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Luis David Alcaraz, Apolinar M Hernández, Mariana Peimbert
BACKGROUND: Cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) were originally endemic to Australia; now they are popular pets with a global distribution. It is now possible to conduct detailed molecular studies on cultivable and uncultivable bacteria that are part of the intestinal microbiome of healthy animals. These studies show that bacteria are an essential part of the metabolic capacity of animals. There are few studies on bird microbiomes and, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the cockatiel microbiome...
2016: PeerJ
Solveig Runge, Marita Olbert, Christiane Herden, Sara Malberg, Angela Römer-Oberdörfer, Peter Staeheli, Dennis Rubbenstroth
Avian bornaviruses are causative agents of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD), a chronic neurologic and often fatal disorder of psittacines including endangered species. To date no causative therapy or immunoprophylaxis is available. Our previous work has shown that viral vector vaccines can delay the course of homologous bornavirus challenge infections but failed to protect against PDD when persistent infection was not prevented. The goal of this study was to refine our avian bornavirus vaccination and infection model to better represent natural bornavirus infections in order to achieve full protection against a heterologous challenge infection...
December 22, 2016: Vaccine
Adam C Taylor, Stephan Lautenschlager, Zhao Qi, Emily J Rayfield
The masseter muscle complex is a unique feature of extant mammals and their advanced cynodont precursors, originating from the zygomatic arch and inserting onto the lateral surface of the dentary. This muscle complex is absent in sauropsids, with the exception of the neomorphic m. pseudomasseter complex that is unique to psittaciform birds (parrots and cockatiels). The anterior position and anterodorsally inclined line of action of both muscle groups increases leverage of the jaw and is thought to contribute to increased bite force, particularly in psittaciforms...
January 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Marita Olbert, Angela Römer-Oberdörfer, Christiane Herden, Sara Malberg, Solveig Runge, Peter Staeheli, Dennis Rubbenstroth
Avian bornaviruses are causative agents of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD), an often fatal disease of parrots and related species (order Psittaciformes) which is widely distributed in captive psittacine populations and may affect endangered species. Here, we established a vaccination strategy employing two different well described viral vectors, namely recombinant Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) that were engineered to express the phosphoprotein and nucleoprotein genes of two avian bornaviruses, parrot bornavirus 4 (PaBV-4) and canary bornavirus 2 (CnBV-2)...
November 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
Jose F Garcia-Mazcorro, Stephany A Castillo-Carranza, Blake Guard, Jose P Gomez-Vazquez, Scot E Dowd, Donald J Brigthsmith
Birds and other animals live and evolve in close contact with millions of microorganisms (microbiota). While the avian microbiota has been well characterized in domestic poultry, the microbiota of other bird species has been less investigated. The aim of this study was to describe the fecal bacterial communities of pet birds. Pooled fecal samples from 22 flocks representing over 150 individual birds of three different species (Melopsittacus undulatus or budgerigars, Nymphicus hollandicus or cockatiels, and Serinus canaria or domestic canaries) were used for analysis using the 16S rRNA gene sequencing in the MiSeq platform (Illumina)...
January 2017: Microbial Ecology
Anne K Piepenbring, Dirk Enderlein, Sibylle Herzog, Basim Al-Ibadi, Ursula Heffels-Redmann, Julia Heckmann, Hildburg Lange-Herbst, Christiane Herden, Michael Lierz
Psittaciform 1 bornavirus (PaBV) has already been shown to be the aetiologic agent of proventricular dilatation disease, a significant disease of birds. However, the pathogenesis of PaBV infection has not yet been resolved and valid data regarding the pathogenicity of different PaBV species are lacking. Thus, the present study was aimed to characterize the influence of two different PaBV species on the course of disease. Eighteen cockatiels were inoculated intracerebrally (i.c.) or intravenously (i.v.) with a PaBV-2 isolate under the same conditions as in a previous study using PaBV-4...
2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Cassandra Seibold-Torres, Elaine Owens, Renuka Chowdhary, Malcolm A Ferguson-Smith, Ian Tizard, Terje Raudsepp
The Congo African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus, PER) is an endemic species of Central Africa, valued for its intelligence and listed as vulnerable due to poaching and habitat destruction. Improved knowledge about the P. erithacus genome is needed to address key biological questions and conservation of this species. The P. erithacus genome was studied using conventional and molecular cytogenetic approaches including Zoo-FISH. P. erithacus has a 'typical' parrot karyotype with 2n = 62-64 and 8 pairs of macrochromosomes...
2015: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
R M Gioia-Di Chiacchio, M P V Cunha, R M Sturn, L Z Moreno, A M Moreno, C B P Pereira, F H Martins, M R Franzolin, R M F Piazza, T Knöbl
Psittacidae are frequently bred as pets worldwide, but little is known about the zoonotic risks of these animals. The objective of this study was to investigate the presence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in the feces of psittacine birds housed as pets. A total of 171 fecal samples (67 cockatiels, 59 budgerigars, and 45 agapornis) were cultured. Forty-two (E. coli) strains were identified, and the presence of the eae, stx1, and stx2 genes was determined using PCR. The antimicrobial resistance profiles of the STEC strains were determined using the disk diffusion method and phylogenetic analysis according to the new Clermont phylotyping method...
February 29, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
A C Rosenwax, M L Cowan
The presentation, treatment and outcomes of 33 ingluvial fibrous foreign bodies in cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) are described. Vomiting, lethargy and weight loss were the most common presenting signs. Diagnosis was made on palpation of a mass in the crop (ingluvies). Both surgical and non-surgical treatment regimens were evaluated. The overall mortality rate was 33%, suggesting fibrous materials are not safe for cockatiels to groom or ingest and should not be offered as cage accessories.
October 2015: Australian Veterinary Journal
Junqiang Li, Meng Qi, Yankai Chang, Rongjun Wang, Tongyi Li, Haiju Dong, Longxian Zhang
Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi are common gastrointestinal protists in humans and animals. Two hundred and three fecal specimens from 80 wildlife species were collected in Zhengzhou Zoo and their genomic DNA extracted. Three intestinal pathogens were characterized with a DNA sequence analysis of different loci. Cryptosporidium felis, C. baileyi, and avian genotype III were identified in three specimens (1.5%), the manul, red-crowned crane, and cockatiel, respectively. Giardia duodenalis was also found in five specimens (2...
November 2015: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Niichiro Abe, Kayoko Matsuo, Ikuko Makino
This report describes Ascaridia nymphii n. sp., a new species isolated from the alimentary tract of cockatiel Nymphicus hollandicus in Japan. More than 63 nematodes were found in the formalin-fixed small intestine, ventriculus, proventriculus and crop of a 48-day-old young cockatiel that died after exhibiting severe emaciation. No nematode eggs were observed in the faecal examination performed while the cockatiel was alive, but Cryptosporidium oocysts were found. The intestinal mucosa was damaged considerably...
November 2015: Parasitology Research
Xiao-Xuan Zhang, Nian-Zhang Zhang, Guang-Hui Zhao, Quan Zhao, Xing-Quan Zhu
Cryptosporidiosis is a worldwide zoonosis caused by Cryptosporidium spp., sometimes leading to severe diarrhea in humans and animals. In the present study, 311 parrots, belonging to four species, namely, Budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), Lovebirds (Agapornis sp.), Alexandrine parakeets (Psittacula eupatria), and Cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus), from Beijing and Weifang cities, were examined for Cryptosporidium spp. infection. Blood samples of each bird were examined using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and fecal samples were examined by Sheather's sugar flotation technique...
2015: BioMed Research International
Amanda L Foreman, Jesse A Fallon, Joseph S Moritz
To determine the effects of diet transition in cockatiels ( Nymphicus hollandicus ), 14 cockatiels were transitioned over a 12-day period from a seed diet to one of 2 commercial diets advertised as nutritionally complete. Before the transition, cockatiels were fed a seed-based diet for 30 days. The transition strategy consisted of gradually increasing the ratio of complete diet : seed-based diet over the 12-day period. True amino acid digestibility determined on each complete diet (diets A and B) demonstrated that both diets contained highly digestible amino acids...
June 2015: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
Stephanie Lamb, Alicia Sobczynski, Darius Starks, Nicholas Sitinas
Little is known about the normal bacterial flora of the skin of birds. To identify the bacterial organisms that reside on the integument of companion psittacine birds in a normal physiologic state, skin cultures were taken from 75 psittacine birds comprising 25 Congo African grey parrots ( Psittacus erithacus ), 25 budgerigars ( Melopsittacus undulatus ), and 25 cockatiels ( Nymphicus hollandicus ). All birds were adults and in good health with no underlying identifiable diseases, had not been on antibiotics in the preceding 2 months or longer, and had no skin or feather abnormalities...
December 2014: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
Luisa Z Moreno, Terezinha Knöbl, André A Grespan, Maria R Felizardo, Cleise R Gomes, Thais S P Ferreira, Maria Gabriela Xavier de Oliveira, Livia Myriantheus, Andrea Micke Moreno
Bordetella avium is a highly contagious bacterium that infects the upper respiratory tract of birds. B. avium Nh1210 is an outbreak strain of lockjaw syndrome in juvenile cockatiel chicks (Nymphicus hollandicus). Here, we report the draft genome sequence of strain Nh1210.
2015: Genome Announcements
G A Doss, J L Miller, H Steinberg, C Mans
Human angiofibromas are rare and arise typically in the nasopharynx. In veterinary medicine they have only been described in the dog. Microscopically, angiofibromas consist of irregular groups of blood vessels within a stroma of connective tissue, with oedema and secondary inflammation often present. A cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus) was presented with an oral mass that consisted of aggregates of blood vessels surrounded by a connective tissue stroma, with the presence of oedema and secondary inflammation...
February 2015: Journal of Comparative Pathology
M G Levy, L V Powers, K C Gore, H S Marr
A flagellated enteric diplomonad protozoan consistent with Spironucleus meleagridis (formerly Hexamita meleagridis) associated with gastrointestinal disease and mortality in psittacine birds including cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) has been sporadically described in the literature. However, molecular characterization of psittacine protozoal isolates had not yet been performed. The 16S rRNA gene from a protozoan persistently shed in the feces in a small group of cockatiels demonstrated a 98% molecular identity with S...
March 15, 2015: Veterinary Parasitology
Angela Lennox, Susan Clubb, April Romagnano, Norman H Altman, Carolyn Cray
A 15-yr-old cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus) presented with decreased activity and appetite. A presumptive diagnosis of lymphoproliferative disease was made because of a monoclonal band observed on plasma protein electrophoresis. The owner declined further diagnostics or treatment, and the bird died 2 yr later. In a second case, a 4-yr-old blue and gold macaw (Ara ararauna) presented with lethargy and anorexia. Despite supportive treatment, the bird died 7 days later. Blood studies also demonstrated a monoclonal band on plasma protein electrophoresis...
June 2014: Avian Diseases
D Fischer, D Neumann, A Wehrend, M Lierz
Many psittacine species are threatened in the wild and also rare in captivity. Therefore, successful conservation and breeding programs are important to save these species. Unfortunately, clutches in conservation programs are frequently infertile. Semen evaluation is beneficial to investigate the causes of infertility and is advisable before artificial insemination (AI). In this study, we analyzed the semen of cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) using two different methods and investigated different insemination dosages for AI...
September 1, 2014: Theriogenology
Dennis Rubbenstroth, Katrin Brosinski, Monika Rinder, Marita Olbert, Bernd Kaspers, Rüdiger Korbel, Peter Staeheli
Avian bornaviruses (ABV) are the causative agents of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD), a widely distributed disease of parrots. Distinct ABV lineages were also found in various non-psittacine avian species, such as canaries, but the pathogenic role of ABV in these species is less clear. Despite the wide distribution of ABV in captive parrots and canaries, its mode of transmission is poorly understood: both horizontal transmission via the urofaecal-oral route and vertical transmission are discussed to play a role...
August 6, 2014: Veterinary Microbiology
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