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Xiaoyu Deng, Jiali Zhang, Jiazi Su, Hao Liu, Yanlong Cong, Lei Zhang, Kemeng Zhang, Ning Shi, Rongguang Lu, Xijun Yan
The aim of this study was to establish a multiplex PCR (mPCR) method that can simultaneously detect canine parvovirus (CPV-2), canine coronavirus (CCoV) and canine adenovirus (CAV), thereby eliminating the need to detect these pathogens individually. Based on conserved regions in the genomes of these three viruses, the VP2 gene of CPV-2, the endoribonuclease nsp15 gene of CCoV, and the 52K gene of CAV were selected for primer design. The specificity of the mPCR results showed no amplification of canine distemper virus (CDV), canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV), or pseudorabies virus (PRV), indicating that the method had good specificity...
April 19, 2018: Archives of Virology
Yaxiong Yang, Nan Liu, Yuanyuan He, Yuxia Liu, Lin Ge, Linzhi Zou, Sen Song, Wei Xiong, Xiaodong Liu
GCaMP, one popular type of genetically-encoded Ca2+ indicator, has been associated with various side-effects. Here we unveil the intrinsic problem prevailing over different versions and applications, showing that GCaMP containing CaM (calmodulin) interferes with both gating and signaling of L-type calcium channels (CaV 1). GCaMP acts as an impaired apoCaM and Ca2+ /CaM, both critical to CaV 1, which disrupts Ca2+ dynamics and gene expression. We then design and implement GCaMP-X, by incorporating an extra apoCaM-binding motif, effectively protecting CaV 1-dependent excitation-transcription coupling from perturbations...
April 17, 2018: Nature Communications
Kentaro Minami, Koji Kumagai, Yoshinao Sugai, Kohki Nakamura, Shigeto Naito, Shigeru Oshima
Coronary artery vasospasms (CAVs) during pulmonary vein isolation have been reported, but the mechanism remains unclear. We experienced a rare case of CAVs caused by radiofrequency (RF) applications to sites with massive epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) attached. Because EAT contains ganglionated plexuses, RF application may have caused an autonomic nervous system imbalance, which thereby provoked severe CAVs.
April 2018: Journal of Arrhythmia
Zhenyu Hu, Guang Li, Jiong-Wei Wang, Suet Yen Chong, Dejie Yu, Xiaoyuan Wang, Jia Lin Soon, Mui Cheng Liang, Yuk Peng Wong, Na Huang, Henry M Colecraft, Ping Liao, Tuck Wah Soong
Background -L-type CaV 1.2 channels play crucial roles in regulation of blood pressure. Galectin-1 (Gal-1), has been reported to bind to the I-II loop of CaV 1.2 channels to reduce their current density. However, the mechanistic understanding for the down-regulation of CaV 1.2 channels by Gal-1, and whether Gal-1 plays a direct role in blood pressure regulation remain unclear. Methods - In vitro experiments involving co-IP, western blot, patch-clamp recordings, immunohistochemistry and pressure myography were used to evaluate the molecular mechanisms by which Gal-1 down-regulates CaV 1...
April 12, 2018: Circulation
Annika Gocht, Jörg H W Distler, Bernd Spriewald, Martina Ramsperger-Gleixner, Michael Weyand, Stephan M Ensminger, Christian Heim
BACKGROUND: Cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) is the main obstacle for long-term survival after heart transplantation. Alloimmune mediated chronic vascular rejection results in several mechanisms like platelet activation, immigration of inflammatory cells through the endothelial layer and proliferation and migration of smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Serotonin (5-HT) promotes these processes via activation of 5-HT2 receptors. We hypothesized that inhibiting 5-HT2 receptors ameliorates the development of CAV...
April 9, 2018: Transplant Immunology
Guillaume Coutance, Lucas Van Aelst, Guillaume Hékimian, Charles Vidal, Philippe Rouvier, Samir Saheb, Chantal Gautreau, Pascal Leprince, Shaida Varnous
BACKGROUND: Data are scarce on the prognosis of heart allograft antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) with cardiogenic shock (CS). METHODS: We performed a retrospective, single center, observational study. We included patients with biopsy proven AMR and CS. We aimed to analyze the characteristics, treatment and prognosis of patients treated for CS due to AMR. Patients alive after AMR were followed to analyze recurrences of AMR, graft function and cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV)...
April 7, 2018: Clinical Transplantation
Lai-Wei Li, Yan-Yan Qi, Shi-Xi Liu, Xing-De Wu, Qin-Shi Zhao
Four new neoclerodane diterpenoids, leucansalvialins FI (1-4), and one rare 18(4 → 3)-abeo-abietane diterpenoid, leucansalvialin J (5), were isolated from the aerial part of Salvia leucantha Cav., along with 14 known analogues. Leucansalvialin F (1) represents the first rearranged salvigenane type clerodane-17,12:18,6-diolide. Their structures were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data analysis, and the absolute configurations of 1, 2, 3, and 5 were determinded by X-ray diffraction crystal analysis and the ECD technique...
April 3, 2018: Fitoterapia
Kai Zang, Yuwen Zhang, Jie Hu, Yun Wang
The large conductance calcium- and voltage-activated potassium channels (BK) are a kind of widely distributed channel proteins which exist in virtually every cell type of mammals and function to influence membrane excitability and Ca2+ signaling. BK channels can be activated by the increase of the intracellular Ca2+ concentration, a consequence of neuronal excitation, and then terminate the action potential with the outward K+ flux. Moreover, after-hyperpolarization induced by BK channels closes Cav channels and thus precludes excessive Ca2+ influx...
April 3, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Anjali Sairaman, Fernanda Caldas Cardoso, Anjie Bispat, Richard J Lewis, Peter J Duggan, Kellie L Tuck
Both N- and T-type calcium ion channels have been implicated in pain transmission and the N-type channel is a well-validated target for the treatment of neuropathic pain. An SAR investigation of a series of substituted aminobenzothiazoles identified a subset of five compounds with comparable activity to the positive control Z160 in a FLIPR-based intracellular calcium response assay measuring potency at both CaV 2.2 and CaV 3.2 channels. These compounds may form the basis for the development of drug leads and tool compounds for assessing in vivo effects of variable modulation of CaV 2...
March 19, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Osama Omrani, Moheeb Alawwami, Jehad Buraiki, Nedim Selimovic
BACKGROUND: HLA-DQ donor-specific antibodies (DSA) are implicated in allograft dysfunction after renal and lung transplantation. Limited data exists on the impact of HLA-DQ antibodies on heart transplant patients. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of DSA formation on allograft function and outcomes in heart transplant patients. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Collating post-transplantation patient data from computerized database in a tertiary hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from January 2006 to October 2014...
March 2018: Annals of Saudi Medicine
Jihee Sohn, Hang Lin, Madalyn Rose Fritch, Rocky S Tuan
BACKGROUND: Adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are an important resource for tissue growth, repair, and regeneration. To utilize MSCs more effectively, a clear understanding of how they react to environmental cues is essential. Currently, relatively little is known about how the composition of the plasma membranes affects stem cell phenotype and properties. The presence of lipid molecules, including cholesterol in particular, in the plasma membrane plays a crucial role in regulating a variety of physiological processes in cells...
April 3, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Zhao Li, Ken Scott, Yacine Hemar, Huoming Zhang, Don Otter
A protease from tamarillo fruit (Cyphomandra betacea Cav.) was purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation and diethylaminoethyl-Sepharose chromatography. Protease activity was determined on selected peak fractions using a casein substrate. Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis showed that the peak with the highest protease activity consisted of one protein of molecular mass ca. 70 kDa. The protease showed optimal activity at pH 11 and 60 °C. It was sensitive to phenylmethylsulphonyl fluoride while ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and p-chloromercuribenzoic acid had little effect on its activity, indicating that this enzyme was a serine protease...
August 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Douglas L Jennings, Nicholas Lange, Michael Shullo, Farhana Latif, Susan Restaino, Veli K Topkara, Koji Takeda, Hiroo Takayama, Yoshifumi Naka, Maryjane Farr, Paolo Colombo, William L Baker
BACKGROUND: Data evaluating mTOR inhibitor use heart transplant (HT) patients comes from relatively small studies and controversy exists regarding their specific role. We performed a meta-analysis of randomized trials to evaluate the efficacy and safety of mTOR inhibitors in HT patients. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search of Medline and Embase through July 2017 identifying studies evaluating mTOR inhibitors in HT patients reporting effects on coronary allograft vasculopathy (CAV), renal function, acute cellular rejection (ACR), cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, and discontinuation due to adverse drug events (ADE)...
March 24, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Hayeong Kwon, Jaewoong Lee, Donghwan Jang, Moonjeong Choi, Kyuho Jeong, Yunbae Pak
Insulin resistance, defined as attenuated sensitivity responding to insulin, impairs insulin action. Direct causes and molecular mechanisms of insulin resistance have thus far remained elusive. Here we show that alternative translation initiation (ATI) of Caveolin-2 (Cav-2) regulates insulin sensitivity. Cav-2β isoform yielded by ATI desensitizes insulin receptor (IR) via dephosphorylation by protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), and subsequent endocytosis and lysosomal degradation of IR, causing insulin resistance...
March 28, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
J R Harris, J J Teuteberg, M A Shullo
Cardiac allograft vasculopathy is a major risk factor influencing graft loss and patient survival following orthotopic heart transplant. Allograft vasculopathy is a multifactorial process which includes both immunologic and non-immunologic mechanisms. Given the non-immunological risk factors for vasculopathy, particularly hyperlipidemia, it is intuitive that reducing a patient's LDL would help attenuate the disease process. Multiple studies have shown benefits with the use of statin therapy. However, current heart transplant guidelines do not give a specific recommendation as to what LDL goal should be achieved in this patient population...
March 30, 2018: Clinical Transplantation
Petcharat Leoyklang, Bradley Class, Satoru Noguchi, William A Gahl, Nuria Carrillo, Ichizo Nishino, Marjan Huizing, May Christine Malicdan
INTRODUCTION: GNE myopathy is an adult-onset muscle disorder characterized by impaired sialylation of (muscle) glycans, detectable by lectin histochemistry. We describe a standardized method to quantify (lectin-)fluorescence in muscle sections, applicable for diagnosis and response to therapy for GNE myopathy. METHODS: Muscle sections were fluorescently labeled with the sialic acid-binding Sambucus nigra agglutinin (SNA) lectin and antibodies to sarcolemma residence protein Caveolin-3 (CAV-3)...
March 30, 2018: Muscle & Nerve
Sharon Chih, Aun Yeong Chong, Fernanda Erthal, Robert A deKemp, Ross A Davies, Ellamae Stadnick, Derek Y So, Christopher Overgaard, George Wells, Lisa M Mielniczuk, Rob S B Beanlands
BACKGROUND: Cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) is a leading cause of graft failure and death after heart transplantation. Absolute myocardial blood flow (MBF) quantification using rubidium 82 (Rb-82) positron emission tomography (PET) could enable evaluation of diagnostically challenging diffuse epicardial and microvascular disease in CAV. OBJECTIVES: The authors aimed to evaluate Rb-82 PET detection of CAV. METHODS: Consecutive transplant recipients undergoing coronary angiography were prospectively evaluated with PET, multivessel intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), and intracoronary hemodynamics...
April 3, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Michael S Lee, Gentian Lluri, Will Finch, Kyung Woo Park
We evaluated our quarter-century experience with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV). CAV is a progressive form of atherosclerosis that is characterized by diffuse intimal thickening. It is a major cause of morbidity and mortality after orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT). Effective treatment options are limited. PCI has been used as a palliative treatment in selected patients. We retrospectively analyzed 140 patients with CAV who underwent PCI from 1992 to 2017 at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Medical Center...
February 6, 2018: American Journal of Cardiology
Wen Zeng, Jiansong Tang, Haicheng Li, Haixia Xu, Hongyun Lu, Hangya Peng, Chuwen Lin, Rili Gao, Shuo Lin, Keyi Lin, Kunying Liu, Yan Jiang, Jianping Weng, Longyi Zeng
Lipotoxicity leads to insulin secretion deficiency, which is among the important causes for the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Thus, the restoration of β-cell mass and preservation of its endocrine function are long-sought goals in diabetes research. Previous studies have suggested that the membrane protein caveolin-1 (Cav-1) is implicated in β-cell apoptosis and insulin secretion, however, the underlying mechanisms still remains unclear. Our objective is to explore whether Cav-1 depletion protects pancreatic β cells from lipotoxicity and what are the underlying mechanisms...
March 26, 2018: Cellular Signalling
Han-Sen Chen, Xi Chen, Wen-Ting Li, Jian-Gang Shen
Reactive nitrogen species (RNS) play important roles in mediating cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. RNS activate multiple signaling pathways and participate in different cellular events in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. Recent studies have indicated that caveolin-1 and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) are important signaling molecules in the pathological process of ischemic brain injury. During cerebral ischemia-reperfusion, the production of nitric oxide (NO) and peroxynitrite (ONOO- ), two representative RNS, down-regulates the expression of caveolin-1 (Cav-1) and, in turn, further activates nitric oxide synthase (NOS) to promote RNS generation...
March 29, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
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