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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107383/effects-of-forced-swimming-stress-on-erk-and-histone-h3-phosphorylation-in-limbic-areas-of-roman-high-and-low-avoidance-rats
#1
Noemi Morello, Ornella Plicato, Maria Antonietta Piludu, Laura Poddighe, Maria Pina Serra, Marina Quartu, Maria Giuseppa Corda, Osvaldo Giorgi, Maurizio Giustetto
Stressful events evoke molecular adaptations of neural circuits through chromatin remodeling and regulation of gene expression. However, the identity of the molecular pathways activated by stress in experimental models of depression is not fully understood. We investigated the effect of acute forced swimming (FS) on the phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 (pERK) and histone H3 (pH3) in limbic brain areas of genetic models of vulnerability (RLA, Roman low-avoidance rats) and resistance (RHA, Roman high-avoidance rats) to stress-induced depression-like behavior...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103878/synthetic-circuits-that-process-multiple-light-and-chemical-signal-inputs
#2
Lizhong Liu, Wei Huang, Jian-Dong Huang
BACKGROUND: Multi-signal processing circuits are essential for rational design of sophisticated synthetic systems with good controllability and modularity, therefore, enable construction of high-level networks. Moreover, light-inducible systems provide fast and reversible means for spatiotemporal control of gene expression. RESULTS: Here, in HEK 293 cells, we present combinatory genetic circuits responding to light and chemical signals, simultaneously. We first constructed a dual input circuit converting different light intensities into varying of the sensitivity of the promoter to a chemical inducer (doxycycline)...
January 19, 2017: BMC Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102845/h19-let-7-lin28-reciprocal-negative-regulatory-circuit-promotes-breast-cancer-stem-cell-maintenance
#3
Fei Peng, Ting-Ting Li, Kai-Li Wang, Guo-Qing Xiao, Ju-Hong Wang, Hai-Dong Zhao, Zhi-Jie Kang, Wen-Jun Fan, Li-Li Zhu, Mei Li, Bai Cui, Fei-Meng Zheng, Hong-Jiang Wang, Eric W-F Lam, Bo Wang, Jie Xu, Quentin Liu
Long noncoding RNA-H19 (H19), an imprinted oncofetal gene, has a central role in carcinogenesis. Hitherto, the mechanism by which H19 regulates cancer stem cells, remains elusive. Here we show that breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) express high levels of H19, and ectopic overexpression of H19 significantly promotes breast cancer cell clonogenicity, migration and mammosphere-forming ability. Conversely, silencing of H19 represses these BCSC properties. In concordance, knockdown of H19 markedly inhibits tumor growth and suppresses tumorigenesis in nude mice...
January 19, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098184/infrared-laser-induced-gene-expression-for-tracking-development-and-function-of-single-c-elegans-embryonic-neurons
#4
Anupriya Singhal, Shai Shaham
Visualizing neural-circuit assembly in vivo requires tracking growth of optically resolvable neurites. The Caenorhabditis elegans embryonic nervous system, comprising 222 neurons and 56 glia, is attractive for comprehensive studies of development; however, embryonic reporters are broadly expressed, making single-neurite tracking/manipulation challenging. We present a method, using an infrared laser, for reproducible heat-dependent gene expression in small sublineages (one to four cells) without radiation damage...
January 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094975/endoribonuclease-based-two-component-repressor-systems-for-tight-gene-expression-control-in-plants
#5
Yan Liang, Sarah M Richardson, Jingwei Yan, Veronica T Benites, Clarabelle Cheng-Yue, Thu Tran, Jenny Mortimer, Aindrila Mukhopadhyay, Jay D Keasling, Dominique Loque
Tight control and multifactorial regulation of gene expression are important challenges in genetic engineering and are critical for the development of regulatory circuits. Meeting these challenges will facilitate transgene expression regulation and support fine-tuning of metabolic pathways to avoid the accumulation of undesired intermediates. By employing the endoribonuclease Csy4 and its recognition sequence from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and manipulating 5'UTR of mRNA, we developed a two-component expression-repression system to tightly control synthesis of transgene products...
January 17, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094788/electronic-control-of-gene-expression-and-cell-behaviour-in-escherichia-coli-through-redox-signalling
#6
Tanya Tschirhart, Eunkyoung Kim, Ryan McKay, Hana Ueda, Hsuan-Chen Wu, Alex Eli Pottash, Amin Zargar, Alejandro Negrete, Joseph Shiloach, Gregory F Payne, William E Bentley
The ability to interconvert information between electronic and ionic modalities has transformed our ability to record and actuate biological function. Synthetic biology offers the potential to expand communication 'bandwidth' by using biomolecules and providing electrochemical access to redox-based cell signals and behaviours. While engineered cells have transmitted molecular information to electronic devices, the potential for bidirectional communication stands largely untapped. Here we present a simple electrogenetic device that uses redox biomolecules to carry electronic information to engineered bacterial cells in order to control transcription from a simple synthetic gene circuit...
January 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094761/homeodomain-protein-otp-affects-developmental-neuropeptide-switching-in-oxytocin-neurons-associated-with-a-long-term-effect-on-social-behavior
#7
Einav Wircer, Janna Blechman, Nataliya Borodovsky, Michael Tsoory, Ana Rita Nunes, Rui F Oliveira, Gil Levkowitz
Proper response to stress and social stimuli depends on orchestrated development of hypothalamic neuronal circuits. Here we address the effects of the developmental transcription factor orthopedia (Otp) on hypothalamic development and function. We show that developmental mutations in the zebrafish paralogous gene otpa but not otpb affect both stress response and social preference. These behavioral phenotypes were associated with developmental alterations in oxytocinergic (OXT) neurons. Thus, otpa and otpb differentially regulate neuropeptide switching in a newly identified subset of OXT neurons that co-express the corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)...
January 17, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094501/artificial-cells-synthetic-compartments-with-life-like-functionality-and-adaptivity
#8
Bastiaan C Buddingh', Jan C M van Hest
Cells are highly advanced microreactors that form the basis of all life. Their fascinating complexity has inspired scientists to create analogs from synthetic and natural components using a bottom-up approach. The ultimate goal here is to assemble a fully man-made cell that displays functionality and adaptivity as advanced as that found in nature, which will not only provide insight into the fundamental processes in natural cells but also pave the way for new applications of such artificial cells. In this Account, we highlight our recent work and that of others on the construction of artificial cells...
January 17, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092361/designed-cell-consortia-as-fragrance-programmable-analog-to-digital-converters
#9
Marius Müller, Simon Ausländer, Andrea Spinnler, David Ausländer, Julian Sikorski, Marc Folcher, Martin Fussenegger
Synthetic biology advances the rational engineering of mammalian cells to achieve cell-based therapy goals. Synthetic gene networks have nearly reached the complexity of digital electronic circuits and enable single cells to perform programmable arithmetic calculations or to provide dynamic remote control of transgenes through electromagnetic waves. We designed a synthetic multilayered gaseous-fragrance-programmable analog-to-digital converter (ADC) allowing for remote control of digital gene expression with 2-bit AND-, OR- and NOR-gate logic in synchronized cell consortia...
January 16, 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089747/metabolic-engineering-of-a-diazotrophic-bacterium-improves-ammonium-release-and-biofertilization-of-plants-and-microalgae
#10
Rafael Ambrosio, Juan Cesar Federico Ortiz-Marquez, Leonardo Curatti
The biological nitrogen fixation carried out by some Bacteria and Archaea is one of the most attractive alternatives to synthetic nitrogen fertilizers. However, with the exception of the symbiotic rhizobia-legumes system, progress towards a more extensive realization of this goal has been slow. In this study we manipulated the endogenous regulation of both nitrogen fixation and assimilation in the aerobic bacterium Azotobacter vinelandii. Substituting an exogenously inducible promoter for the native promoter of glutamine synthetase produced conditional lethal mutant strains unable to grow diazotrophically in the absence of the inducer...
January 9, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088440/intersections-of-post-transcriptional-gene-regulatory-mechanisms-with-intermediary-metabolism
#11
REVIEW
Waqar Arif, Gandhar Datar, Auinash Kalsotra
Intermediary metabolism studies have typically concentrated on four major regulatory mechanisms-substrate availability, allosteric enzyme regulation, post-translational enzyme modification, and regulated enzyme synthesis. Although transcriptional control has been a big focus, it is becoming increasingly evident that many post-transcriptional events are deeply embedded within the core regulatory circuits of enzyme synthesis/breakdown that maintain metabolic homeostasis. The prominent post-transcriptional mechanisms affecting intermediary metabolism include alternative pre-mRNA processing, mRNA stability and translation control, and the more recently discovered regulation by noncoding RNAs...
January 11, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087735/relationships-linking-emotional-motor-cognitive-and-gabaergic-dysfunctions-in-dystrophin-deficient-mdx-mice
#12
Cyrille Vaillend, Rémi Chaussenot
Alterations in the Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) gene have been associated with enhanced stress reactivity in vertebrate species, suggesting a role for brain dystrophin in fear-related behavioral and cognitive processes. Because the loss of dystrophin (Dp427) reduces clustering of central GABAA receptors, it is suspected that local inhibitory tuning and modulation of neuronal excitability are perturbed in a distributed brain circuit that normally controls such critical behavioral functions. In this study we undertook a large-scale behavioral study to evaluate fear-related behavioral disturbances in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice...
January 13, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079995/effects-of-cell-cycle-phases-on-the-induction-of-dental-pulp-stem-cells-toward-dopaminergic-like-cells
#13
Nareshwaran Gnanasegaran, Vijayendran Govindasamy, Premasangery Kathirvaloo, Sabri Musa, Noor Hayaty Abu Kasim
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by tremors and cognitive issues, and is due to the death of dopaminergic (DA-ergic) neurons in brain circuits that are responsible for producing neurotransmitter dopamine (DA). Currently, cell replacement therapies are underway to overcome existing therapeutic approaches such as drug treatments and electrical stimulation. Among the widely available sources, dental pulp stem cells from deciduous teeth (DPSC) have gained popularity due to their neural crest origin and inherent propensity toward neuronal lineage...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077715/excitatory-hindbrain-forebrain-communication-is-required-for-cisplatin-induced-anorexia-and-weight-loss
#14
Amber L Alhadeff, Ruby A Holland, Huiyuan Zheng, Linda Rinaman, Harvey J Grill, Bart C De Jonghe
: Cisplatin chemotherapy is commonly used to treat cancer despite severe energy balance side effects. In rats, cisplatin activates nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) projections to the lateral parabrachial nucleus (lPBN) and calcitonin-gene related peptide (CGRP) projections from the lPBN to the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA). We demonstrated previously that CeA glutamate receptor signaling mediates cisplatin-induced anorexia and body weight loss. Here, we used neuroanatomical tracing, immunofluorescence, and confocal imaging to demonstrate that virtually all NTS→lPBN and lPBN→CeA CGRP projections coexpress vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2), providing evidence that excitatory projections mediate cisplatin-induced energy balance dysregulation...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074027/a-unique-cis-encoded-small-noncoding-rna-is-regulating-legionella-pneumophila-hfq-expression-in-a-life-cycle-dependent-manner
#15
Giulia Oliva, Tobias Sahr, Monica Rolando, Maike Knoth, Carmen Buchrieser
: Legionella pneumophila is an environmental bacterium that parasitizes protozoa, but it may also infect humans, thereby causing a severe pneumonia called Legionnaires' disease. To cycle between the environment and a eukaryotic host, L. pneumophila is regulating the expression of virulence factors in a life cycle-dependent manner: replicating bacteria do not express virulence factors, whereas transmissive bacteria are highly motile and infective. Here we show that Hfq is an important regulator in this network...
January 10, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073937/activity-of-tachykinin1-expressing-pet1-raphe-neurons-modulates-the-drive-to-breathe
#16
Morgan L Hennessy, Andrea Corcoran, Rachael D Brust, Eugene E Nattie, Susan Dymecki
: Homeostatic control of breathing, heart rate, and body temperature relies on circuits within the brainstem modulated by the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT). Mounting evidence points to specialized neuronal subtypes within the 5-HT system, which have borne out in functional studies, including the modulation of distinct facets of homeostatic control. These functional differences, read out at the organismal level, are likely subserved by differences among 5-HT neuron subtypes at the cellular and molecular levels, including differences in the capacity to co-express other neurotransmitters such as glutamate, GABA, thyrotropin releasing hormone, and substance P encoded by the Tachykinin-1 (Tac1) gene...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070119/ocd-like-behavior-is-caused-by-dysfunction-of-thalamo-amygdala-circuits-and-upregulated-trkb-erk-mapk-signaling-as-a-result-of-spred2-deficiency
#17
M Ullrich, M Weber, A M Post, S Popp, J Grein, M Zechner, H Guerrero González, A Kreis, A G Schmitt, N Üçeyler, K-P Lesch, K Schuh
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common neuropsychiatric disease affecting about 2% of the general population. It is characterized by persistent intrusive thoughts and repetitive ritualized behaviors. While gene variations, malfunction of cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) circuits, and dysregulated synaptic transmission have been implicated in the pathogenesis of OCD, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here we show that OCD-like behavior in mice is caused by deficiency of SPRED2, a protein expressed in various brain regions and a potent inhibitor of Ras/ERK-MAPK signaling...
January 10, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069895/brassinosteroid-induced-transcriptional-repression-and-dephosphorylation-dependent-protein-degradation-negatively-regulate-bin2-interacting-aif2-a-br-signaling-negative-regulator-bhlh-transcription-factor
#18
Yoon Kim, Ji-Hye Song, Seon-U Park, You-Seung Jeong, Soo-Hwan Kim
Brassinosteroids (BRs) are plant polyhydroxy-steroids that play important roles in plant growth and development via extensive signal integration through direct interactions between regulatory components of different signaling pathways. Recent studies have shown that diverse helix-loop-helix/basic helix-loop-helix (HLH/bHLH) family proteins are actively involved in control of BR signaling pathways and interact with other signaling pathways. In this study, we show that ATBS1-INTERACTING FACTOR 2 (AIF2), a nuclear-localized atypical bHLH transcription factor, specifically interacts with BRASSINOSTEROID-INSENSITIVE 2 (BIN2) among other BR-signaling molecules...
January 9, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069666/negative-auto-regulators-trap-p53-in-their-web
#19
REVIEW
Xiang Zhou, Bo Cao, Hua Lu
The transcriptional factor p53 activates the expression of a myriad of target genes involving a complicated signaling network, resulting in various cellular outcomes, such as growth arrest, senescence, apoptosis, and metabolic changes, and leading to consequent suppression of tumor growth and progression. Because of the profoundly adverse effect of p53 on growth and proliferation of cancer cells, several feedback mechanisms have been employed by the cells to constrain p53 activity. Two major antagonists MDM2 and MDMX (the long forms) are transcriptionally induced by p53, but in return block p53 activity, forming a negative feedback circuit and rendering chemoresistance of several cancer cells...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064060/a-current-view-on-contactin-4-5-and-6-implications-in-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#20
REVIEW
Oguro-Ando Asami, Amila Zuko, Kristel T E Kleijer, J Peter H Burbach
Contactins (Cntns) are a six-member subgroup of the immunoglobulin cell adhesion molecule superfamily (IgCAMs) with pronounced brain expression and function. Recent genetic studies of neuropsychiatric disorders have pinpointed contactin-4 (CNTN4), contactin-5 (CNTN5) and contactin-6 (CNTN6) as candidate genes in neurodevelopmental disorders, particularly in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), but also in intellectual disability, schizophrenia (SCZ), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), bipolar disorder (BD), alcohol use disorder (AUD) and anorexia nervosa (AN)...
January 4, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
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