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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656091/serial-reversal-learning-and-behavioural-flexibility-in-two-species-of-neotropical-parrots-diopsittaca-nobilis-and-pionites-melanocephala
#1
Jayden O van Horik, Nathan J Emery
Serial reversal learning of colour discriminations was assessed as an index of behavioural flexibility in two captive species of Neotropical parrots. Both species showed similar performances across serial reversals and no between species differences were observed. In a second task subjects' performances were assessed after they experienced either a low or high pre-reversal learning criterion. If reversal performances improve through processes of associative learning, a high pre-reversal criterion is expected to strengthen previously learned associations and hence impede post-reversal performances...
April 12, 2018: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29479808/2-alkyl-3-methoxypyrazines-are-potent-attractants-of-florivorous-scarabs-melolonthidae-cyclocephalini-associated-with-economically-exploitable-neotropical-palms-arecaceae
#2
Artur Campos Dália Maia, Geanne Karla Novais Santos, Eduardo Gomes Gonçalves, Daniela Maria do Amaral Ferraz Navarro, Luis Alberto Nuñez-Avellaneda
BACKGROUND: 2-Alkyl-3-methoxypyrazines (MPs) are naturally occurring aromatic compounds involved in insect chemical communication as both pheromones and allelochemicals. Although rarely characterized in floral scents, they have been identified as major constituents in headspace samples from palm inflorescences and evidence pointed towards their function as attractive cues for scent-oriented pollinators, as well as florivores. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of MPs in economically exploitable palms belonging to Acrocomia and Attalea through headspace floral scent analysis and assessed their role in the selective attraction of flower-feeding cyclocephaline scarabs (Melolonthidae, Cyclocephalini) in field bioassays conducted in Brazil and Colombia...
February 25, 2018: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355612/new-record-of-ascaridia-nymphii-secernentea-ascaridiidae-from-macaw-parrot-ara-chloroptera-in-china
#3
Fang Yang, Pan Zhang, Xianli Shi, Kangxin Li, Minwei Wang, Yeqi Fu, Xinxin Yan, Jianxiong Hang, Guoqing Li
Present study was performed to identify the species of ascarids from macaw parrot, Ara chloroptera, in China. Total 6 ascarids (3 males and 3 females) were collected in the feces of 3 macaws at Guangzhou Zoo in Guangdong Province, China. Their morphological characteristics with dimensions were observed under a light microscope, and their genetic characters were analyzed with the partial 18S rDNA, ITS rDNA and nad4 gene sequences, respectively. Results showed that all worms have no interlabia but male worms have two alate spicules, well-developed precloacal sucker and a tail with ventrolateral caudal alae and 11 pairs of papillae...
June 2018: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340796/the-complete-plastome-of-macaw-palm-acrocomia-aculeata-jacq-lodd-ex-mart-and-extensive-molecular-analyses-of-the-evolution-of-plastid-genes-in-arecaceae
#4
Amanda de Santana Lopes, Túlio Gomes Pacheco, Tabea Nimz, Leila do Nascimento Vieira, Miguel P Guerra, Rubens O Nodari, Emanuel Maltempi de Souza, Fábio de Oliveira Pedrosa, Marcelo Rogalski
The plastome of macaw palm was sequenced allowing analyses of evolution and molecular markers. Additionally, we demonstrated that more than half of plastid protein-coding genes in Arecaceae underwent positive selection. Macaw palm is a native species from tropical and subtropical Americas. It shows high production of oil per hectare reaching up to 70% of oil content in fruits and an interesting plasticity to grow in different ecosystems. Its domestication and breeding are still in the beginning, which makes the development of molecular markers essential to assess natural populations and germplasm collections...
April 2018: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327964/endoscopic-removal-of-gastrointestinal-foreign-bodies-in-two-african-grey-parrots-psittacus-erithacus-and-a-hyacinth-macaw-anodorhynchus-hyacinthinus
#5
Robert J Cotton, Stephen J Divers
Two African grey parrots ( Psittacus erithacus) and one hyacinth macaw ( Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) were examined because of varying clinical signs ranging from general lethargy to seizure-like episodes and regurgitation. Radiography and fluoroscopy in the 3 birds demonstrated variable degrees of gastric abnormalities, suggesting the presence of foreign material or stricture-like defects. Upper gastrointestinal rigid endoscopy by ingluviotomy revealed foreign bodies that were removed endoscopically. Minor postoperative complications were pulmonary congestion or mild aspiration and cardiac arrhythmia, both of which resolved, and no serious deleterious effects were associated with endoscopy in the short or long term...
December 2017: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327963/antemortem-diagnosis-of-coxiellosis-in-a-blue-and-gold-macaw-ara-ararauna
#6
Alison J Flanders, Justin F Rosenberg, Marjorie Bercier, Mary K Leissinger, Laura J Black, Robson F Giglio, Serena L M Craft, Whitney M Zoll, April L Childress, James F X Wellehan
A 15-year-old female blue and gold macaw ( Ara ararauna) was presented for evaluation after being found laterally recumbent, reluctant to move, and lethargic. Results of a complete blood count showed an increased number of immature heterophils with increased cytoplasmic basophilia and degranulation and the presence of a left shift. Radiographs and a computed tomography scan were performed and revealed a markedly enlarged spleen. An ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspirate of the spleen was submitted for cytologic examination and aerobic bacterial culture...
December 2017: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297799/health-assessment-of-captive-psittacine-species-in-prerelease-programs-at-costa-rican-rescue-centers
#7
Esteban Mora-Chavarría, Rodolfo Umaña-Castro, Noha Abou-Madi, Stefany Solano-González, Mónica Retamosa-Izaguirre, Mauricio Jiménez-Soto, Kinndle Blanco-Peña
With stricter laws regulating the capture and possession of wild animals in Costa Rica, local wildlife-rescue centers have been overwhelmed by an influx of confiscated or relinquished illegal pets, specifically of psittacine species. As part of a nationwide health-assessment program targeting these centers, 122 birds representing five psittacine species ( Ara macao, Amazona autumnalis, Amazona auropalliata, Amazona farinosa, Aratinga finschi) and one hybrid macaw ( Ara macao × Ara ambiguus) were examined and tested between January 2011 and October 2012...
December 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286261/molecular-detection-of-mycobacterium-avium-avium-and-mycobacterium-genavense-in-feces-of-free-living-scarlet-macaw-ara-macao-in-costa-rica
#8
Lena C Patiño W, Otto Monge, Gerardo Suzán, Gustavo Gutiérrez-Espeleta, Andrea Chaves
We conducted a study of the two main populations of free-living Scarlet Macaws ( Ara macao) in Costa Rica to detect the causal agents of avian tuberculosis using noninvasive techniques. We analyzed 83 fecal samples collected between February and May 2016 from the central and southern Pacific areas in the country. Using PCR, we first amplified the 16S region of the rRNA, common to all Mycobacterium species. Products from the insertion sequence IS901 and from a 155-base pair (bp) DNA fragment evidenced the presence of both the avian pathogenic Mycobacterium avium subsp...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891697/management-of-a-nonhealing-superficial-corneal-ulcer-in-a-hyacinth-macaw-anodorhynchus-hyacinthinus
#9
Lynnette Waugh, Jonathan Pucket, Gretchen A Cole, Jennifer D'Agostino
A 26-year-old, female hyacinth macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) was presented for ophthalmology consultation for a history of a chronic, nonhealing corneal ulcer of the right eye. On examination, a 5 × 4-mm axial, superficial corneal ulcer with loose epithelial edges was found. During multiple recheck examinations over 4 months, the ulcer was treated by debridement with a sterile cotton-tipped applicator, diamond burr debridement, diamond burr debridement with cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive, and grid keratotomy with cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive, all performed under anesthesia with eventual resolution of the corneal ulcer...
September 2017: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766738/major-shifts-in-amazon-wildlife-populations-from-recent-intensification-of-floods-and-drought
#10
Richard Bodmer, Pedro Mayor, Miguel Antunez, Kimberlyn Chota, Tula Fang, Pablo Puertas, Marlini Pittet, Maire Kirkland, Mike Walkey, Claudia Rios, Pedro Perez-Peña, Peter Henderson, William Bodmer, Andy Bicerra, Joseph Zegarra, Emma Docherty
In the western Amazon Basin, recent intensification of river-level cycles has increased flooding during the wet seasons and decreased precipitation during the dry season. Greater than normal floods occurred in 2009 and in all years from 2011 to 2015 during high-water seasons, and a drought occurred during the 2010 low-water season. During these years, we surveyed populations of terrestrial, arboreal, and aquatic wildlife in a seasonally flooded Amazonian forest in the Loreto region of Peru (99,780 km2 ) to study the effects of intensification of natural climatic fluctuations on wildlife populations and in turn effects on resource use by local people...
April 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749258/coelomic-teratoma-in-a-blue-and-yellow-macaw-ara-ararauna
#11
Letícia B de Oliveira, Willian H M Santos, Alessandra V de Araújo, Anelise C Nepomuceno, Roselene Ecco
A 2-mo-old, female blue-and-yellow macaw (Ara ararauna) presented with severe abdominal distension, pain, and respiratory distress. Ultrasonographic examination detected a heterogeneous mass with multiple anechoic areas, compatible with a multilocular cyst, occupying most of the coelomic cavity. Postmortem examination revealed a mass of 12.0 × 8.5 × 5.0 cm, which had an irregular surface and was connected by a pedicle to the ileum. This mass compressed and displaced the liver, proventriculus, gizzard, and intestines cranially to the left...
June 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698688/retro-orbital-and-disseminated-b-cell-lymphoma-in-a-yellow-collared-macaw-primolius-auricollis
#12
Kim Le, Hugues Beaufrère, Emily Brouwer, S Karlyn Bland, Sarah Wills, Shawn MacKenzie, Heather Chalmers, Chantale Pinard, R Darren Wood, Josepha DeLay, Dale A Smith
A yellow-collared macaw was presented with unilateral left exophthalmia. The complete blood cell count and biochemistry revealed a heterophilic leukocytosis and elevation in liver parameters, respectively. A computed tomography scan showed a contrast-enhancing retrobulbar mass and hepatomegaly. Cytology of the liver was consistent with a round cell tumor, most likely lymphoma. The bird died after 2 months of palliative care. Postmortem examination confirmed a retro-orbital and disseminated B-cell lymphoma.
July 2017: Canadian Veterinary Journal. la Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625889/massive-attack-of-honeybee-on-macaws-ara-ararauna-and-ara-chloropterus-in-brazil-a-case-report
#13
Elisane Lenita Milbradt, Tarcísio Macedo Silva, Alessandre Hataka, Carlos Roberto Teixeira, Adriano Sakai Okamoto, Raphael Lucio Andreatti Filho
Three adult birds of the species Ara chloropterus and five of the species Ara ararauna from a conservation breeding facility suffered a massive attack by honeybees. The A. chloropterus birds presented swollen puncture lesions with stingers (mainly in the facial regions without feathers), swelling of the eyelids and subcutaneous tissue, and respiratory distress, and they were treated with intramuscular injections of 1.67 mg/kg of promethazine and 10 mg/kg of hydrocortisone followed by removal of the stingers...
June 16, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376135/a-simple-and-efficient-protocol-for-the-cryopreservation-of-zygotic-embryos-of-macaw-palm-acrocomia-aculeata-jacq-lodd-ex-mart-a-tropical-species-with-a-capacity-for-biofuel-production
#14
Z G Luis, E Scherwinski-Pereira
BACKGROUND: The development of cryopreservation protocols for zygotic embryos has the advantage of direct embryo regeneration into plantlets, an important factor when one´s purpose is to preserve genetic plant resources. OBJECTIVE: Current study developed an efficient and simplified cryopreservation protocol for zygotic embryos of the macaw palm, a type of palm tree with great capacity for biodiesel production. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Embryos were obtained from seeds and rehydrated for 15 h in a 3% sucrose medium...
January 2017: Cryo Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358607/radiation-therapy-of-periorbital-lymphoma-in-a-blue-and-gold-macaw-ara-ararauna
#15
Amy B Alexander, Lynn Griffin, Matthew S Johnston
An adult male blue and gold macaw (Ara ararauna) was presented for evaluation of a right periorbital mass. Results of diagnostic tests, including periorbital ultrasound, fine-needle aspirate, and cytologic examination, confirmed a diagnosis of periocular lymphoma. Radiographs were suggestive of disseminated disease but because of concerns about the patient's quality of life, localized radiation therapy to address the periorbital disease was pursued. Coarse-fractionated radiation therapy was initiated, and the mass regressed rapidly during the 3-week course of treatment...
March 2017: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358603/metastatic-thymoma-in-a-scarlet-macaw-ara-macao
#16
Barbara Lang, Susanne Vorbrüggen, Ruth Kothe, Gerd Britsch, Volker Schmidt
A 49-year-old female scarlet macaw ( Ara macao ) was presented with a mass in the cervical region. The bird showed no evidence of pain or discomfort, it swallowed food normally, and its breathing pattern was unremarkable. Results of contrast radiographic imaging revealed a well-demarcated mass in the right cervical region not related to the crop. After surgical resection and histopathologic evaluation, a malignant nodular stage of an epithelioid cortical-type thymoma was diagnosed. One year later, metastasis of the thymoma to the lung was diagnosed and confirmed at postmortem examination...
March 2017: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215690/seasonal-and-genera-specific-variations-in-semen-availability-and-semen-characteristics-in-large-parrots
#17
A Bublat, D Fischer, S Bruslund, H Schneider, S Meinecke-Tillmann, A Wehrend, M Lierz
In large parrots electro-stimulation is suitable for collecting semen, and therefore, to facilitate semen examination and artificial insemination. Previous studies have detected differences in the semen collection success rate and semen parameters between psittacine genera. It remained unclear whether these differences were genera-related, seasonal variations or depend on the males' relationship status. To answer these questions, semen collection and spermatological analysis were performed for four psittacine groups (macaws, amazons, eclectus parrots and cockatoos) over 13 months...
March 15, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151077/an-atypical-enteropathogenic-escherichia-coli-isolate-with-possible-human-and-domestic-animal-origin-from-a-free-living-lear-s-macaw-anodorhynchus-leari
#18
André B S Saidenberg, Terezinha Knöbl, Priscilla A Melville, Eveline Zuniga, Sandra R S Salaberry, Nilson R Benites, Paulo E Brandão
An atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli was isolated from an asymptomatic nestling of the endangered Lear's Macaw (Anodorhynchus leari). Phylogenetically, it was identical to bovine and human strains and highly similar to other human and domestic animal isolates. We discuss potential routes of transmission and risks to conservation of this species.
April 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904021/scanning-electron-microscopic-study-on-the-tongues-of-seven-avian-species
#19
Shoichi Emura
The dorsal lingual surface of the grey crowned crane (Balearica regulorum), American flamingo (Phoenicopterus rubber), great egret (Ardea alba), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), Himalayan monal (Lophophorus impejanus), black-necked stilt (himantopus mexicanus) and green macaw (Ara militaris) were examined by scanning electron microscopy. In the grey crowned crane, the surface of the lingual apex was relatively rough. Many openings of the lingual glands in both lateral regions of the lingual body were observed...
2016: Okajimas Folia Anatomica Japonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901394/computed-tomographic-anatomy-of-the-heads-of-blue-and-gold-macaws-ara-ararauna-african-grey-parrots-psittacus-erithacus-and-monk-parakeets-myiopsitta-monachus
#20
Irene A Veladiano, Tommaso Banzato, Luca Bellini, Alessandro Montani, Salvatore Catania, Alessandro Zotti
OBJECTIVE To create an atlas of the normal CT anatomy of the head of blue-and-gold macaws (Ara ararauna), African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus), and monk parakeets (Myiopsitta monachus). ANIMALS 3 blue-and-gold macaws, 5 African grey parrots, and 6 monk parakeets and cadavers of 4 adult blue-and-gold macaws, 4 adult African grey parrots, and 7 monk parakeets. PROCEDURES Contrast-enhanced CT imaging of the head of the live birds was performed with a 4-multidetector-row CT scanner. Cadaveric specimens were stored at -20°C until completely frozen, and each head was then sliced at 5-mm intervals to create reference cross sections...
December 2016: American Journal of Veterinary Research
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