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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456143/neocortical-association-cell-types-in-the-forebrain-of-birds-and-alligators
#1
Steven D Briscoe, Caroline B Albertin, Joanna J Rowell, Clifton W Ragsdale
The avian dorsal telencephalon has two vast territories, the nidopallium and the mesopallium, both of which have been shown to contribute substantially to higher cognitive functions. From their connections, these territories have been proposed as equivalent to mammalian neocortical layers 2 and 3, various neocortical association areas, or the amygdala, but whether these are analogies or homologies by descent is unknown. We investigated the molecular profiles of the mesopallium and the nidopallium with RNA-seq...
February 14, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456074/histone-deacetylases-hdacs-as-therapeutic-target-for-depressive-disorders
#2
REVIEW
Paulina Misztak, Patrycja Pańczyszyn-Trzewik, Magdalena Sowa-Kućma
Major depressive disorder (MDD) represents approximately 40% of the disability caused by mental illnesses globally. The poorly understood pathophysiology and limited efficiency of pharmacological treatment (based primarily on the principles of the monoaminergic hypothesis) make depression a serious medical, public and socio-economical problem. An increasing number of studies suggest that epigenetic modifications (alterations in gene expression that are not due to changes in DNA sequence) in certain brain regions and neural circuits represent a key mechanism through which environmental factors interact with individual's genetic constitution to affect risk of mental disorders...
August 12, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452121/an-open-label-pilot-study-to-evaluate-the-efficacy-of-tofacitinib-in-moderate-to-severe-patch-type-alopecia-areata-totalis-and-universalis
#3
A Jabbari, F Sansaricq, J Cerise, J C Chen, A Bitterman, G Ulerio, J Borbon, R Clynes, A M Christiano, J Mackay-Wiggan
Alopecia areata (AA) is a common autoimmune disease, with a lifetime risk of ∼2%. In AA, the immune systems targets the hair follicle, resulting in clinical hair loss. AA prognosis is unpredictable, and currently there is no definitive treatment. Our previous whole genome expression studies identified active immune circuits in AA lesions, including common γ-chain cytokine and IFN pathways. Since these pathways are mediated through JAK kinases, we prioritized clinical exploration of small molecule JAK inhibitors...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451210/intravenous-morphine-self-administration-alters-accumbal-microrna-profiles-in-the-mouse-brain
#4
Juhwan Kim, Heh-In Im, Changjong Moon
A significant amount of evidence indicates that microRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in drug addiction. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is a critical part of the brain's reward circuit and is involved in a variety of psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety, and drug addiction. However, few studies have examined the expression of miRNAs and their functional roles in the NAc under conditions of morphine addiction. In this study, mice were intravenously infused with morphine (0.01, 0.03, 0.3, 1 and 3 mg/kg/infusion) and showed inverted U-shaped response...
January 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449554/dynamic-allocation-of-orthogonal-ribosomes-facilitates-uncoupling-of-co-expressed-genes
#5
Alexander P S Darlington, Juhyun Kim, José I Jiménez, Declan G Bates
Introduction of synthetic circuits into microbes creates competition between circuit and host genes for shared cellular resources, such as ribosomes. This can lead to the emergence of unwanted coupling between the expression of different circuit genes, complicating the design process and potentially leading to circuit failure. By expressing a synthetic 16S rRNA with altered specificity, we can partition the ribosome pool into host-specific and circuit-specific activities. We show mathematically and experimentally that the effects of resource competition can be alleviated by targeting genes to different ribosomal pools...
February 15, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446202/conditional-deletion-of-cadherin-13-perturbs-golgi-cells-and-disrupts-social-and-cognitive-behaviors
#6
Martesa Tantra, Lanboling Guo, Jinsook Kim, Norliyana Zainolabidin, George J Augustine, Volker Eulenburg, Albert I Chen
Inhibitory interneurons mediate the gating of synaptic transmission and modulate the activities of neural circuits. Disruption of the function of inhibitory networks in the forebrain is linked to impairment of social and cognitive behaviors, but the involvement of inhibitory interneurons in the cerebellum has not been assessed. We found that Cadherin 13 (Cdh13), a gene implicated in autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, is specifically expressed in Golgi cells within the cerebelluar cortex...
February 15, 2018: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443100/single-cell-resolution-fluorescence-live-imaging-of-drosophila-circadian-clocks-in-larval-brain-culture
#7
Virginie Sabado, Emi Nagoshi
The circadian pacemaker circuit orchestrates rhythmic behavioral and physiological outputs coordinated with environmental cues, such as day/night cycles. The molecular clock within each pacemaker neuron generates circadian rhythms in gene expression, which underlie the rhythmic neuronal functions essential to the operation of the circuit. Investigation of the properties of the individual molecular oscillators in different subclasses of pacemaker neurons and their interaction with neuronal signaling yields a better understanding of the circadian pacemaker circuit...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442428/optogenetic-control-by-pulsed-illumination
#8
Julia Hennemann, Roman S Iwasaki, Tamara N Grund, Ralph P Diensthuber, Florian Richter, Andreas Möglich
Sensory photoreceptors evoke numerous adaptive responses in Nature and serve as light-gated actuators in optogenetics to enable the spatiotemporally precise, reversible and noninvasive control of cellular events. The output of optogenetic circuits can often be dialed in by varying illumination quality, quantity and duration. Here, we devise a programmable matrix of light-emitting diodes to efficiently probe the response of optogenetic systems to intermittently applied light of varying intensity and pulse frequency...
February 14, 2018: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442324/rodent-zic-genes-in-neural-network-wiring
#9
Eloísa Herrera
The formation of the nervous system is a multistep process that yields a mature brain. Failure in any of the steps of this process may cause brain malfunction. In the early stages of embryonic development, neural progenitors quickly proliferate and then, at a specific moment, differentiate into neurons or glia. Once they become postmitotic neurons, they migrate to their final destinations and begin to extend their axons to connect with other neurons, sometimes located in quite distant regions, to establish different neural circuits...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440967/mir-29b-enhances-prostate-cancer-cell-invasion-independently-of-mmp-2-expression
#10
Renato F Ivanovic, Nayara I Viana, Denis R Morais, Iran A Silva, Katia R Leite, José Pontes-Junior, Gustavo Inoue, William C Nahas, Miguel Srougi, Sabrina T Reis
Background: The ability to metastasize is one of the most important characteristics of neoplastic cells. An imbalance between the action of some matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of MMPs drives the invasion process. Some studies have suggested that MMP-2 is involved in metastasis, while other studies have reported that collagen production by cancer cells might also contribute to motility. However, decreased expression of microRNA-29b (miR-29b), which may control MMP-2 and collagen gene expression, has been shown in prostate cancer (PCa)...
2018: Cancer Cell International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437890/brain-transcriptome-databases-a-user-s-guide
#11
Jason M Keil, Adel Qalieh, Kenneth Y Kwan
Transcriptional programs instruct the generation and maintenance of diverse subtypes of neural cells, establishment of distinct brain regions, formation and function of neural circuits, and ultimately behavior. Spatiotemporal and cell type-specific analyses of the transcriptome, the sum total of all RNA transcripts in a cell or an organ, can provide insights into the role of genes in brain development and function, and their potential contribution to disorders of the brain. In the previous decade, advances in sequencing technology and funding from the National Institutes of Health and private foundations for large-scale genomics projects have led to a growing collection of brain transcriptome databases...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436515/realizing-integral-control-in-living-cells-how-to-overcome-leaky-integration-due-to-dilution
#12
Yili Qian, Domitilla Del Vecchio
A major problem in the design of synthetic genetic circuits is robustness to perturbations and uncertainty. Because of this, there have been significant efforts in recent years in finding approaches to implement integral control in genetic circuits. Integral controllers have the unique ability to make the output of a process adapt perfectly to disturbances. However, implementing an integral controller is challenging in living cells. This is because a key aspect of any integral controller is a 'memory' element that stores the accumulation (integral) of the error between the output and its desired set-point...
February 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434543/altered-functional-connectivity-of-fronto-cingulo-striatal-circuits-during-error-monitoring-in-adolescents-with-a-history-of-childhood-abuse
#13
Heledd Hart, Lena Lim, Mitul A Mehta, Charles Curtis, Xiaohui Xu, Gerome Breen, Andrew Simmons, Kah Mirza, Katya Rubia
Childhood maltreatment is associated with error hypersensitivity. We examined the effect of childhood abuse and abuse-by-gene ( 5-HTTLPR, MAOA ) interaction on functional brain connectivity during error processing in medication/drug-free adolescents. Functional connectivity was compared, using generalized psychophysiological interaction (gPPI) analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data, between 22 age- and gender-matched medication-naïve and substance abuse-free adolescents exposed to severe childhood abuse and 27 healthy controls, while they performed an individually adjusted tracking stop-signal task, designed to elicit 50% inhibition failures...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434535/altered-expression-profile-of-iglon-family-of-neural-cell-adhesion-molecules-in-the-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-of-schizophrenic-patients
#14
Karina Karis, Kattri-Liis Eskla, Maria Kaare, Karin Täht, Jana Tuusov, Tanel Visnapuu, Jürgen Innos, Mohan Jayaram, Tõnis Timmusk, Cynthia S Weickert, Marika Väli, Eero Vasar, Mari-Anne Philips
Neural adhesion proteins are crucial in the development and maintenance of functional neural connectivity. Growing evidence suggests that the IgLON family of neural adhesion molecules LSAMP, NTM, NEGR1, and OPCML are important candidates in forming the susceptibility to schizophrenia (SCZ). IgLON proteins have been shown to be involved in neurite outgrowth, synaptic plasticity and neuronal connectivity, all of which have been shown to be altered in the brains of patients with the diagnosis of schizophrenia...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431097/an-fgf-driven-feed-forward-circuit-patterns-the-cardiopharyngeal-mesoderm-in-space-and-time
#15
Florian Razy-Krajka, Basile Gravez, Nicole Kaplan, Claudia Racioppi, Wei Wang, Lionel Christiaen
In embryos, multipotent progenitors divide to produce distinct progeny and express their full potential. In vertebrates, multipotent cardiopharyngeal progenitors produce second-heart-field-derived cardiomyocytes, and branchiomeric skeletal head muscles. However, the mechanisms underlying these early fate choices remain largely elusive. The tunicate Ciona emerged as an attractive model to study early cardiopharyngeal development at high resolution: through two asymmetric and oriented divisions, defined cardiopharyngeal progenitors produce distinct first and second heart precursors, and pharyngeal muscle (aka atrial siphon muscle, ASM) precursors...
February 6, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429328/multilevel-regulation-of-bacterial-gene-expression-with-the-combined-star-and-antisense-rna-system
#16
Young Je Lee, Soo-Jung Kim, Tae Seok Moon
Synthetic small RNA regulators have emerged as a versatile tool to predictably control bacterial gene expression. Owing to their simple design principles, small size, and highly orthogonal behavior, these engineered genetic parts have been incorporated into genetic circuits. However, efforts to achieve more sophisticated cellular functions using RNA regulators have been hindered by our limited ability to integrate different RNA regulators into complex circuits. Here, we present a combined RNA regulatory system in Escherichia coli that uses small transcription activating RNA (STAR) and antisense RNA (asRNA) to activate or deactivate target gene expression in a programmable manner...
February 11, 2018: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428618/robustness-of-expression-pattern-formation-due-to-dynamic-equilibrium-in-gap-gene-system-of-an-early-drosophila-embryo
#17
Ekaterina Myasnikova, Alexander Spirov
The first manifestation of a segmentation pattern in the early Drosophila development is the formation of expression domains of genes belonging to the gap class. In our previous research the phenomenon of the gap system's robustness, exhibited as the ability to reduce highly variable gene expression in the course of development, was explained as a result of gene cross-regulation. In this paper we formulate the rigorous robustness conditions using the inherent properties of gap gene family. We propose an approach based on the observation that for the formation of a pattern with well-established domain borders it is necessary that there exist a stationary nucleus in which the gene expression level is almost constant in time...
February 8, 2018: Bio Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428414/design-of-adjacent-transcriptional-regions-to-tune-gene-expression-and-facilitate-circuit-construction
#18
Fuqing Wu, Qi Zhang, Xiao Wang
Polycistronic architecture is common for synthetic gene circuits, however, it remains unknown how expression of one gene is affected by the presence of other genes/noncoding regions in the operon, termed adjacent transcriptional regions (ATR). Here, we constructed synthetic operons with a reporter gene flanked by different ATRs, and we found that ATRs with high GC content, small size, and low folding energy lead to high gene expression. Based on these results, we built a model of gene expression and generated a metric that takes into account ATRs...
January 26, 2018: Cell Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424268/bacterial-quorum-sensing-in-symbiotic-and-pathogenic-relationships-with-hosts
#19
Kenji Kai
Gram-negative bacteria communicate with each other by producing and sensing diffusible signaling molecules. This mechanism is called quorum sensing (QS) and regulates many bacterial activities from gene expression to symbiotic/pathogenic interactions with hosts. Therefore, the elucidation and control of bacterial QS systems have been attracted increasing attention over the past two decades. The most common QS signals in Gram-negative bacteria are N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs). There are also bacteria that employ different QS systems, for example, the plant pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum utilizes 3-hydroxy fatty acid methyl esters as its QS signals...
February 9, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423241/novel-rare-variations-in-genes-that-regulate-developmental-change-in-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#20
Akane Yoshikawa, Fumichika Nishimura, Aya Inai, Yosuke Eriguchi, Masaki Nishioka, Atsuhiko Takaya, Mamoru Tochigi, Yoshiya Kawamura, Tadashi Umekage, Kayoko Kato, Tsukasa Sasaki, Kiyoto Kasai, Chihiro Kakiuchi
The mechanism underlying the vulnerability to developing schizophrenia (SCZ) during adolescence remains elusive. Hypofunction of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of SCZ. During development, the composition of synaptic NMDARs dramatically changes from NR2B-containing NMDARs to NR2A-containing NMDARs through the phosphorylation of NR2B S1480 or Y1472 by CDK5, CSNK2A1, and EphB2, which plays a pivotal role in the maturation of neural circuits. We hypothesized that the dysregulation of developmental change in NMDARs could be involved in the onset of SCZ...
2018: Human Genome Variation
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