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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728131/the-distribution-of-organochlorine-pesticides-in-sediments-from-isimangaliso-wetland-park-ecological-risks-and-implications-for-conservation-in-a-biodiversity-hotspot
#1
Archibold Buah-Kwofie, Marc S Humphries
The iSimangaliso Wetland Park World Heritage site, located on the east coast of South Africa, spans ∼3300 km(2) and constitutes the largest protected estuarine environment for hippopotami, crocodiles and aquatic birds in Africa. Given the ecological importance of this site and continued use of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the region, this study focused on the nature, distribution and potential sources of organochlorine contamination within iSimangaliso Wetland Park. OCPs were widely distributed in surface sediment samples obtained from the four main Ramsar wetland systems within the park (Lake St Lucia, Mkhuze, Lake Sibaya and Kosi Bay)...
July 17, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720331/a-novel-antihypertension-agent-sargachromenol-d-from-marine-brown-algae-sargassum-siliquastrum-exerts-dual-action-as-an-l-type-ca-2-channel-blocker-and-endothelin-a-b2-receptor-antagonist
#2
Byong-Gon Park, Woon-Seob Shin, Sangtae Oh, Gab-Man Park, Nam Ik Kim, Seokjoon Lee
We isolated the novel vasoactive marine natural products, (5E,10E)-14-hydroxy-2,6,10-trimethylpentadeca-5,10-dien-4-one (4) and sargachromenol D (5), from Sargassum siliquastrum collected from the coast of the East Sea in South Korea by using activity-guided HPLC purification. The compounds effectively dilated depolarization (50mMK(+))-induced basilar artery contraction with EC50 values of 3.52±0.42 and 1.62±0.63μM, respectively, but only sargachromenol D (5) showed a vasodilatory effect on endothelin-1 (ET-1)-induced basilar artery contraction (EC50=9...
July 6, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712085/long-term-spatiotemporal-trends-and-health-risk-assessment-of-oyster-arsenic-levels-in-coastal-waters-of-northern-south-china-sea
#3
Xuefeng Wang, Lifei Wang, Xiaoping Jia, Donald A Jackson
Long-term spatiotemporal trends and health risk assessment of oyster arsenic levels in the coastal waters of northern South China Sea were investigated in order to help improve the quality and safety control and sustainable aquaculture for mollusks in China. Cultured oysters (Crassostrea rivularis) collected from the waters of 23 bays, harbors, and estuaries along the coast of northern South China Sea from 1989 to 2012 were examined for spatial patterns and long-term temporal trends of oyster arsenic levels...
July 15, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710829/spatiotemporal-evolutionary-epidemiology-of-h5n1-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-in-west-africa-and-nigeria-2006-2015
#4
P S Ekong, N M Fountain-Jones, M A Alkhamis
H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) was first observed in Nigeria in early 2006 and has now spread to more than 17 African countries having severe economic and public health implications. Here, we explore the spatiotemporal patterns of viral dispersal both among West African countries and within Nigeria using sequence data from hemagglutinin (HA) gene region of the virus. Analyses were performed within a statistical Bayesian framework using phylodynamic models on data sets comprising of all publically available HA sequence data collected from seven West African countries and Egypt between 2006 and 2015...
July 14, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693809/aliphatic-hydrocarbons-and-triterpane-biomarkers-in-mangrove-oyster-crassostrea-belcheri-from-the-west-coast-of-peninsular-malaysia
#5
Vahab Vaezzadeh, Mohamad Pauzi Zakaria, Chui Wei Bong
The Straits of Malacca is one of the world's busiest shipping routes where frequent oil spills occur. Rapid development in the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia is the other major source of petroleum pollution in this narrow waterway. In order to identify occurrence and origin of hydrocarbons in the Straits, mangrove oysters (Crassostrea belcheri) were collected from five sampling locations and analysed for n-alkanes and biomarkers. Soxhlet apparatus and two step column chromatography were used for extraction, purification and fractionation of the oysters...
July 7, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676172/metal-concentrations-and-toxicity-in-south-african-snoek-thyrsites-atun-and-yellowtail-seriola-lalandi
#6
Adina C Bosch, Bernadette O'Neill, Sven E Kerwath, Gunnar O Sigge, Louwrens C Hoffman
The concentrations of 16 metals were assessed in snoek(Thyrsites atun; n=20) and yellowtail (Seriola lalandi; n=37) sampled from the West and South-East coasts of South Africa. Variability was observed at both small (Al, Cr, Hg, Pb, Mn and Cu) and large (As and Cu) spatial scales while inter-specific examination revealed diverse metal concentrations in snoek (Higher levels: Cr, Mn, Co, Hg and Pb) and yellowtail (higher levels: Fe and Cu). Zn, As and Hg were positively correlated with yellowtail size with no such correlations in snoek...
July 1, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637484/seasonal-and-geographical-distribution-of-bacillary-dysentery-shigellosis-and-associated-climate-risk-factors-in-kon-tam-province-in-vietnam-from-1999-to-2013
#7
Hu Suk Lee, T T Ha Hoang, Phuc Pham-Duc, Mihye Lee, Delia Grace, Dac Cam Phung, Vu Minh Thuc, Hung Nguyen-Viet
BACKGROUND: Bacillary dysentery (BD) is an acute bacterial infection of the intestine caused by Shigella spp., with clinical symptoms ranging from fever to bloody diarrhoea to abdominal cramps to tenesmus. In Vietnam, enteric bacterial pathogens are an important cause of diarrhoea and most cases in children under 5 years of age are due to Shigella strains. The serogroups S. flexneri and S. sonnei are considered to be the most common. The main objective of this study was to, for the first time, assess the seasonal patterns and geographic distribution of BD in Vietnam, and to determine the climate risk factors associated with the incidence of BD in Kon Tum Province, where the highest rate of bacillary dysentery was observed from 1999 to 2013...
June 21, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637390/isolation-structural-elucidation-and-antiplasmodial-activity-of-fucosterol-compound-from-brown-seaweed-sargassum%C3%A2-linearifolium-against-malarial-parasite-plasmodium-falciparum
#8
Pachiappan Perumal, Rajamani Sowmiya, Sundaram Prasanna Kumar, Sundaram Ravikumar, Paramasivam Deepak, Govindasamy Balasubramani
The brown seaweed, Sargassum linearifolium (Turner) C. Agardh, 1820 is commonly available along the south-east coast of India. Its compound fucosterol was isolated and confirmed through spectral characterisation and chemical transformation methods. The antiplasmodial effect of the isolated fucosterol was investigated against the 3D7 chloroquine sensitive Plasmodium falciparum strain, parasitaemia percentage was determined at 48 h and morphological change was studied through microscopic examination after Giemsa staining...
June 21, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611408/phylogeography-of-petrolisthes-armatus-an-invasive-species-with-low-dispersal-ability
#9
Alexandra Hiller, Harilaos A Lessios
Theoretically, species with high population structure are likely to expand their range, because marginal populations are free to adapt to local conditions; however, meta-analyses have found a negative relation between structure and invasiveness. The crab Petrolisthes armatus has a wide native range, which has expanded in the last three decades. We sequenced 1718 bp of mitochondrial DNA from native and recently established populations to determine the population structure of the former and the origin of the latter...
June 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610318/two-new-species-of-trimma-pisces-gobiidae-from-fiji-south-western-pacific-ocean
#10
Richard Winterbottom
Two new species of Trimma are described from Fiji. Trimma bathum n. sp. lacks scales on the cheeks, opercle and predorsal midline, has 18-19 unbranched pectoral fin rays, an unbranched 5th pelvic fin ray that is 40-56% the length of the 4th ray, 17-18 gill rakers on the outer surface of the first gill arch, a U-shaped interorbital and a narrow slit-like postorbital trench, a low, median fleshy ridge extending half-way towards the orbit from the origin of the first dorsal fin, and, when freshly collected, a pink head and body with most body scales having an orange-brown spot or short bar at their centres...
May 24, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572925/origins-production-and-utilization-of-cassava-in-burkina-faso-a-contribution-of-a-neglected-crop-to-household-food-security
#11
Flibert Guira, Koussao Some, Donatien Kabore, Hagrétou Sawadogo-Lingani, Yves Traore, Aly Savadogo
Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a food plant introduced in Africa from America by the Portuguese in 1558. The objective of this study is to establish cassava origins, production, and utilization in Burkina Faso. The investigation was carried out in the regions of Center West, Cascades, Boucle du Mouhoun, Hauts Bassins, South West, and Center East of Burkina Faso. Eighteen cassava processing units and 226 farmers in 57 communities from the selected regions have been involved in the survey. The investigation showed that cassava was introduced to Burkina Faso, former Upper Volta from the costal countries, Gold Coast (now Ghana), by both local traders and the Roman Catholic White missionaries...
May 2017: Food Science & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567684/possible-maternal-offloading-of-metals-in-the-plasma-uterine-and-capsule-fluid-of-pregnant-ragged-tooth-sharks-carcharias-taurus-on-the-east-coast-of-south-africa
#12
Kristina Naidoo, Anil Chuturgoon, Geremy Cliff, Sanil Singh, Megan Ellis, Nicholas Otway, Andre Vosloo, Michael Gregory
We studied the possible metal offloading onto the progeny of three pregnant female ragged-tooth sharks (Carcharias taurus) (C. taurus). The presences of five metals, i.e. aluminium (Al), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and selenium (Se) were validated by mass spectrometry in the maternal plasma as well as the intracapsular and uterine fluids (UF) in which embryos develop. Metals were ranked in a decreasing concentration as follows: Plasma: As > Al > Se > Pb > Cd; ICF: As > Se > Al > Cd > Pb and UF: As > Se > Al > Cd > Pb...
July 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562139/population-genetic-structure-and-genetic-diversity-of-chinese-pomfret-at-the-coast-of-the-east-china-sea-and-the-south-china-sea
#13
Peng Sun, Baojun Tang, Fei Yin
The Chinese pomfret Pampus chinensis is one of the most economic and ecological important marine fish species in China. In the present study, the population genetic structure and genetic diversity of P. chinensis were evaluated from a total sample size of 180 individuals representing six populations from the East China Sea and the South China Sea using mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene. A total of 24 variable sites (including 3 singleton sites and 21 parsimony information sites) were observed, and 18 haplotypes were defined...
May 31, 2017: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554914/a-bespoke-mobile-application-for-the-longitudinal-assessment-of-depression-and-mood-during-pregnancy-protocol-of-a-feasibility-study
#14
Jose Salvador Marcano Belisario, Kevin Doherty, John O'Donoghue, Paul Ramchandani, Azeem Majeed, Gavin Doherty, Cecily Morrison, Josip Car
INTRODUCTION: Depression is a common mental health disorder during pregnancy, with important consequences for mothers and their children. Despite this, it goes undiagnosed and untreated in many women attending antenatal care. Smartphones could help support the prompt identification of antenatal depression in this setting. In addition, these devices enable the implementation of ecological momentary assessment techniques, which could be used to assess how mood is experienced during pregnancy...
May 29, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524816/phylogenetic-variation-of-chelonid-alphaherpesvirus-5-in-green-turtle-chelonia-mydas-populations-along-the-queensland-coast-australia
#15
E Ariel, F Nainu, K Jones, K Juntunen, I Bell, J Gaston, J Scott, S Trocini, G W Burgess
Sea turtle fibropapillomatosis (FP) is a disease marked by proliferation of benign but debilitating cutaneous and occasional visceral tumours, likely to be caused by chelonid alphaherpesvirus 5 (ChHV5). This study presents a phylogeny of ChHV5 strains on the east coast of Queensland, Australia and a validation for previously unused primers. Two different primer sets (gB-1534 and gB-813) were designed to target a region including part of the UL27 glycoprotein B (gB) gene and part of UL28 of ChHV5. Sequences obtained from FP tumours on juvenile green turtles (<65 cm CCL) had substantial homology with published ChHV5 sequences while a skin biopsy from a turtle without FP failed to react in the PCRs used in this study...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502454/seasonal-and-spatial-variations-of-marine-litter-on-the-south-eastern-black-sea%C3%A2-coast
#16
Yahya Terzi, Kadir Seyhan
The south-eastern Black Sea coast in Turkey was evaluated for marine litter composition and density covering nine beaches during four seasons. The marine litter (>2cm in size), was collected from the coast and categorized into material and usage categories. The data analysis showed that plastic was the most abundant litter (≥61.65%) by count and weight followed by styrofoam and fabric. The marine litter density ranged from 0.03 to 0.58 with a mean (±SD) of 0.16±0.02 items/m(2) by count. Based on weight, it varied between 0...
May 10, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443322/crassulacean-acid-metabolism-as-a-continuous-trait-variability-in-the-contribution-of-crassulacean-acid-metabolism-cam-in-populations-of-portulacaria-afra
#17
Lonnie J Guralnick, Kate Gladsky
Portulacaria afra L. is a dominant facultative CAM species growing in the Southeastern Cape of South Africa. P. afra is well adapted to regions of the Spekboom thicket in areas of limited and sporadic rainfall. P. afra populations occur in isolated drainages. We hypothesized the utilization of CAM would vary in the different populations in response to rainfall and temperature gradients. Carbon isotope composition can be used to determine the contribution of CAM in leaf tissue. P. afra leaves of populations were analyzed in transects running south to north and east to west in locations from the coast to elevations of 1400 m...
April 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426782/peste-des-petits-ruminants-ppr-a-neglected-tropical-disease-in-maghreb-region-of-north-africa-and-its-threat-to-europe
#18
Ratiba Baazizi, Mana Mahapatra, Brian Donald Clarke, Khatima Ait-Oudhia, Djamel Khelef, Satya Parida
BACKGROUND: Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a contagious disease listed by the World Organisation for Animal health (OIE) as being a specific hazard. It affects sheep, goats, and wild ungulates, and is prevalent throughout the developing world particularly Asia, the Middle East, and Africa. PPR has been targeted for eradication by 2030 by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the OIE, after the successful eradication of the related disease, rinderpest in cattle...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403767/tick-borne-infectious-diseases-in-australia
#19
REVIEW
Stephen R Graves, John Stenos
Tick bites in Australia can lead to a variety of illnesses in patients. These include infection, allergies, paralysis, autoimmune disease, post-infection fatigue and Australian multisystem disorder. Rickettsial (Rickettsia spp.) infections (Queensland tick typhus, Flinders Island spotted fever and Australian spotted fever) and Q fever (Coxiella burnetii) are the only systemic bacterial infections that are known to be transmitted by tick bites in Australia. Three species of local ticks transmit bacterial infection following a tick bite: the paralysis tick (Ixodes holocyclus) is endemic on the east coast of Australia and causes Queensland tick typhus due to R...
April 17, 2017: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341153/elemental-distribution-and-trace-metal-contamination-in-the-surface-sediment-of-south-east-coast-of-india
#20
S Barath Kumar, R K Padhi, A K Mohanty, K K Satpathy
Spatial distribution and potential ecological risk of trace metals in the surface sediment of south east coast of India covering eight different ecosystems was studied. The concentration of major elements viz. Ca, Mg, K, Ti and trace metals viz. Cr, Mn, Co, Al, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb were analysed by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence technique. Contamination factor, geo-accumulation index, probable effect level, enrichment factor and pollution load index were calculated to evaluate the pollution status...
January 30, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
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