYM] 0 ypStage 0) before operation is essential for selecting appropriate strategies for treating esophageal cancer after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. METHODS: We reviewed 130 consecutive patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma who were evaluated preoperatively using upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, computed tomography, and18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and subsequently underwent esophagectomy...
March 5, 2018: Surgery
Kyle Edmunds, Magnús Gíslason, Sigurður Sigurðsson, Vilmundur Guðnason, Tamara Harris, Ugo Carraro, Paolo Gargiulo
Sarcopenic muscular degeneration has been consistently identified as an independent risk factor for mortality in aging populations. Recent investigations have realized the quantitative potential of computed tomography (CT) image analysis to describe skeletal muscle volume and composition; however, the optimum approach to assessing these data remains debated. Current literature reports average Hounsfield unit (HU) values and/or segmented soft tissue cross-sectional areas to investigate muscle quality. However, standardized methods for CT analyses and their utility as a comorbidity index remain undefined, and no existing studies compare these methods to the assessment of entire radiodensitometric distributions...
2018: PloS One
Hasan Fevzi Batirel, Muzaffer Metintas, Hale Basak Caglar, Guntulu Ak, Perran Fulden Yumuk, Rengin Ahiskali, Emine Bozkurtlar, Nural Bekiroglu, Tunc Lacin, Bedrettin Yildizeli, Mustafa Yuksel
OBJECTIVE: Macroscopic complete resection (MCR) is the recommended surgical strategy in malignant pleural mesothelioma. Our objective was to analyze whether MCR influences survival in malignant pleural mesothelioma. METHODS: Between 2002 and 2016, 154 patients underwent pleurectomy decortication (n = 90), extrapleural pneumonectomy (n = 42), or exploratory/diagnostic procedures (n = 22) in a single institution. Patient data were recorded in a prospective database...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
J Francoual, G Lebreton, C Bazille, M P Galais, B Dupont, A Alves, J Lubrano, R Morello, B Menahem
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate long-term (5- and 10-year) survival and recurrence rates on the basis of the pathological complete response (pCR) in the specimens of patients with esophageal carcinoma, treated with trimodality therapy. METHODS: Between 1993 and 2014, all consecutives patients with esophageal locally-advanced non-metastatic squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) or adenocarcinoma (ADC) who received trimodality therapy were reviewed. According to histopathological analysis, patients were divided in two groups with pCR and with pathological residual tumor (pRT)...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Visceral Surgery
Daniele Bernardi, Emanuele Asti, Alberto Aiolfi, Gianluca Bonitta, Alberto Luporini, Luigi Bonavina
BACKGROUND: In the real-world setting outside clinical trials, neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy followed by esophagectomy may represent overtreatment in some elderly individuals with multiple comorbidities. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Through an observational cohort study, consecutive patients with esophageal cancer treated with the protocol of the Chemoradiotherapy for Oesophageal Cancer Followed by Surgery Study (CROSS) were compared to patients of similar age who underwent upfront surgery during the same study period...
March 2018: Anticancer Research
Adnan El-Achkar, Wassim Kassouf
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 14, 2018: European Urology
Lulu Cui, Bu Duo, Fei Zhang, Chunlin Li, Hongbo Fu, Jianmin Chen
This paper presents a detailed study on the indoor air pollution in the Jokahng Temple at Tibet Plateau, and its implication to human health. The mean concentrations of PM 1.0 and PM 2.5 were 435.0 ± 309.5 and 483.0 ± 284.9 μg/m 3 , respectively. The PM 2.5 concentration exceeded the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (75 μg/m 3 ) by 6.4 times. The size-segregated aerosols displayed a bimodal distribution. One peak was observed in the fine mode (0.4-2.1 μm) and the other peak appeared in the coarse mode (2...
February 13, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Ankit Modh, Omar H Gayar, Mohamed A Elshaikh, Arnold C Paulino, Farzan Siddiqui
OBJECTIVES: To examine patient demographics, temporal and treatment trends, and survival outcomes of pediatric non-nasopharyngeal head and neck squamous cell carcinomas using the National Cancer Database. METHODS: The National Cancer Database was queried for pediatric patients (age 0-19 years) diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (including oral cavity, oropharynx, nasal cavity, larynx, hypopharynx, and salivary glands) from 2004 to 2013. RESULTS: Of 159 patients identified, the majority had oral cavity SCC (55%)...
March 2018: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Benny Johnson, Zhaohui Jin, Michael G Haddock, Christopher L Hallemeier, James A Martenson, Rory L Smoot, David W Larson, Eric J Dozois, David M Nagorney, Axel Grothey
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to define survival rates in patients with isolated advanced abdominal nodal metastases secondary to colorectal cancer (CRC), treated with curative-intent trimodality therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-five patients received trimodality therapy, defined as chemotherapy delivered with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) followed by lymphadenectomy and intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT). Infusional 5-fluorouracil was the most common radiosensitizer used (63%, 41 patients)...
February 14, 2018: Oncologist
Xiangdong Xue, Yee Huang, Xinshuai Wang, Zhongling Wang, Randy P Carney, Xiaocen Li, Ye Yuan, Yixuan He, Tzu-Yin Lin, Yuanpei Li
Conventional drug delivery systems contain substantial amounts of excipients such as polymers and lipids, typically with low drug loading capacity and lack of intrinsic traceability and multifunctionality. Here, we report fully active pharmaceutical ingredient nanoparticles (FAPIN) which were self-assembled by minimal materials, but seamlessly orchestrated versatile theranostic functionalities including: i) self-delivery: no additional carriers were required, all components in the formulation are active pharmaceutical ingredients; ii) self-indicating: no additional imaging tags were needed...
April 2018: Biomaterials
Go Makimoto, Toshio Kubo, Isao Oze, Kadoaki Ohashi, Katsuyuki Hotta, Masahiro Tabata, Junichi Soh, Shinichi Toyooka, Kuniaki Katsui, Nagio Takigawa, Mitsune Tanimoto, Katsuyuki Kiura
The standard treatment for patients with locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC) is chemoradiotherapy (CRT), but surgical resection following induction CRT can extend overall survival in a select population. However, patients who survive longer are at risk of developing a second primary cancer (SPC). This is the first report to determine the incidence of SPC in survivors with LA-NSCLC after trimodal therapy. Between October 1997 and October 2013, 112 Stage III NSCLC patients underwent trimodal therapy in our hospital...
February 2, 2018: Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology
JeongTae Kim, Hee Jin Kim, Sung Hwan Hong, Hae Jin Park, Young Seok Kim, Yun Jung Hwang, Yeon Beom Jeong, Jun-Young Park, Jin Man Park, Baran Sarac, Wei-Min Wang, Jürgen Eckert, Ki Buem Kim
The microstructural evolution and crack filling phenomena of (Al81Cu13Si6)100-x(Sn57Bi43) x (x = 0, 1, and 3 at.%) composites was investigated. The Sn and Bi elements were selected by considering the ability for liquid phase separation when combined with Al, Cu, and Si. Because of liquid phase separation, both Al-Cu-Si-rich L1 and Sn-Bi-rich L2 phases separately solidified at different temperatures yielding a trimodal eutectic structure in the cast alloys. The Sn and Bi elements have high mobilities due to the large interface of the eutectic microstructure and tend to strongly diffuse towards higher strained region during heat treatment...
February 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
Eric Lu, Kelly S Perlewitz, James B Hayden, Arthur Y Hung, Yee-Cheen Doung, Lara E Davis, Atiya Mansoor, John T Vetto, Kevin G Billingsley, Andy Kaempf, Byung Park, Christopher W Ryan
BACKGROUND: The optimal treatment of high-risk soft tissue sarcomas (STS) of the extremities remains controversial. We report follow-up from a phase II study of dose-intense chemotherapy with preoperative hypofractionated radiation in this population supplemented with subsequent data from an extensive institutional experience using this regimen. METHODS: Patients with localized, intermediate- or high-grade STS of the extremity or body wall measuring > 5 cm were treated with epirubicin 30 mg/m2/day and ifosfamide 2...
January 31, 2018: Annals of Surgical Oncology
Steven D Lacey, Dylan J Kirsch, Yiju Li, Joseph T Morgenstern, Brady C Zarket, Yonggang Yao, Jiaqi Dai, Laurence Q Garcia, Boyang Liu, Tingting Gao, Shaomao Xu, Srinivasa R Raghavan, John W Connell, Yi Lin, Liangbing Hu
A highly porous 2D nanomaterial, holey graphene oxide (hGO), is synthesized directly from holey graphene powder and employed to create an aqueous 3D printable ink without the use of additives or binders. Stable dispersions of hydrophilic hGO sheets in water (≈100 mg mL-1 ) can be readily achieved. The shear-thinning behavior of the aqueous hGO ink enables extrusion-based printing of fine filaments into complex 3D architectures, such as stacked mesh structures, on arbitrary substrates. The freestanding 3D printed hGO meshes exhibit trimodal porosity: nanoscale (4-25 nm through-holes on hGO sheets), microscale (tens of micrometer-sized pores introduced by lyophilization), and macroscale (<500 µm square pores of the mesh design), which are advantageous for high-performance energy storage devices that rely on interfacial reactions to promote full active-site utilization...
January 30, 2018: Advanced Materials
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