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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455321/respiratory-quotient-estimations-as-additional-prognostic-tools-in-early-septic-shock
#1
J Mesquida, P Saludes, A Pérez-Madrigal, L Proença, E Cortes, L Enseñat, C Espinal, G Gruartmoner
Central venous-to-arterial carbon dioxide difference (Pcva CO2 ), and its correction by the arterial-to-venous oxygen content difference (Pcva CO2 /Cav O2 ) have been proposed as additional tools to evaluate tissue hypoxia. Since the relationship between pressure and content of CO2 (CCO2 ) might be affected by several factors, some authors advocate for the use of Ccva CO2 /Cav O2 . The aim of the present study was to explore the factors that might intervene in the difference between Pcva CO2 /Cav O2 and Ccva CO2 /Cav O2 , and to analyze their association with mortality...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453887/coronary-artery-disease-in-heart-transplantation-new-concepts-for-an-old-disease
#2
REVIEW
Mandy Langstraat, Kyra J S Musters, Olivier Manintveld, Marco Masetti, Luciano Potena
BACKGROUND: Cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) remains one of the main long-term complications after heart transplantation. We performed a systematic review focused on articles published in the previous 6 years to reappraise the novel evidences supporting risk-factors, pathology, prevention and treatment of CAV. METHODS: We identified a search string for a literature search on PubMed. We excluded articles specifically focused on diagnosis/biomarkers/imaging only or complications of other diseases...
February 17, 2018: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446302/life-cycle-assessment-of-connected-and-automated-vehicles-sensing-and-computing-subsystem-and-vehicle-level-effects
#3
James H Gawron, Gregory A Keoleian, Robert D De Kleine, Timothy J Wallington, Hyung Chul Kim
Although recent studies of connected and automated vehicles (CAVs) have begun to explore the potential energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission impacts from an operational perspective, little is known about how the full life cycle of the vehicle will be impacted. We report the results of a life cycle assessment (LCA) of Level 4 CAV sensing and computing subsystems integrated into internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV) and battery electric vehicle (BEV) platforms. The results indicate that CAV subsystems could increase vehicle primary energy use and GHG emissions by 3-20% due to increases in power consumption, weight, drag, and data transmission...
February 15, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439726/a-novel-cav-derived-cell-penetrating-peptide-efficiently-delivers-exogenous-molecules-through-caveolae-mediated-endocytosis
#4
Gaowei Hu, Wenlv Zheng, Ao Li, Yaru Mu, Mingyu Shi, Tuofan Li, Haitao Zou, Hongxia Shao, Aijian Qin, Jianqiang Ye
Cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) is a promising cargo for delivering bioactive molecules. In this study, the N terminus of VP1 from chicken anemia virus, designated as CVP1, was found to carry enriched arginine residues with α-helix. By confocal imaging, flow cytometry and MTT assay, we identified CVP1 as a novel, safe and efficient CPP. CVP1-FITC peptide could entry different types of cells tested with dose dependence, but without cytotoxic effects. Compared with TAT-FITC peptide, the CVP1-FITC peptide showed much higher cell-penetrating activity...
February 13, 2018: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438664/fat10-attenuates-hypoxia-induced-cardiomyocyte-apoptosis-by-stabilizing-caveolin-3
#5
Qiongqiong Zhou, Xiaogang Peng, Xiao Liu, Leifeng Chen, Qinmei Xiong, Yang Shen, Jinyan Xie, Zhenyan Xu, Lin Huang, Jinzhu Hu, Rong Wan, Kui Hong
FAT10, a member of the ubiquitin-like-modifier family of proteins, plays a cardioprotective role in response to hypoxic/ischemic injury. Caveolin-3 (Cav-3), a muscle-specific caveolin family member, is involved in cardiomyocyte apoptosis. However, the link between FAT10 and Cav-3 in ischemic cardiomyocytes is unclear. In the present study, we found that both FAT10 and Cav-3 were upregulated in ischemic myocardial tissues and in hypoxic cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, our results demonstrated that FAT10 inhibits hypoxia-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis by increasing Cav-3 expression...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438128/toxins-in-pain
#6
Fernanda C Cardoso, Mahadhi Hasan, Tianjiao Zhao, Richard J Lewis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pain is a distressing protective sensory experience warning of actual or potential tissue damage. Natural toxins have evolved to exploit pain and related neuronal pathways to facilitate prey capture and for defence, often producing either numbness, paralysis or intense pain by selectively modulating ion channels and receptors in pain pathways. Understanding how toxins modulate pain pathways can enhance our understanding of the physiological and pathological basis of pain...
February 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436604/cav-1-2-and-cav-2-2-expression-is-regulated-by-different-endogenous-ghrelin-levels-in-pancreatic-acinar-cells-during-acute-pancreatitis
#7
Jie Zhou, Mengbin Qin, Huilin Wang, Jiaping He, Hongzong Fu, Huirong Shi, Zhihai Liang, Guodu Tang
Ghrelin influences pancreatic endocrine and exocrine functions, regulates intracellular calcium [Ca2+]i levels, and has an anti-inflammatory role in acute pancreatitis. This study investigated the role of endogenous ghrelin in the expression of Cav 1.2 (L-type of Ca2+ channel) and Cav 2.2 (N-type of Ca2+ channel) in acute pancreatitis. For this purpose, acute edematous pancreatitis (AEP) and acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP) rat models were established. Cav 1.2 and Cav 2.2 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry in the pancreatic tissues of rats; ghrelin, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) serum levels were detected using ELISA...
February 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420960/long-term-sirolimus-for-primary-immunosuppression-in-heart-transplant-recipients
#8
Rabea Asleh, Alexandros Briasoulis, Walter K Kremers, Rosalyn Adigun, Barry A Boilson, Naveen L Pereira, Brooks S Edwards, Alfredo L Clavell, John A Schirger, Richard J Rodeheffer, Robert P Frantz, Lyle D Joyce, Simon Maltais, John M Stulak, Richard C Daly, Jonella Tilford, Woong-Gil Choi, Amir Lerman, Sudhir S Kushwaha
BACKGROUND: Small studies have reported superiority of sirolimus (SRL) over calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) in mitigating cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) after heart transplantation (HT). However, data on the long-term effect on CAV progression and clinical outcomes are lacking. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to test the long-term safety and efficacy of conversion from CNI to SRL as maintenance therapy on CAV progression and outcomes after HT. METHODS: A cohort of 402 patients who underwent HT and were either treated with CNI alone (n = 134) or converted from CNI to SRL (n = 268) as primary immunosuppression was analyzed...
February 13, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419573/important-role-of-endothelial-caveolin-1-in-the-protective-role-of-endothelium-dependent-hyperpolarization-against-nitric-oxide-mediated-nitrative-stress-in-microcirculation-in-mice
#9
Hiroki Saito, Shigeo Godo, Saori Sato, Akiyo Ito, Yosuke Ikumi, Shuhei Tanaka, Tomoaki Ida, Shigemoto Fujii, Takaaki Akaike, Hiroaki Shimokawa
AIMS: Nitric oxide (NO) and endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization (EDH) play important roles in maintaining cardiovascular homeostasis. We have previously demonstrated that endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) plays diverse roles depending on vessel size, as a NO generating system in conduit arteries and an EDH-mediated system in resistance arteries, for which caveolin-1 (Cav-1) is involved. However, the physiological role of endothelial Cav-1 in microvessels remains to be elucidated. METHODS AND RESULTS: We newly generated endothelium-specific Cav-1-knockout (eCav-1-KO) mice...
February 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412114/caveolin-1-in-stroke-neuropathology-and-neuroprotection-a-novel-molecular-therapeutic-target-for-ischemic-related-injury
#10
Shanshan Wang, Brian P Head
Cardiovascular disease and associated cerebral stroke are a global epidemic attributed to genetic and epigenetic factors, such as diet, life style and an increasingly sedentary existence due to technological advances in both the developing and developed world. There are approximately 5.9 million stroke-related deaths worldwide annually. Current epidemiological data indicate that nearly 16.9 million people worldwide suffer a new or recurrent stroke yearly. In 2014 alone, 2.4% of adults in the United States (U...
February 5, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410348/caloric-restriction-improves-glucose-homeostasis-yet-increases-cardiometabolic-risk-in-caveolin-1-deficient-mice
#11
Korapat Mayurasakorn, Nurul Hasanah, Tsuyoshi Homma, Mika Homma, Isis Katayama Rangel, Amanda E Garza, Jose R Romero, Gail K Adler, Gordon H Williams, Luminita H Pojoga
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The plasma membrane protein caveolin-1 (CAV-1) has been shown to be involved in modulating glucose homeostasis and the actions of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). Caloric restriction (CR) is widely accepted as an effective therapeutic approach to improve insulin sensitivity and reduce the severity of diabetes. Recent data indicate that polymorphisms of the CAV-1 gene are strongly associated with insulin resistance, hypertension and metabolic abnormalities in non-obese individuals...
February 1, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409642/distributed-cognition-on-the-road-using-east-to-explore-future-road-transportation-systems
#12
Victoria A Banks, Neville A Stanton, Gary Burnett, Setia Hermawati
Connected and Autonomous Vehicles (CAV) are set to revolutionise the way in which we use our transportation system. However, we do not fully understand how the integration of wireless and autonomous technology into the road transportation network affects overall network dynamism. This paper uses the theoretical principles underlying Distributed Cognition to explore the dependencies and interdependencies that exist between system agents located within the road environment, traffic management centres and other external agencies in both non-connected and connected transportation systems...
April 2018: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408536/vasoactive-intestinal-peptide-inhibits-airway-smooth-muscle-cell-proliferation-in-a-mouse-model-of-asthma-via-the-erk1-2-signaling-pathway
#13
Juan Wang, Yun-Xiao Shang, Xu-Xu Cai, Li-Yun Liu
Asthma is a heterogeneous clinical syndrome characterized by airway inflammation, hyper-responsiveness and remodeling. Airway remodeling is irreversible by current antiasthmatic drugs, and it is the main cause of severe asthma. Airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) act as the main effector cells for airway remodeling; the proliferation and hypertrophy of which are involved in airway remodeling. Caveolin (Cav)-1 is present on the surface of ASMCs, which is involved in cell cycle and signal transduction regulation, allowing ASMCs to change from proliferation to apoptosis...
February 1, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407195/effect-of-hypoxia-on-caveolae-related-protein-expression-and-insulin-signaling-in-adipocytes
#14
M Varela-Guruceaga, F I Milagro, J A Martínez, C de Miguel
Obesity is characterized by hypertrophy and hyperplasia of adipose tissue, which have been related to the development of hypoxia and insulin resistance. On the other hand, caveolin-1 (Cav-1), one of the main proteins of caveolae, promotes insulin receptor (IR) phosphorylation and the subsequent activation of insulin signaling. In this work we investigated the effect of hypoxia on Cav-1 regulation and the status of insulin signaling in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Our results showed that hypoxia inhibited adipogenesis and insulin signaling in adipocytes...
January 30, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386119/ip3-receptor-dependent-cytoplasmic-ca2-signals-are-tightly-controlled-by-cav%C3%AE-3
#15
Anouar Belkacemi, Xin Hui, Barbara Wardas, Matthias W Laschke, Ulrich Wissenbach, Michael D Menger, Peter Lipp, Andreas Beck, Veit Flockerzi
Voltage-gated calcium channels (Cavs) are major Ca2+ entry pathways in excitable cells. Their β subunits facilitate membrane trafficking of the channel's ion-conducting α1 pore and modulate its gating properties. We report that one β subunit, β3, reduces Ca2+ release following stimulation of phospholipase C-coupled receptors and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) formation. This effect requires the SH3-HOOK domain of Cavβ3, includes physical β3/IP3 receptor interaction, and prevails when agonist-induced IP3 formation is bypassed by photolysis of caged IP3...
January 30, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385086/spiroketones-and-a-biphenyl-analog-from-stems-and-leaves-of-larrea-nitida-and-their-inhibitory-activity-against-il-6-production
#16
Jongmin Ahn, Yihua Pei, Hee-Sung Chae, Seong-Hwan Kim, Young-Mi Kim, Young Hee Choi, Joongku Lee, Minsun Chang, Yun Seon Song, Roberto Rodriguez, Dong-Chan Oh, Jinwoong Kim, Sangho Choi, Sang Hoon Joo, Young-Won Chin
Bioactivity-guided fractionation for the stems of leaves of Larrea nitida Cav., using interleukin-6 (IL-6) inhibitory assay in human mast cells (HMC-1), led to the isolation of three new compounds with an unprecedented skeleton in nature (1-3) and three known compounds (4-6). Their structures were elucidated through extensive spectroscopic analysis. The three new compounds were elucidated as two new spiroketones, nitidaones A (1), and B (2) and one new biphenyl analog, nitidaol (3). The known compounds were identified as nordihydroguaiaretic acid (4), 7,3',4'-tri-O-methylquercetin (5) and ayanin (6)...
January 31, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380539/cross-talk-between-%C3%AE-subunits-intracellular-ca2-signaling-and-snares-in-the-modulation-of-cav-2-1-channel-steady-state-inactivation
#17
Selma Angèlica Serra, Gemma G Gené, Xabier Elorza-Vidal, José M Fernández-Fernández
Modulation of CaV 2.1 channel activity plays a key role in interneuronal communication and synaptic plasticity. SNAREs interact with a specific synprint site at the second intracellular loop (LII-III) of the CaV 2.1 pore-forming α1A subunit to optimize neurotransmitter release from presynaptic terminals by allowing secretory vesicles docking near the Ca2+ entry pathway, and by modulating the voltage dependence of channel steady-state inactivation. Ca2+ influx through CaV 2.1 also promotes channel inactivation...
January 2018: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380056/endothelial-dependent-dilation-following-chronic-hypoxia-involves-trpv4-mediated-activation-of-endothelial-bk-channels
#18
Jay S Naik, Benjimen R Walker
Following chronic hypoxia (CH), the systemic vasculature exhibits blunted vasoconstriction due to endothelial-dependent hyperpolarization (EDH). Previous data demonstrate that subsequent to CH, EDH-mediated vasodilation switches from a reliance on SKca and IKca channels to activation of the endothelial BKca channels (eBK). The mechanism by which endothelial cell stimulation activates eBK channels following CH is not known. We hypothesized that following CH, EDH-dependent vasodilation involves a TRPV4-dependent activation of eBK channels...
January 29, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377257/exposure-response-characterisation-of-tofacitinib-efficacy-in-moderate-to-severe-ulcerative-colitis-results-from-a-dose-ranging-phase-2-trial
#19
Arnab Mukherjee, Anasuya Hazra, Mike K Smith, Steven W Martin, Diane R Mould, Chinyu Su, Wojciech Niezychowski
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Tofacitinib is an oral, small molecule JAK inhibitor being investigated for UC. In a phase 2 dose-ranging study, tofacitinib demonstrated efficacy vs placebo as UC induction therapy. In this post-hoc analysis, we aimed to compare tofacitinib dose and plasma concentration as predictors of efficacy and identify covariates that determined efficacy in patients with UC. METHODS: One- and two-compartment pharmacokinetic models, with first-order absorption and elimination, were evaluated to describe plasma tofacitinib concentration-time data at baseline and week 8...
January 28, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371400/cross-kingdom-auxiliary-subunit-modulation-of-a-voltage-gated-sodium-channel
#20
Steven Molinarolo, Sora Lee, Lilia Leisle, John D Lueck, Daniele Granata, Vincenzo Carnevale, Christopher A Ahern
Voltage-gated, sodium ion-selective channels (NaV) generate electrical signals contributing to the upstroke of the action potential in animals. NaVs are also found in bacteria and are members of a larger family of tetrameric voltagegated channels that includes CaVs, KVs, and NaVs. Prokaryotic NaVs likely emerged from a homotetrameric Ca2+-selective voltage-gated progenerator, and later developed Na+ selectivity independently. The NaV signaling complex in eukaryotes contains auxiliary proteins, termed beta (β) subunits, which are potent modulators of the expression profiles and voltage-gated properties of the NaV pore, but it is unknown whether they can functionally interact with prokaryotic NaV channels...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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