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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033027/anhedonia-following-early-life-adversity-involves-aberrant-interaction-of-reward-and-anxiety-circuits-and-is-reversed-by-partial-silencing-of-amygdala-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-gene
#1
Jessica L Bolton, Jenny Molet, Limor Regev, Yuncai Chen, Neggy Rismanchi, Elizabeth Haddad, Derek Z Yang, Andre Obenaus, Tallie Z Baram
BACKGROUND: Anhedonia, the diminished ability to experience pleasure, is an important dimensional entity linked to depression, schizophrenia, and other emotional disorders, but its origins and mechanisms are poorly understood. We have previously identified anhedonia, manifest as decreased sucrose preference and social play, in adolescent male rats that experienced chronic early-life adversity/stress (CES). Here we probed the molecular, cellular, and circuit processes underlying CES-induced anhedonia and tested them mechanistically...
September 7, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031500/transcription-and-signaling-regulators-in-developing-neuronal-subtypes-of-mouse-and-human-enteric-nervous-system
#2
Fatima Memic, Viktoria Knoflach, Khomgrit Morarach, Rebecca Sadler, Catia Laranjeira, Jens Hjerling-Leffler, Erik Sundström, Vassilis Pachnis, Ulrika Marklund
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The enteric nervous system (ENS) regulates gastrointestinal function via different subtypes of neurons, organized into fine-tuned neural circuits. It is not clear how cell diversity is created within the embryonic ENS-information required for development of cell-based therapies and models of enteric neuropathies. We aimed to identify proteins that regulate ENS differentiation and network formation. METHODS: We generated and compared RNA expression profiles of the entire ENS, ENS progenitor cells, and non-ENS gut cells of mice, collected at embryonic days 11...
October 11, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030122/a-novel-approach-for-recovery-of-metals-from-waste-printed-circuit-boards-and-simultaneous-removal-of-iron-from-steel-pickling-waste-liquor-by-two-step-hydrometallurgical-method
#3
Lili Wang, Qiao Li, Yi Li, Xiuyun Sun, Jiansheng Li, Jinyou Shen, Weiqing Han, Lianjun Wang
Waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs) and steel pickling waste liquor (SPWL) have received extensive attention in recent years because of its harmfulness and resource. In this work, two-step leaching process was carried out by using SPWL as the leaching agent. A series of continuously domesticated bacteria were used for bioleaching and the bacterial strain was identified as Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans (A. ferrooxidans) by 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. The vast majority of the metals in WPCBs were recovered by two-step leaching, such as Cu, Pb, Zn, Sn, Al, Ni...
October 10, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028836/affected-pathways-and-transcriptional-regulators-in-gene-expression-response-to-an-ultra-marathon-trail-global-and-independent-activity-approaches
#4
Maria Maqueda, Emma Roca, Daniel Brotons, Jose Manuel Soria, Alexandre Perera
Gene expression (GE) analyses on blood samples from marathon and half-marathon runners have reported significant impacts on the immune and inflammatory systems. An ultra-marathon trail (UMT) represents a greater effort due to its more testing conditions. For the first time, we report the genome-wide GE profiling in a group of 16 runners participating in an 82 km UMT competition. We quantified their differential GE profile before and after the race using HuGene2.0st microarrays (Affymetrix Inc., California, US)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024662/loss-of-clock-results-in-dysfunction-of-brain-circuits-underlying-focal-epilepsy
#5
Peijun Li, Xiaoqin Fu, Nathan A Smith, Julie Ziobro, Julian Curiel, Milagros J Tenga, Brandon Martin, Samuel Freedman, Christian A Cea-Del Rio, Livio Oboti, Tammy N Tsuchida, Chima Oluigbo, Amanda Yaun, Suresh N Magge, Brent O'Neill, Amy Kao, Tesfaye G Zelleke, Dewi T Depositario-Cabacar, Svetlana Ghimbovschi, Susan Knoblach, Chen-Ying Ho, Joshua G Corbin, Howard P Goodkin, Stefano Vicini, Molly M Huntsman, William D Gaillard, Gregorio Valdez, Judy S Liu
Because molecular mechanisms underlying refractory focal epilepsy are poorly defined, we performed transcriptome analysis on human epileptogenic tissue. Compared with controls, expression of Circadian Locomotor Output Cycles Kaput (CLOCK) is decreased in epileptogenic tissue. To define the function of CLOCK, we generated and tested the Emx-Cre; Clock(flox/flox) and PV-Cre; Clock(flox/flox) mouse lines with targeted deletions of the Clock gene in excitatory and parvalbumin (PV)-expressing inhibitory neurons, respectively...
October 11, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022192/a-positive-circuit-of-vegf-increases-glut-1-expression-by-increasing-hif-1%C3%AE-gene-expression-in-human-retinal-endothelial-cells
#6
Yoon Kyung Choi
Treatment of human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMECs) with vascular endothelial growth factor 165 (VEGF165) increased hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α), VEGF, and glucose transporter 1 (Glut-1) mRNA expression and Glut-1 protein localization to the membrane. In contrast, treatment of human retinal pigment epithelium cells with VEGF165 did not induce HIF-1α, VEGF, and Glut-1 gene expression. Microvascular endothelial cells are surrounded by astrocytic end feet in the retina. Astrocyte-derived A-kinase anchor protein 12 overexpression during hypoxia downregulated VEGF secretion, and this conditioned medium reduced VEGF and Glut-1 expression in HRMECs, suggesting that communications between astrocytes and endothelial cells may be the determinants of the blood vessel network...
October 11, 2017: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020746/proteomic-landscape-of-the-primary-somatosensory-cortex-upon-sensory-deprivation
#7
Koen Kole, Rik G H Lindeboom, Marijke P A Baltissen, Pascal W T C Jansen, Michiel Vermeulen, Paul Tiesinga, Tansu Celikel
Experience-dependent plasticity (EDP) powerfully shapes neural circuits by inducing long-lasting molecular changes in the brain. Molecular mechanisms of EDP have been traditionally studied by identifying single or small subsets of targets along the biochemical pathways that link synaptic receptors to nuclear processes. Recent technological advances in large-scale analysis of gene transcription and translation now allow systematic observation of thousands of molecules simultaneously. Here we employed label-free quantitative mass spectrometry to address experience-dependent changes in the proteome after sensory deprivation of the primary somatosensory cortex...
October 1, 2017: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020745/transcriptional-mapping-of-the-primary-somatosensory-cortex-upon-sensory-deprivation
#8
Koen Kole, Yutaro Komuro, Jan Provaznik, Jelena Pistolic, Vladimir Benes, Paul Tiesinga, Tansu Celikel
Experience-dependent plasticity (EDP) is essential for anatomical and functional maturation of sensory circuits during development. Although the principal synaptic and circuit mechanisms of EDP are increasingly well studied experimentally and computationally, its molecular mechanisms remain largely elusive. EDP can be readily studied in the rodent barrel cortex, where each "barrel column" preferentially represents deflections of its own principal whisker. Depriving select whiskers while sparing their neighbours introduces competition between barrel columns, ultimately leading to weakening of intracortical, translaminar (i...
October 1, 2017: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019100/oxytocin-and-social-cognition
#9
Andreas Ebert, Martin Brüne
Oxytocin has been linked to many domains within the realm of "social cognition." For example, research has shown that oxytocin affects trusting behavior, cooperation, as well as the perception and processing of facial expressions. Furthermore, oxytocin increases empathy and seems to exert differential effects on in-group versus out-group preferences. However, there are some conflicting results that point towards a modulatory effect of oxytocin, depending on a variety of contextual and within-subject factors...
October 11, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018407/dose-dependent-and-lasting-influences-of-intranasal-vasopressin-on-face-processing-in-men
#10
Daniel Price, Debra Burris, Anna Cloutier, Carol B Thompson, James K Rilling, Richmond R Thompson
Arginine vasopressin (AVP) and related peptides have diverse effects on social behaviors in vertebrates, sometimes promoting affiliative interactions and sometimes aggressive or antisocial responses. The type of influence, in at least some species, depends on social contexts, including the sex of the individuals in the interaction and/or on the levels of peptide within brain circuits that control the behaviors. To determine if AVP promotes different responses to same- and other-sex faces in men, and if those effects are dose dependent, we measured the effects of two doses of AVP on subjective ratings of male and female faces...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016850/mice-lacking-cyclin-dependent-kinase-like-5-manifest-autistic-and-adhd-like-behaviors
#11
Cian-Ling Jhang, Tzyy-Nan Huang, Yi-Ping Hsueh, Wenlin Liao
Neurodevelopmental disorders frequently share common clinical features and appear high rate of comorbidity, such as those present in patients with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). While characterizing behavioral phenotypes in the mouse model of cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) disorder, a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutations in the X-linked gene encoding CDKL5, we found that these mice manifested behavioral phenotypes mimicking multiple key features of ASD, such as impaired social interaction and communication, as well as increased stereotypic digging behaviors...
October 15, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993643/a-sexually-dimorphic-pre-stressed-translational-signature-in-ca3-pyramidal-neurons-of-bdnf-val66met-mice
#12
Jordan Marrocco, Gordon H Petty, Mariel B Ríos, Jason D Gray, Joshua F Kogan, Elizabeth M Waters, Eric F Schmidt, Francis S Lee, Bruce S McEwen
Males and females use distinct brain circuits to cope with similar challenges. Using RNA sequencing of ribosome-bound mRNA from hippocampal CA3 neurons, we found remarkable sex differences and discovered that female mice displayed greater gene expression activation after acute stress than males. Stress-sensitive BDNF Val66Met mice of both sexes show a pre-stressed translational phenotype in which the same genes that are activated without applied stress are also induced in wild-type mice by an acute stressor...
October 9, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993465/camp-signaling-mediates-behavioral-flexibility-and-consolidation-of-social-status-in-drosophila-aggression
#13
Nitin Singh Chouhan, Krithika Mohan, Aurnab Ghose
Social rituals, like male-male aggression in Drosophila, are often stereotyped and the component behavioral patterns modular. The likelihood of transition from one behavioral pattern to another is malleable by experience and confers flexibility to the behavioral repertoire. Experience-dependent modification of innate aggressive behavior in flies alters fighting strategies during fights and establishes dominant-subordinate relationships. Dominance hierarchies resulting from agonistic encounters are consolidated to longer lasting social status-dependent behavioral modifications resulting in a robust loser effect...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993272/gabaergic-over-inhibition-a-promising-hypothesis-for-cognitive-deficits-in-down-syndrome
#14
REVIEW
Javier Zorrilla de San Martin, Jean-Maurice Delabar, Alberto Bacci, Marie-Claude Potier
Down syndrome (DS), also known as trisomy 21, is the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability. It is also a model human disease for exploring consequences of gene dosage imbalance on complex phenotypes. Learning and memory impairments linked to intellectual disabilities in DS could result from synaptic plasticity deficits and excitatory-inhibitory alterations leading to changes in neuronal circuitry in the brain of affected individuals. Increasing number of studies in mouse and cellular models converge towards the assumption that excitatory-inhibitory imbalance occurs in DS, likely early during development...
October 6, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990240/reduced-striato-cortical-and-inhibitory-transcallosal-connectivity-in-the-motor-circuit-of-huntington-s-disease-patients
#15
Clara Garcia-Gorro, Ruth de Diego-Balaguer, Saul Martínez-Horta, Jesus Pérez-Pérez, Jaime Kulisevsky, Nadia Rodríguez-Dechicha, Irene Vaquer, Susana Subira, Matilde Calopa, Esteban Muñoz, Pilar Santacruz, Jesús Ruiz-Idiago, Celia Mareca, Nuria Caballol, Estela Camara
Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder which is primarily associated with striatal degeneration. However, the alterations in connectivity of this structure in HD have been underinvestigated. In this study, we analyzed the functional and structural connectivity of the left putamen, while participants performed a finger-tapping task. Using fMRI and DW-MRI, 30 HD gene expansion carriers (HDGEC) and 29 healthy participants were scanned. Psychophysiological interaction analysis and DTI-based tractography were employed to examine functional and structural connectivity, respectively...
October 8, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986278/synaptopathology-in-autism-spectrum-disorders-complex-effects-of-synaptic-genes-on-neural-circuits
#16
REVIEW
Xinxing Wang, Rachel Kery, Qiaojie Xiong
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 3, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981779/the-osabf1-transcription-factor-improves-drought-tolerance-by-activating-the-transcription-of-cor413-tm1-in-rice
#17
Chunyu Zhang, Cong Li, Jun Liu, Yandong Lv, Chunsheng Yu, Hongyu Li, Tao Zhao, Bin Liu, Jianhua Zhang
Water deprivation causes substantial losses in crop yields around the world. In this study, we show that when overexpressed in transgenic rice (Oryza sativa), the bZIP transcription factor OsABF1 confers distinctly different drought-tolerance phenotypes when tethered to the transcriptional activator VP16 versus the transcriptional repressor EAR. We performed chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) and RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) assays on transgenic rice lines and determined that OsABF1 binds to DNA sequences containing an ACGT core motif...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981614/neurotensin-broadly-recruits-inhibition-via-white-matter-neurons-in-the-mouse-cerebral-cortex-synaptic-mechanisms-for-decorrelation
#18
Lovisa Case, Christian Broberger
The neuropeptide, neurotensin (NT), inhibits UP state generation in the cerebral cortex and temporally restricts the response to thalamic input, likely by a generalized increase in inhibition. To investigate the cellular and circuit substrate(s) for how a neuropeptide can shift the balance between cortical excitation and inhibition, we performed whole-cell recordings on slice preparations from mice expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein under control of the promoter for the homeobox gene, lhx6 (lhx6-EGFP mice)...
June 28, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974639/can-injured-adult-cns-axons-regenerate-by-recapitulating-development
#19
REVIEW
Brett J Hilton, Frank Bradke
In the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS), neurons typically fail to regenerate their axons after injury. During development, by contrast, neurons extend axons effectively. A variety of intracellular mechanisms mediate this difference, including changes in gene expression, the ability to form a growth cone, differences in mitochondrial function/axonal transport and the efficacy of synaptic transmission. In turn, these intracellular processes are linked to extracellular differences between the developing and adult CNS...
October 1, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974563/fibromodulin-and-regulation-of-the-intricate-balance-between-myoblast-differentiation-to-myocytes-or-adipocyte-like-cells
#20
Eun Ju Lee, Arif Tasleem Jan, Mohammad Hassan Baig, Khurshid Ahmad, Adeel Malik, Gulam Rabbani, Taeyeon Kim, In-Kyu Lee, Yong Ho Lee, So-Young Park, Inho Choi
Interactions between myoblasts and the surrounding microenvironment led us to explore the role of fibromodulin (FMOD), an extracellular matrix protein, in the maintenance of myoblast stemness and function. Microarray analysis of FMODkd myoblasts and in silico studies were used to identify the top most differentially expressed genes in FMODkd, and helped establish that FMOD-based regulations of integral membrane protein 2a and clusterin are essential components of the myogenic program. Studies in knockout, obese, and diabetic mouse models helped characterize the operation of a novel FMOD-based regulatory circuit that controls myoblast switching from a myogenic to a lipid accumulation fate...
October 3, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
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