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Caustics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682245/caustic-ingestion-in-children-in-south-of-iran-a-two-year-single-center-study
#1
Seyed Mohsen Dehghani, Maryam Bahmanyar, Hazhir Javaherizadeh
BACKGROUND Caustic ingestion is one of the most important injuries during childhood, which leads to serious sequel. In this study, we evaluated the clinical manifestations, endoscopic appearance, complications, and treatment results in patients with caustic ingestion in our hospital. METHODS Hospital chart of patients with caustic ingestion who admitted to Nemazee Teaching Hospital affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences during a 2-year period (2015-2016) were reviewed retrospectively. The age, sex, nature of the caustic agent, clinical presentations, grade of injury in endoscopy, degree of parents' education, site of ingestion, accidental or intentional attempts, complications, and outcomes were reviewed...
January 2018: Middle East Journal of Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669210/sodium-hydroxide-production-from-seawater-desalination-brine-process-design-and-energy-efficiency
#2
Fengmin Du, David Warsinger, Tamanna Urmi, Gregory P Thiel, Amit Kumar, John H Lienhard
The ability to increase pH is a crucial need for desalination pretreatment (especially in reverse osmosis) and for other industries, but processes used to raise pH often incur significant emissions and non-renewable resource use. Alternatively, waste brine from desalination can be used to create sodium hydroxide, via appropriate concentration and purification pretreatment steps, for input into the chlor-alkali process. In this work, an efficient process train (with variations) is developed and modeled for sodium hydroxide production from seawater desalination brine using membrane chlor-alkali electrolysis...
April 18, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666025/-ingestion-of-caustic-substances-an-analysis-of-the-safety-and-benefit-of-a-less-aggressive-protocol
#3
Noelia Ripoll Trujillo, Lidia Martínez Sánchez, Anna Habimana Jordana, Victoria Trenchs Sainz de La Maza, Víctor Vila Miravet, Carles Luaces Cubells
INTRODUCTION: The ingestion of a caustic agent is the most common cause of admission after being in contact with a domestic product. A group of patients could be considered low risk and not require aggressive procedures such a corticosteroid administration and endoscopy, especially in the paediatric population. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and benefit of a less aggressive protocol for patients defined as low risk. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An analytical-observational study conducted on patients who consulted for caustic ingestion between January 2011 and December 2015...
April 14, 2018: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652218/adsorptive-conversion-of-nitrogen-dioxide-from-etching-vent-gases-over-activated-carbon
#4
Mei-Ling Fang, Ching-Yi Wu, Ming-Shean Chou
Some metal etching operations emit limited flow rates of waste gases with reddish-brown NO2 fume which may cause visual and acidic-odor complaints as well as negative healthy effects. In this study, tests were performed by passing caustic-treated waste gases vented from Al-etching operations through columns packed either with virgin or regenerated GAC (granular activated carbon) to test their adsorptive conversion performance of NO2 in the gases. The gases contained 5-55 ppm NO2 and acetic and nitric acids of below 3 ppm...
April 13, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625770/temperature-dependence-of-antibody-adsorption-in-protein-a-affinity-chromatography
#5
Walpurga Krepper, Peter Satzer, Beate Maria Beyer, Alois Jungbauer
Staphylococcal protein A affinity chromatography is a well-established platform for purification of clinical-grade antibodies. The wild type ligand has been mutated to improve caustic stability, elution behavior, and/or to increase binding capacity. Several modified protein A ligands are nowadays commercially available, one of them being the thermosensitive chromatography medium Byzen Pro from Nomadic Bioscience Co., Ltd. According to the manufacturer, Byzen Pro has the ability to release IgG upon a change in temperature...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620016/electronic-scattering-focusing-and-resonance-by-a-spherical-barrier-in-weyl-semimetals
#6
Ming Lu, Xiao-Xiao Zhang
We solve the Weyl electron scattered by a spherical step potential barrier. Tuning the incident energy and the potential radius, one can enter both quasiclassical and quantum regimes. Transport features related to far-field currents and integrated cross sections are studied to reveal the preferred forward scattering. In the quasiclassical regime, a strong focusing effect along the incident spherical axis is found in addition to optical caustic patterns. In the quantum regime, at energies of successive angular momentum resonances, a polar aggregation of electron density is found inside the potential...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603216/ohmic-heating-assisted-lye-peeling-of-pears
#7
Sarvesh Gupta, Sudhir K Sastry
Currently, high concentrations (15% to 18%) of lye (sodium hydroxide) are used in peeling pears, constituting a wastewater handling and disposal problem for fruit processors. In this study, the effect of ohmic heating on lye peeling of pears was investigated. Pears were peeled using 0.5%, 1%, 2%, and 3% NaOH under different electric field strengths at two run times and their peeled yields were compared to that obtained at 2% and 18% NaOH with conventional heating. Results revealed that ohmic heating results in greater than 95% peeled yields and the best peel quality at much lower concentrations of lye (2% NaOH at 532 V/m and 3% NaOH at 426 and 479 V/m) than those obtained under conventional heating conditions...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573796/evaluation-of-alternatives-to-cautery-disbudding-of-dairy-goat-kids-using-physiological-measures-of-immediate-and-longer-term-pain
#8
Melissa N Hempstead, Joseph R Waas, Mairi Stewart, Vanessa M Cave, Mhairi A Sutherland
We evaluated alternatives to cautery disbudding of goat kids using physiological measures of immediate and longer-term pain. Fifty Saanen doe kids were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 treatments (n = 10/treatment): (1) cautery disbudding (CAUT), (2) caustic paste disbudding (CASP), (3) liquid nitrogen disbudding (CRYO), (4) clove oil injected into the horn bud (CLOV), or (5) sham disbudding (SHAM). Serum cortisol and haptoglobin concentrations were measured from blood samples collected immediately before treatment (baseline) and at 15, 30, 60, and 120 min and then again at 6 and 24 h post-treatment...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560027/reinforcement-of-the-bio-gas-conversion-from-pyrolysis-of-wheat-straw-by-hot-caustic-pre-extraction
#9
Lilong Zhang, Keli Chen, Liang He, Lincai Peng
Background: Pyrolysis has attracted growing interest as a versatile means to convert biomass into valuable products. Wheat straw has been considered to be a promising biomass resource due to its low price and easy availability. However, most of the products obtained from wheat straw pyrolysis are usually of low quality. Hot soda extraction has the advantage of selective dissolution of lignin whilst retaining the carbohydrates. This can selectively convert biomass into high-quality desired products and suppress the formation of undesirable products...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554801/highly-sensitive-and-exceptionally-wide-dynamic-range-detection-of-ammonia-gas-by-indium-hexacyanoferrate-nanoparticles-using-ftir-spectroscopy
#10
Supone Manakasettharn, Akira Takahashi, Tohru Kawamoto, Keiko Noda, Yutaka Sugiyama, Tohru Nakamura
Ammonia gas is useful but caustic thus its concentration is monitored depending on applications. We prepared indium hexacyanoferrate nanoparticles (InHCF-NPs, HCF = [FeII (CN)6 ]4- ) with average diameter around 8 nm by simple reaction at room temperature between In cations and HCF anions, and found the unique functionality of InHCF-NPs which were capable of highly sensitive (16 ppb) and exceptionally wide range (190000, 16 ppb - 0.3 %) detection of ammonia gas within 6 min by IR measurements. Slope changes of the IR peak ratio of adsorbed ammonium over CN moieties in InHCF framework indicated a good log-log linear correlation along gas concentrations, in which wide dynamic range over 105 was realized for the first time in the field of ammonia gas detection...
March 20, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544328/communication-systematic-elimination-of-stokes-divergences-emanating-from-complex-phase-space-caustics
#11
Werner Koch, David J Tannor
Stokes phenomenon refers to the fact that an asymptotic expansion of complex functions can differ in different regions of the complex plane, and that beyond the so-called Stokes lines the expansion has an unphysical divergence. An important special case is when the Stokes lines emanate from phase space caustics of a complex trajectory manifold. In this case, symmetry determines that to second order there is a double coverage of the space, one portion of which is unphysical. Building on the seminal but laconic findings of Adachi, we show that the deviation from second order can be used to rigorously determine the Stokes lines and therefore the region of the space that should be removed...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533267/emergency-computed-tomography-predicts-caustic-esophageal-stricture-formation
#12
Matthieu Bruzzi, Mircea Chirica, Matthieu Resche-Rigon, Helene Corte, Thibault Voron, Emile Sarfati, Anne-Marie Zagdanski, Pierre Cattan
BACKGROUND: Endoscopy is the best predictor of stricture formation after caustic ingestion. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to compare the accuracy of emergency computed tomography (CT) and endoscopy in predicting risks of esophageal stricture. METHODS: We describe a CT classification of esophageal caustic injuries: Grade I show normal esophagus; Grade IIa display internal enhancement of the esophageal mucosa and enhancement of the outer wall conferring a "target" aspect; Grade IIb present as a fine rim of external esophageal wall enhancement...
March 12, 2018: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528033/incidence-of-childhood-eosinophilic-esophagitis-in-central-brazil-how-many-are-we-missing
#13
L O Gonçalves, M M Lopes, E R Rezende, G Rs Segundo
BACKGROUND: Few studies have assessed the incidence of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) in childhood. The study aim is to determine the incidence of EoE in pediatric patients submitted to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGE), with analysis of epidemiological data regarding sex, age, symptomatology, the frequency of atopy and endoscopic and histological findings. METHODS: A retrospective, observational and analytical study performed with an evaluation of medical records of patients aged 0 to 14 years who underwent to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in a tertiary hospital from January 2004 to January 2014...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Investigational Allergology & Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527559/eus-guided-gastroenterostomy-in-management-of-benign-gastric-outlet-obstruction
#14
Yen-I Chen, Theodore James, Amol Agarwal, Todd H Baron, Takao Itoi, Rastislav Kunda, Jose Nieto, Majidah Bukhari, Olaya Brewer Gutierrez, Omid Sanaei, Robert Moran, Lea Fayad, Mouen A Khashab
Background and study aims:  Endoscopic ultrasound-guided gastroenterostomy (EUS-GE) in malignant gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) appears to be promising; however, its role in benign GOO is unclear. The aim of this study was to ascertain the clinical efficacy and safety of EUS-GE in benign GOO. Patients and methods : This was an international retrospective series involving 5 tertiary centers. Consecutive patients who underwent EUS-GE between 1/2013 - 10/2016 for benign GOO were included...
March 2018: Endoscopy International Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29509534/esophageal-reconstruction-with-the-stomach-a-functional-dilemma
#15
Dragoş Predescu, Silviu Constantinoiu
Background: A few decades ago, esophageal substitution was mainly dedicated particularly in postcaustic esophageal stenosis; currently, the reconstruction has expanded its palette of indications to other areas of benign esophageal pathology (severe motor disorders, esophageal achalasia with multiple relapses, peptic stenosis, etc.) but has also become a quasi-obligatory final time in the esophagectomy for cancer whenever it is possible. The techniques of esophageal reconstruction using the stomach, regardless of the indication and the chosen technical option, remain a valuable and effective method...
January 2018: Chirurgia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29489543/complex-intraoral-reconstruction-using-a-single-free-anterolateral-thigh-flap-and-supermicrosurgery-after-corrosive-ingestion-in-a-14-month-old-child
#16
Mohammed H El Fahar
Oral chemical burn injuries induce more damage to the underlying tissues with extensive scarring. It is very well known that alkali causes severe liquefaction necrosis and injury to the deeper tissues. Pediatric facial burns must be managed thoroughly and always require complex reconstruction, which is a challenging process. So, any reconstructive surgeon must be aware of all the deformities that may have significant functional and aesthetic impact on the burn survivors especially children. Few medical studies addressed pediatric microsurgical reconstruction for oral burn injuries induced by chemical materials...
February 27, 2018: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29478253/blood-vessel-occlusion-with-erythrocyte-aggregates-causes-burn-injury-progression-microvasculature-dilation-as-a-possible-therapy
#17
Richard A F Clark, Justine Fenner, Arielle Sasson, Steve A McClain, Adam J Singer, Marcia G Tonnesen
Other than radiation, caustic strong alkali insults, and massive over-reactive inflammation (pyoderma gangrenosum), injury progression after trauma is usually secondary to ischemia from decreased blood vessel perfusion. Impeded blood flow contributes to injury progression in a variety of disorders including venous stasis ulcers, arterial ulcers, diabetic ulcers, flap and graft necrosis, sickle cell disease, cryoglobulinemia and other vasculopathies, vasculitis, post-myocardial infarction, and post stroke. The cause of impeded blood flow in these disorders/diseases is well known...
February 25, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459340/wet-air-oxidation-of-cresylic-spent-caustic-a-model-compound-study-over-graphene-oxide-go-and-ruthenium-go-catalysts
#18
Aditti S Barge, Prakash D Vaidya
Wet air oxidation (WAO) is a candidate technique for the effective treatment of spent caustic wastewater. In this work, cresols were chosen as model compounds to represent cresylic spent caustic wash. Graphene oxide (GO) is a promising catalyst as well as support for the wet oxidation process, due to its unique structure and properties. For the first time, GO and ruthenium supported on graphene oxide (Ru/GO) were employed for WAO of cresylic isomers. The aforesaid materials were synthesized by modified Hummer's method and characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456285/improved-power-and-long-term-performance-of-microbial-fuel-cell-with-fe-n-c-catalyst-in-air-breathing-cathode
#19
Iwona Gajda, John Greenman, Carlo Santoro, Alexey Serov, Chris Melhuish, Plamen Atanassov, Ioannis A Ieropoulos
Power output limitation is one of the main challenges that needs to be addressed for full-scale applications of the Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) technology. Previous studies have examined electrochemical performance of different cathode electrodes including the development of novel iron based electrocatalysts, however the long-term investigation into continuously operating systems is rare. This work aims to study the application of platinum group metals-free (PGM-free) catalysts integrated into an air-breathing cathode of the microbial fuel cell operating on activated sewage sludge and supplemented with acetate as the carbon energy source...
February 1, 2018: Energy: Technologies, Resources, Reserves, Demands, Impact, Conservation, Management, Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437462/higher-dimensional-caustics-in-nonlinear-compton-scattering
#20
Vasily Yu Kharin, Daniel Seipt, Sergey G Rykovanov
A description of the spectral and angular distributions of Compton scattered light in collisions of intense laser pulses with high-energy electrons is unwieldy and usually requires numerical simulations. However, due to the large number of parameters affecting the spectra such numerical investigations can become computationally expensive. Using methods of catastrophe theory we predict higher-dimensional caustics in the spectra of the Compton scattered light, which are associated with bright narrow-band spectral lines, and in the simplest case can be controlled by the value of the linear chirp of the pulse...
January 26, 2018: Physical Review Letters
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