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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230278/deletion-of-psychiatric-risk-gene-cacna1c-impairs-hippocampal-neurogenesis-in-cell-autonomous-fashion
#1
Bianca Völkening, Kai Schönig, Golo Kronenberg, Dusan Bartsch, Tillmann Weber
Ca(2+) is a universal signal transducer which fulfills essential functions in cell development and differentiation. CACNA1C, the gene encoding the alpha-1C subunit (i.e., Cav 1.2) of the voltage-dependent l-type calcium channel (LTCC), has been implicated as a risk gene in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders. To parse the role of Cav 1.2 channels located on astrocyte-like stem cells and their descendants in the development of new granule neurons, we created Tg(GLAST-CreERT2) /Cacna1c(fl/fl) /RCE:loxP mice, a transgenic tool that allows cell-type-specific inducible deletion of Cacna1c...
February 23, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230232/carisbamate-blockade-of-t-type-voltage-gated-calcium-channels
#2
Do Young Kim, Fang-Xiong Zhang, Stan T Nakanishi, Timothy Mettler, Ik-Hyun Cho, Younghee Ahn, Florian Hiess, Lina Chen, Patrick G Sullivan, S R Wayne Chen, Gerald W Zamponi, Jong M Rho
OBJECTIVES: Carisbamate (CRS) is a novel monocarbamate compound that possesses antiseizure and neuroprotective properties. However, the mechanisms underlying these actions remain unclear. Here, we tested both direct and indirect effects of CRS on several cellular systems that regulate intracellular calcium concentration [Ca(2+) ]i . METHODS: We used a combination of cellular electrophysiologic techniques, as well as cell viability, Store Overload-Induced Calcium Release (SOICR), and mitochondrial functional assays to determine whether CRS might affect [Ca(2+) ]i levels through actions on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), mitochondria, and/or T-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels...
February 23, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222746/c-terminal-region-of-apoptin-affects-chicken-anemia-virus-replication-and-virulence
#3
REVIEW
Yongqiang Wang, Xiuqing Song, Honglei Gao, Xiaoyan Wang, Yonghao Hu, Yulong Gao, Xiaole Qi, Liting Qin, Huan Lin, Li Gao, Shuai Yao, Chunyan Han, Xiaomei Wang, Hualan Chen
BACKGROUND: Chicken anemia virus (CAV) causes anemia and immune suppression, which are important diseases in the poultry industry. CAV VP3, also referred as 'apoptin', has been shown to selectively kill tumor cells, raising great hopes for its utilization as an anticancer therapy. The ability of apoptin to induce apoptosis is closely related to its nuclear localization. The C-terminal region of apoptin contains a bipartite nuclear localization signals (NLS), and a nuclear export signal (NES) is located between the arms of the NLS...
February 21, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220076/actions-and-mechanisms-of-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-on-voltage-gated-ion-channels
#4
REVIEW
Fredrik Elinder, Sara I Liin
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) act on most ion channels, thereby having significant physiological and pharmacological effects. In this review we summarize data from numerous PUFAs on voltage-gated ion channels containing one or several voltage-sensor domains, such as voltage-gated sodium (NaV), potassium (KV), calcium (CaV), and proton (HV) channels, as well as calcium-activated potassium (KCa), and transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. Some effects of fatty acids appear to be channel specific, whereas others seem to be more general...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219580/use-of-anti-thymocyte-globulin-for-induction-therapy-in-cardiac-transplantation-a-review
#5
V Ruan, L S C Czer, M Awad, M Kittleson, J Patel, F Arabia, F Esmailian, D Ramzy, J Chung, M De Robertis, A Trento, J A Kobashigawa
The most common causes of death after heart transplantation (HTx) include acute rejection and multi-organ failure in the early period and malignancy and cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) in the late period. Polyclonal antibody preparations such as rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) may reduce early acute rejection and the later occurrence of CAV after HTx. ATG therapy depletes T cells, modulates adhesion and cell-signaling molecules, interferes with dendritic cell function, and induces B-cell apoptosis and regulatory and natural killer T-cell expansion...
March 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214378/calcium-signaling-through-l-type-calcium-channels-role-in-pathophysiology-of-spinal-nociceptive-transmission
#6
REVIEW
Olivier Roca-Lapirot, Houda Radwani, Franck Aby, Frédéric Nagy, Marc Landry Pascal Fossat
L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) are ubiquitous channels in the central nervous system. L-type calcium channels (LTCs) are mostly post-synaptic channels regulating neuronal firing and gene expression. They play a role in important physio-pathological processes such as learning and memory, Parkinson's disease, autism and, as recognized more recently, in the pathophysiology of pain processes. Classically, the fundamental role of these channels in cardiovascular functions has limited the use of classical molecules to treat LTC-dependent disorders...
February 18, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212149/new-developments-for-the-detection-and-treatment-of-cardiac-vasculopathy
#7
Kevin J Clerkin, Ziad A Ali, Donna M Mancini
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) is a major limitation to long-term survival after heart transplantation. Innovative new techniques to diagnose CAV have been applied to detect disease. This review will examine the current diagnostic and treatment options available to clinicians for CAV. RECENT FINDINGS: Diagnostic modalities addressing the pathophysiology underlying CAV (arterial wall thickening and decreased coronary blood flow) improve diagnostic sensitivity when compared to traditional (angiography and dobutamine stress echocardiography) techniques...
February 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197704/effect-of-quaternary-ammonium-salts-with-fluorine-atoms-on-selected-weed-species
#8
Robert Biczak, Barbara Pawłowska, Maciej Płatkowski, Michał Stręk, Arkadiusz Telesiński
This study investigated the effects of four structurally different quaternary ammonium salts (QASs), i.e., tetrabutylammonium tetrafluoroborate [TBA][BF4], tetrahexylammonium tetrafluoroborate [THA][BF4], tetrabutylammonium hexafluorophosphate [TBA][PF6], and tetrahexylammonium hexafluorophosphate [THA][PF6], on the growth and development of three weed species: gallant soldier (Galinsoga parviflora Cav.), white goosefoot (Chenopodium album L.) and common sorrel (Rumex acetosa L.). The examined compounds were applied in the form of foliar spraying and soil application...
February 14, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194788/protein-kinase-a-regulates-c-terminally-truncated-cav-1-2-in-xenopus-oocytes-roles-of-n-and-c-termini-of-the-%C3%AE-1c-subunit
#9
Shimrit Oz, Ines Pankonien, Anouar Belkacemi, Veit Flockerzi, Enno Klussmann, Hannelore Haase, Nathan Dascal
β-Adrenergic stimulation enhances Ca(2+) currents via L-type, voltage-gated CaV 1.2 channels, strengthening cardiac contraction. The signaling via β-adrenergic receptors (β-ARs) involves elevation of cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels and activation of protein kinase A (PKA). However, how PKA affects the channel remains controversial. Recent studies in heterologous systems and genetically engineered mice stress the importance of the posttranslational proteolytic truncation of distal C-terminus (dCT) of the main (α1C ) subunit...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191005/significance-of-anti-hla-antibodies-on-adult-and-pediatric-heart-allograft-outcomes
#10
REVIEW
Massimo Mangiola, Marilyn Marrari, Brian Feingold, Adriana Zeevi
As methods for human leukocyte antigens (HLA) antibody detection have evolved and newer solid phase assays are much more sensitive, the last 15 years has seen a renewed focus on the importance of HLA antibodies in solid organ transplant rejection. However, there is still much controversy regarding the clinical significance of antibody level as depicted by the mean fluorescence intensity of a patient's neat serum. Emerging techniques, including those that identify antibody level and function, show promise for the detection of individuals at risk of allograft rejection, determination of the effectiveness of desensitization prior to transplant, and for monitoring treatment of rejection...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188756/therapeutic-effect-and-mechanism-of-electrical-stimulation-in-female-stress-urinary-incontinence
#11
Jie Min, Bingshu Li, Cheng Liu, Shasha Hong, Jianming Tang, Ming Hu, Yaodan Liu, Suting Li, Li Hong
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the therapeutic effect and underlying molecular mechanism of electrical stimulation (ES) in a murine SUI model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty female C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups: CON group, no intervention; VD group, vaginal distension (VD) with an 8-mm dilator for 1 h; VD+ES 20 group, 20 Hz ES for 0.5 h for 7 days after VD; VD+ES 50 group, 50 Hz ES for 7 days after VD. For functional studies, assessments of urodynamics and sneezing test were performed; then, anterior vaginal wall specimens were collected...
February 7, 2017: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188225/inflammation-induced-caveolin-1-and-bmprii-depletion-promotes-endothelial-dysfunction-and-tgf%C3%AE-driven-pulmonary-vascular-remodeling
#12
Suellen Darc Santos Oliveira, Maricela Castellon, Jiwang Chen, Marcelo G Bonini, Xiaowu Gu, Michael H Elliott, Roberto F Machado, Richard D Minshall
Endothelial cell (EC) activation and vascular injury are hallmark features of Acute Lung Injury and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ALI/ARDS). Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) is highly expressed in pulmonary microvascular ECs and plays a key role in maintaining vascular homeostasis. The aim of this study was to determine whether the lung inflammatory response to Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) promotes priming of ECs via Cav-1 depletion and whether this contributes to the onset of pulmonary vascular remodeling...
February 10, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187162/loss-of-caveolin-1-alters-extracellular-matrix-protein-expression-and-ductal-architecture-in-murine-mammary-glands
#13
Christopher Thompson, Sahar Rahim, Jeremiah Arnold, Abigail Hielscher
The extracellular matrix (ECM) is abnormal in breast tumors and has been reported to contribute to breast tumor progression. One factor, which may drive ongoing matrix synthesis in breast tumors, is the loss of stromal caveolin-1 (cav-1), a scaffolding protein of caveolae, which has been linked to breast tumor aggressiveness. To determine whether loss of cav-1 results in the abnormal expression of matrix proteins, mammary glands from cav- 1-/- and cav- 1 +/+ mice were investigated for differences in expression of several ECM proteins...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186690/reduced-levels-of-cacna1c-attenuate-mesolimbic-dopamine-system-function
#14
Chantelle E Terrillion, David T Dao, Roger Cachope, Mary Kay Lobo, Adam C Puche, Joseph F Cheer, Todd D Gould
Genetic variation in CACNA1C, which codes for the L-type calcium channel (LTCC) Cav 1.2, is associated with clinical diagnoses of bipolar disorder, depression, and schizophrenia. Dysregulation of the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system is linked to these syndromes and LTCCs are required for normal DAergic neurotransmission between the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and nucleus accumbens (NAc). It is unclear, however, how variations in CACNA1C genotype, and potential subsequent changes in expression levels in these regions, modify risk...
February 10, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186648/the-recipient-s-heme-oxygenase-1-promoter-region-polymorphism-is-associated-with-cardiac-allograft-vasculopathy
#15
Kathrin Freystaetter, Martin Andreas, Martin Bilban, Thomas Perkmann, Alexandra Kaider, Marco Masetti, Alfred Kocher, Michael Wolzt, Andreas Zuckermann
BACKGROUND: Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) catalyses the degradation of heme to biliverdin, free iron and carbon monoxide. The promoter region contains a highly polymorphic (GT)n repeat, where shorter (GT)n repeat sequences are linked to higher transcriptional activity, which was shown to correlate with a cytoprotective effect. Higher HO-1 levels may protect from cardiac allograft vasculopathy. METHODS: Cardiac allograft recipients transplanted between 1988 and 2012 were analysed for the HO-1 (GT)n repeat polymorphism using PCR and DNA fragment analysis with capillary electrophoresis...
February 10, 2017: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184336/versatile-functions-of-caveolin-1-in-aging-related-diseases
#16
REVIEW
Kim Cuc Thi Nguyen, Kyung A Cho
Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) is a trans-membrane protein that is a major component of the caveolae structure on the plasma membrane. Cav-1 is involved in the regulation of various cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, endocytosis, and in particular it has been implied in cellular senescence. Here we review current knowledge about Cav-1 in cellular signaling and discuss the role of Cav-1 in aging-related diseases.
January 2017: Chonnam Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183995/structure-of-a-eukaryotic-voltage-gated-sodium-channel-at-near-atomic-resolution
#17
Huaizong Shen, Qiang Zhou, Xiaojing Pan, Zhangqiang Li, Jianping Wu, Nieng Yan
Voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channels are responsible for the initiation and propagation of action potentials. They are associated with a variety of channelopathies and are targeted by multiple pharmaceutical drugs and natural toxins. Here, we report the cryo-EM structure of a putative Nav channel from American cockroach (designated NavPaS) at 3.8-Å resolution. The voltage sensing domains (VSDs) of the four repeats exhibit distinct conformations. The entrance to the asymmetric selectivity filter vestibule is guarded by heavily glycosylated and disulfide bond-stabilized extracellular loops...
February 9, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183512/a-test-in-context-lipoprotein-a-diagnosis-prognosis-controversies-and-emerging-therapies
#18
REVIEW
Sotirios Tsimikas
Evidence that elevated lipoprotein(a) (Lp[a]) levels contribute to cardiovascular disease (CVD) and calcific aortic valve stenosis (CAVS) is substantial. Development of isoform-independent assays, in concert with genetic, epidemiological, translational, and pathophysiological insights, have established Lp(a) as an independent, genetic, and likely causal risk factor for CVD and CAVS. These observations are consistent across a broad spectrum of patients, risk factors, and concomitant therapies, including patients with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol <70 mg/dl...
February 14, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181298/prediction-model-for-cardiac-allograft-vasculopathy-comparison-of-three-multivariable-methods
#19
Evan P Kransdorf, Natasha A Loghmanpour, Manreet K Kanwar, M'hamed H Temkit, Josef Stehlik
BACKGROUND: Cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) remains an important cause of graft failure after heart transplantation (HT). Although many risk factors for CAV have been identified, there are no clinical prediction models that enable clinicians to determine each recipient's risk of CAV. METHODS: We studied a cohort of 14,328 heart transplant recipients whose data were reported to the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation Registry between 2000 and 2010...
February 9, 2017: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165634/pharmacogenetics-of-antiepileptic-drug-efficacy-in-childhood-absence-epilepsy
#20
Tracy A Glauser, Katherine Holland, Valerie P O'Brien, Mehdi Keddache, Lisa J Martin, Peggy O Clark, Avital Cnaan, Dennis Dlugos, Deborah G Hirtz, Shlomo Shinnar, Gregory Grabowski
OBJECTIVE: Determine if common polymorphisms in CACNA1G, CACNA1H, CACNA1I, and ABCB1 are associated with differential short term seizure outcome in Childhood Absence Epilepsy (CAE). METHODS: 446 CAE children in a randomized double blind trial of ethosuximide, lamotrigine and valproate had short term seizure outcome determined. Associations between polymorphisms (minor allele frequency ≥15%) in four genes and seizure outcomes were assessed. In vitro electrophysiology on transfected CACNA1H channels determined impact of one variant on T-type calcium channel responsiveness to ethosuximide...
February 6, 2017: Annals of Neurology
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