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Lauren Peruffo, Janice D Boyd, Sharman Hoppes, Donald J Brightsmith
Blood biochemical values are useful as indicators of disease in veterinary practice and for health assessments of free-ranging animal populations. We analyzed blood biochemical values for free-living nestling and adult scarlet macaws ( Ara macao macao) in southeastern Peru with an Abaxis VetScan VS2 portable analyzer with Avian/Reptilian Profile Plus rotors. The resulting data were used to create provisional age-independent reference intervals for this instrument for wild scarlet macaw nestlings, calculate blood biochemical ranges for this instrument for wild adults, and examine age-related trends in nestlings...
September 2016: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
Jayden O van Horik, Nathan J Emery
Physical cognition has generally been assessed in tool-using species that possess a relatively large brain size, such as corvids and apes. Parrots, like corvids and apes, also have large relative brain sizes, yet although parrots rarely use tools in the wild, growing evidence suggests comparable performances on physical cognition tasks. It is, however, unclear whether success on such tasks is facilitated by previous experience and training procedures. We therefore investigated physical comprehension of object relationships in two non-tool-using species of captive neotropical parrots on a new means-end paradigm, the Trap-Gaps task, using unfamiliar materials and modified training procedures that precluded procedural cues...
November 2016: Animal Cognition
Irene A Veladiano, Tommaso Banzato, Luca Bellini, Alessandro Montani, Salvatore Catania, Alessandro Zotti
BACKGROUND: The increasing popularity gained by pet birds over recent decades has highlighted the role of avian medicine and surgery in the global veterinary scenario; such a need for speciality avian medical practice reflects the rising expectation for high-standard diagnostic imaging procedures. The aim of this study is to provide an atlas of matched anatomical cross-sections and contrast-enhanced CT images of the coelomic cavity in three highly diffused psittacine species. RESULTS: Contrast-enhanced computed tomographic studies of the coelomic cavity were performed in 5 blue-and-gold macaws, 4 African grey parrots and 6 monk parakeets by means of a 4-multidetector-row CT scanner...
2016: BMC Veterinary Research
Jennifer C Hausmann, Christoph Mans, Allyson Gosling, Jaimie L Miller, Tamara Chamberlin, John R Dunn, Paul E Miller, Kurt K Sladky
A 20-year-old, female Catalina macaw (Ara ararauna × Ara macao ) was presented with bilateral uveitis and hyphema. The hyphema initially improved with 0.12% prednisolone acetate ophthalmic drops (1 drop OU q4h for 7 days), but the hyphema recurred after the drops were tapered. The bird subsequently developed inappetance, weight loss, regurgitation, and lethargy and was euthanatized 24 days after initial presentation. Necropsy revealed marked splenomegaly and hepatomegaly, with significant mucosal ulcerations of the proventriculus and petechiation associated with both kidneys...
June 2016: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
Noémie Summa, Sarah Boston, David Eshar, Bridget Lee-Chow, Erin Harrison, Catherine Fischer, Ae-Ri Ji, Brian Stevens, Dale A Smith
An unsexed, 16-year-old blue-and-gold macaw (Ara ararauna) was presented for evaluation of rapidly growing subcutaneous masses at the left tibiotarso-tarsometatarsal joint. Results of incisional biopsy were diagnostic for an intermediate-grade soft-tissue sarcoma. A distal-femoral amputation was performed and the leg was submitted for histopathology. Histopathologic examination confirmed the biopsy diagnosis and revealed neoplastic spread into the bone marrow cavity of the tibiotarsus. Excisional margins were complete...
June 2016: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
Éder C M Lanes, Sérgio Y Motoike, Kacilda N Kuki, Marcos D V Resende, Eveline T Caixeta
Acrocomia aculeata (Arecaceae), a palm endemic to South and Central America, is a potential oil crop. Knowledge of the mating system of this species is limited to its reproductive biology and to studies using molecular markers. The present study analyzed genetic diversity between its developmental stages and determined its prevailing mating system in order to support genetic conservation and breeding programs. We tested 9 microsatellite markers in 27 mother trees (adult plants) and 157 offspring (juvenile plants) from the southeastern region of Brazil...
November 2016: Journal of Heredity
Jéssica Reimer, Caroline Marques Maia, Eliana Ferraz Santos
Environmental enrichment has been widely used to improve conditions for nonhuman animals in captivity. However, there is no consensus about the best way to evaluate the success of enrichments. This study evaluated whether the proportion of time spent interacting with enrichments indicated the proportion of overall behavioral changes. Six environmental enrichments were introduced in succession to 16 captive macaws, and interaction of the animals with them as well as the behaviors of the group were recorded before and during the enrichments...
October 2016: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Daniel C Cutler, Keijiro Shiomitsu, Chin-Chi Liu, Javier G Nevarez
The skin and oral cavity are common sites of neoplasia in avian species. Radiation therapy has been described for the treatment of these tumors in birds; however, its observed effectiveness has been variable. One possible explanation for this variability when radiation is used to treat the head is the unique anatomy of the avian skull, which contains an elaborate set of sinuses not found in mammalian species. To compare a calculated dose of radiation intended to be administered and the actual amount of radiation delivered to the target area of the choana in 3 adult military macaws (Ara militaris), computed tomography scans were obtained and the monitor unit was calculated to deliver 100 cGy (1Gy) by using radiation planning software...
March 2016: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
F Hakimuddin, F Abidi, O Jafer, C Li, U Wernery, Ch Hebel, K Khazanehdari
Beak and feather disease is caused by Circovirus, which affects actively growing beak and feather cells of avian species. The disease affects mainly young birds while older birds may overcome the disease with few lasting effects. Due to lack of treatment, the only way to control the disease is through hygiene and early diagnosis. As a diagnostic tool, we have established a Taqman probe based real-time PCR assay to detect the presence of the viral genome in psittacine birds in UAE and reported the incidence of circovirus in different species of psittacine birds...
January 2016: Biomolecular Detection and Quantification
Tarcísio Macedo Silva, Leonardo Fabrício Pavan, Priscylla Tatiana Chalfum Guimarães-Okamoto, Elisane Lenita Milbradt, Raphael Lúcio Andreatti Filho, Reinaldo José da Silva, Adriano Sakai Okamoto
The aim of this study was to provide the first report on a new host for the digenean Paratanaisia bragai in the caninde macaw Ara ararauna along with the pathological aspects of the infection in the new host. The microscopic findings revealed the presence of granulomatous interstitial nephritis. This study contributes towards knowledge of parasitism by P. bragai in A. ararauna, and emphasizes the need to use best practices in wildlife conservation parks.
January 2016: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
Guillermo Blanco, Carolina Bravo, Erica C Pacifico, Daniel Chamorro, Karina L Speziale, Sergio A Lambertucci, Fernando Hiraldo, José L Tella
Despite the fact that parrots (Psitacifformes) are generalist apex frugivores, they have largely been considered plant antagonists and thus neglected as seed dispersers of their food plants. Internal dispersal was investigated by searching for seeds in faeces opportunistically collected at communal roosts, foraging sites and nests of eleven parrot species in different habitats and biomes in the Neotropics. Multiple intact seeds of seven plant species of five families were found in a variable proportion of faeces from four parrot species...
2016: PeerJ
Cassandra Seibold-Torres, Elaine Owens, Renuka Chowdhary, Malcolm A Ferguson-Smith, Ian Tizard, Terje Raudsepp
The Congo African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus, PER) is an endemic species of Central Africa, valued for its intelligence and listed as vulnerable due to poaching and habitat destruction. Improved knowledge about the P. erithacus genome is needed to address key biological questions and conservation of this species. The P. erithacus genome was studied using conventional and molecular cytogenetic approaches including Zoo-FISH. P. erithacus has a 'typical' parrot karyotype with 2n = 62-64 and 8 pairs of macrochromosomes...
2015: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
Ralf C Buckley, Clare Morrison, J Guy Castley
Many threatened species rely on ecotourism for conservation funding, but simultaneously suffer direct ecological impacts from ecotourism. For a range of IUCN-Redlisted terrestrial and marine bird and mammal species worldwide, we use population viability analyses to calculate the net effects of ecotourism on expected time to extinction, in the presence of other anthropogenic threats such as poaching, primary industries and habitat loss. Species for which these calculations are currently possible, for one or more subpopulations, include: orangutan, hoolock gibbon, golden lion tamarin, cheetah, African wild dog, New Zealand sealion, great green macaw, Egyptian vulture, and African penguin...
2016: PloS One
Adam Dawid Urantowka, Paweł Mackiewicz, Tomasz Strzała
Six genera of the Arini tribe form morphologically diverse group termed as Macaws. The presence of bare facial area distinguishes them from other members of the tribe. Genera and species of Macaw group differ in pattern of this bare skin as well as in body size. The genus Ara contains eight extant species. Two of them are classified as medium-sized Macaws and other six species are classified as large Macaws. Based on morphological similarities and differences, large Macaw species can be segregated into three pairs according to their plumage coloration...
December 29, 2015: Mitochondrial DNA
Adam Dawid Urantowka, Paweł Mackiewicz
abtract The presence of bare facial area distinguishes Macaws from other members of the Arini tribe. Genera and species of the Macaw group differ in pattern of this bare skin as well as in body size. Individuals of the genera: Diopsittaca, Orthopsittaca, and Primolius are significantly smaller than the members of the genera: Anodorhynchus, Cyanopsitta, and the most species of the genus Ara. The genus Primolius contains three species: P. auricollis, P. couloni, and P. maracana, which are classified as medium-sized Macaws...
December 29, 2015: Mitochondrial DNA
Helder E da Silva, Flavia T Presti, Adriane P Wasko, Danillo Pinhal
BACKGROUND: Hyacinth macaw Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus is the largest parrot of the world and is considered vulnerable to extinction due to its habitat loss and illegal trade associated to the international pet market demand. Genetic studies on this species are still incipient to generate a consistent characterization of the population dynamics and to develop appropriate conservation strategies. In this sense, microsatellite markers may support the detection of a population genetic structure for this bird species...
2015: BMC Research Notes
J Farias, M Sanchez, M F Abreu, F Pedroni
The ecology of seed dispersal is critical to understand the patterns of distribution and abundance of plant species. We investigated seed dispersal aspects associated with the high abundance of Buchenavia tomentosa in the Serra Azul State Park (PESA). We estimated fruit production and conducted fruit removal experiments. We carried out diurnal and nocturnal observations on frugivory as well as germination tests. Fruiting occurred in the dry season and totaled 1,365,015 ± 762,670 fruits.ha-1. B. tomentosa fruits were utilized by eight animal species...
November 2015: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
Szilvia Marton, Krisztián Bányai, János Gál, Katalin Ihász, Renáta Kugler, György Lengyel, Ferenc Jakab, Tamás Bakonyi, Szilvia L Farkas
In this study, we determined the sequence of the coding region of an avian bornavirus detected in a blue-and-yellow macaw (Ara ararauna) with pathological/histopathological changes characteristic of proventricular dilatation disease. The genomic organization of the macaw bornavirus is similar to that of other bornaviruses, and its nucleotide sequence is nearly identical to the available partial parrot bornavirus 5 (PaBV-5) sequences. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these strains formed a monophyletic group distinct from other mammalian and avian bornaviruses and in calculations performed with matrix protein coding sequences, the PaBV-5 and PaBV-6 genotypes formed a common cluster, suggesting that according to the recently accepted classification system for bornaviruses, these two genotypes may belong to a new species, provisionally named Psittaciform 2 bornavirus...
November 2015: Archives of Virology
Flavia T Presti, Neiva M R Guedes, Paulo T Z Antas, Cristina Y Miyaki
Understanding the intraspecific genetic composition of populations in different geographic locations is important for the conservation of species. If genetic variability is structured, conservation strategies should seek to preserve the diversity of units. Also, origin of individuals can be determined, which is important for guiding actions against animal trafficking. The hyacinth macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) is located in allopatric regions, vulnerable to extinction and suffering animal trafficking pressure...
2015: Journal of Heredity
Alejandro Alfaro-Alarcón, Juan Alberto Morales, Vincenzo Veneziano, Mario Santoro
We report on four fatal cases of renal infection due to Paratanaisia bragai in scarlet macaws (Ara macao) from two rescue centres in Costa Rica. At necropsy, birds had severe dehydration and cachexia. Two birds had hydropericardium, oedematous lungs, and liver lipidic degeneration. All birds had enlarged kidneys with brown pale discoloration and diffuse white spots on the cortical and sliced surfaces. Ureters were filled with many specimens of P. bragai. Histopathologically, the urinary system revealed multifocal interstitial lymphocytic-plasmacytic nephritis, multifocal mineralization of renal tubules, and interstitial fibrosis associated with flukes...
September 2015: Acta Parasitologica
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