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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238173/a-light-assisted-in-situ-embedment-of-silver-nanoparticles-to-prepare-functionalized-fabrics
#1
Her Shuang Toh, Roxanne Line Faure, Liyana Bte Mohd Amin, Crystal Yu Fang Hay, Saji George
This article presents a simple, one-step, in situ generation of silver nanoparticle-functionalized fabrics with antibacterial properties, circumventing the conventional, multistep, time-consuming methods. Silver nanoparticle formation was studied with a library of capping agents (branched polyethylenimine [BPEI] of molecular weight [Mw] 10,000 and 25,000, polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyethylene glycol, polyvinylalcohol and citrate) mixed with silver nitrate. The mixture was then exposed to an assortment of light wavelengths (ultraviolet, infrared and simulated solar light) for studying the light-assisted synthesis of nanoparticles...
2017: Nanotechnology, Science and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221087/scaling-the-abruptly-autofocusing-beams-in-the-direct-space
#2
Zhenyu Zhao, Chen Xie, DanDan Ni, Yuquan Zhang, Yanfeng Li, Francois Courvoisier, Minglie Hu
We propose a simple technique to scale the abruptly autofocusing beams in the direct space by introducing a scaling factor in the phase. Analytical formulas are deduced based on optical caustics, explicitly revealing how the scaling factor controls location, peak intensity, and size of the focal spot. We demonstrate that the multiplication of a scaling factor on the phase is equivalent to the axial-scaling transformation under the paraxial approximation. Further numerical and experimental results confirm theoretical predictions...
November 27, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219350/generation-of-caustics-and-rogue-waves-from-nonlinear-instability
#3
Akbar Safari, Robert Fickler, Miles J Padgett, Robert W Boyd
Caustics are phenomena in which nature concentrates the energy of waves and may exhibit rogue-type behavior. Although they are known mostly in optics, caustics are intrinsic to all wave phenomena. As we demonstrate in this Letter, the formation of caustics and consequently rogue events in linear systems requires strong phase fluctuations. We show that nonlinear phase shifts can generate sharp caustics from even small fluctuations. Moreover, in that the wave amplitude increases dramatically in caustics, nonlinearity is usually inevitable...
November 17, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216023/corticosteroids-for-preventing-caustic-esophageal-strictures-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
Raji Katibe, Ibtihal Abdelgadir, Paraic McGrogan, Anthony K Akobeng
OBJECTIVES: Caustic ingestion can have a complicated clinical course.Corticosteroids are widely used but there is uncertainty about its role in preventing esophageal stricture formation following caustic ingestion.This systematic review and meta-analysis assessed the available clinical evidence regarding the efficacy and safety of corticosteroids for preventing esophageal strictures following caustic injury. METHODS: We assessed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared corticosteroids versus no corticosteroids in the prevention of esophageal stricture formation following caustic ingestion...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215277/review-of-the-scientific-understanding-of-radioactive-waste-at-the-u-s-doe-hanford-site
#5
Reid A Peterson, Edgar C Buck, Jaehun Chun, Richard C Daniel, Daniel L Herting, Eugene S Ilton, Gregg J Lumetta, Sue B Clark
This paper reviews the origin and chemical and rheological complexity of radioactive waste at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site. The waste, stored in underground tanks, was generated via three distinct processes over decades of plutonium extraction operations. Although close records were kept of original waste disposition, tank-to-tank transfers and conditions that impede equilibrium complicate our understanding of the chemistry, phase composition, and rheology of the waste. Tank waste slurries comprise particles and aggregates from nano to micron scales, with varying densities, morphologies, heterogeneous compositions, and complicated responses to flow regimes and process conditions...
December 7, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207003/risk-factors-for-symptomatic-esophageal-stricture-after-caustic-ingestion-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#6
P Le Naoures, A Hamy, N Lerolle, E Métivier, E Lermite, A Venara
Esophageal stricture is a major secondary complication of ingesting caustic agents. We examined our experiences with caustic injuries with a view to finding clinical and biological risk factors of esophageal strictures secondary to caustic ingestion. Records were retrieved for 58 adults admitted consecutively to our intensive care unit for caustic ingestion. Fifty cases were managed conservatively and therefore retained for analyses. Patients were grouped according to whether they developed strictures or not during the follow-up period...
June 1, 2017: Diseases of the Esophagus: Official Journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201954/accuracy-of-endoscopy-in-predicting-the-depth-of-mucosal-injury-following-caustic-ingestion-a-cross-sectional-study
#7
Athena Alipour-Faz, Maryam Yousefi, Hassan Peyvandi
Introduction: Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) is currently considered as the primary method of determining the degree of mucosal injury following caustic ingestion. The present study aimed to evaluate the screening performance characteristics of EGD in predicting the depth of gastrointestinal mucosal injuries following caustic ingestion. Methods: Adult patients who were referred to emergency department due to ingestion of corrosive materials, over a 7-year period, were enrolled to this diagnostic accuracy study...
2017: Emergency (Tehran, Iran)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195387/an-in-situ-simultaneous-measurement-system-combining-photoelasticity-and-caustics-methods-for-blast-induced-dynamic-fracture
#8
Peng Qiu, Zhongwen Yue, Shichun Zhang, Zhanfei Li
Photoelasticity and caustics methods are extensively used in the history of dynamic fracture mechanics. However, there is little work for the combination of them in the same experiment associated with high loading rate in extreme conditions. In the present work, it is the first time to build a simultaneous measurement system which can use photoelasticity and caustics methods at the same instant for in situ optical investigations of blast-induced dynamic fracture. To illustrate the capability of this system, an explosion experiment using a 2D epoxy plate is conducted, yielding consistent results between two methods...
November 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168156/the-anesthetic-management-of-button-battery-ingestion-in-children
#9
Richard J Ing, Monica Hoagland, Lena Mayes, Mark Twite
PURPOSE: Injuries related to button battery ingestion are common in children. This review provides an outline of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, management, and anesthetic implications in children who have ingested a button battery. SOURCE: A literature search was conducted in the United States National Library of Medicine PubMed database using the terms "button battery ingestion" and "children' and "removal" and "surgery" and "anesthesia". Ninety-six articles published in English were found from 1983-2017, and 62 of these articles were incorporated into this review...
November 22, 2017: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161619/the-application-of-ultrasound-and-enzymes-in-textile-processing-of-greige-cotton
#10
REVIEW
Michael Easson, Brian Condon, Andres Villalpando, SeChin Chang
A review is reported herein of the research progress made at the USDA's Southern Regional Research Center to provide an ultrasound and enzymatic alternative to the current textile processing method of scouring greige cotton textile with caustic chemicals. The review covers early efforts to measure pectin and wax removal from greige cotton textiles using standard wicking methodology and further describes an investigation of newly discovered polygalacturonase enzymes as bioscouring agents. Additional research is reviewed involving efforts to characterize and optimize the ultrasound-enhanced enzymatic scouring process through a statistical examination of the operating parameters of power, enzyme concentration, ultrasonic frequency and time...
November 13, 2017: Ultrasonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137793/co-treatment-of-spent-cathode-carbon-in-caustic-and-acid-leaching-process-under-ultrasonic-assisted-for-preparation-of-sic
#11
Jie Yuan, Jin Xiao, Fachuang Li, Bingjie Wang, Zhen Yao, Bailie Yu, Liuyun Zhang
Spent cathode carbon (SCC) from aluminum electrolysis has been treated in ultrasonic-assisted caustic leaching and acid leaching process, and purified SCC used as carbon source to synthesize silicon carbide (SiC) was investigated. Chemical and mineralogical properties have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry (TGA-DSC). Various experimental factors temperature, time, liquid-solid ratio, ultrasonic power, and initial concentration of alkali or acid affecting on SCC leaching result were studied...
March 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112883/a-new-paradigm-for-gerd-pathogenesis-not-acid-injury-but-cytokine-mediated-inflammation-driven-by-hif-2%C3%AE-a-potential-role-for-targeting-hif-2%C3%AE-to-prevent-and-treat-reflux-esophagitis
#12
REVIEW
Rhonda F Souza, Liela Bayeh, Stuart J Spechler, Uttam K Tambar, Richard K Bruick
Traditionally, reflux esophagitis was assumed to develop as a caustic, chemical injury inflicted by refluxed acid. Recently, however, studies in rats and humans suggest that reflux esophagitis develops as a cytokine-mediated inflammatory injury, with hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-2α playing a major role. In response to the reflux of acid and bile, HIF-2α in esophageal epithelial cells becomes stabilized, thereby increasing production of pro-inflammatory cytokines that attract T lymphocytes and other inflammatory cells to damage the esophagus...
November 4, 2017: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112388/electrochemical-ammonia-recovery-from-source-separated-urine-for-microbial-protein-production
#13
Marlies E R Christiaens, Sylvia Gildemyn, Silvio Matassa, Tess Ysebaert, Jo De Vrieze, Korneel Rabaey
Conventional plant and meat protein production have low nitrogen usage efficiencies and high energy needs. Microbial protein (MP) is an alternative that offers higher nitrogen conversion efficiencies with low energy needs if nitrogen is recovered from a concentrated waste source such as source-separated urine. An electrochemical cell (EC) was optimized for ammonia recovery as NH3/H2 gas mixtures usable for MP production. Undiluted hydrolyzed urine was fed to the caustic-generating cathode compartment for ammonia stripping with redirection to the anode compartment for additional ammonium extraction...
November 21, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050613/improvement-of-alkali-efficiency-for-purification-of-dissolving-pulp-by-a-modified-cold-caustic-extraction-process
#14
Liang He, Qing-Qing Guan, Lin-Cai Peng, Ke-Li Chen, Xin-Sheng Chai
In this study, a reutilization of caustic lye during cold caustic extraction (i.e., CCE) process to produce high-purity dissolving pulp and high-concentrated hemicellulose solution was proposed. The results showed that the lye can be reused about 12 times for producing high-purity dissolving pulps. With the number of CCE stages of 12, the hemicellulose in the lye can be auto-concentrated to about 37g/L. The alkali efficiency of the modified CCE process was about 6 (or 3) times better than the traditional CCE process with low- (or middle-) consistency of pulps...
December 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047820/analytic-conic-constants-to-reduce-the-spherical-aberration-of-a-single-lens-used-in-collimated-light
#15
Maximino Avendaño-Alejo, Edwin Román-Hernández, Luis Castañeda, Victor Ivan Moreno-Oliva
We study the formation of caustic surfaces produced by conic lenses, considering a plane wavefront propagating parallel to the optical axis. The shape of the caustic can be modified by changing the parameters of the lens in such a way that if we are able to vanish the caustic, the optical system produces the sharpest diffraction-limited images. Alternatively, caustic surfaces with a large area can be applied to the design of non-imaging optical systems, with potential applications such as diffusers of light for illumination or solar concentrators...
August 1, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047662/spherical-aberration-of-an-optical-system-and-its-influence-on-depth-of-focus
#16
Antonín Mikš, Petr Pokorný
This paper analyzes the influence of spherical aberration on the depth of focus of symmetrical optical systems for imaging of axial points. A calculation of a beam's caustics is discussed using ray equations in the image plane and considering longitudinal spherical aberration as well. Concurrently, the influence of aberration coefficients on extremes of such a curve is presented. Afterwards, conditions for aberration coefficients are derived if the Strehl definition should be the same in two symmetrically placed planes with respect to the paraxial image plane...
June 10, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047513/bow-shaped-caustics-from-conical-prisms-a-13th-century-account-of-rainbow-formation-from-robert-grosseteste-s-de-iride
#17
Joshua S Harvey, Hannah E Smithson, Clive R Siviour, Giles E M Gasper, Sigbjørn O Sønnesyn, Brian K Tanner, Tom C B McLeish
The rainbow has been the subject of discussion across a variety of historical periods and cultures, and numerous optical explanations have been suggested. Here, we further explore the scientific treatise De iride [On the Rainbow] written by Robert Grosseteste in the 13th century. Attempting to account for the shape of the rainbow, Grosseteste bases his explanation on the optical properties of transparent cones, which he claims can give rise to arc-shaped projections through refraction. By stating that atmospheric phenomena are reducible to the geometric optics of a conical prism, the De iride lays out a coherent and testable hypothesis...
July 1, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041208/passive-compensation-of-laser-induced-higher-order-aberrations-in-high-power-nir-optics
#18
Martin Stubenvoll, Bernd Schäfer, Klaus Mann
We report a method for passive compensation of thermally induced focal shifts and higher-order aberrations of NIR laser processing optics. Theoretical considerations are made on the elimination of aberrations including polarization effects using a multi-stage compensation element with optical flats of both positive and negative dn/dT. A compensation layout is designed and optimized utilizing numerical simulations of thermo-optic effects. Based on these findings, optical elements for compensation of an F-Theta objective are manufactured...
October 16, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036912/caustic-ingestion-in-the-elderly-influence-of-age-on-clinical-outcome
#19
Blazena Caganova, Tatiana Foltanova, Erik Puchon, Elena Ondriasova, Silvia Plackova, Tomas Fazekas, Magdalena Kuzelova
Caustic poisonings are still associated with many fatalities. Studies focusing on the elderly are rare. The purpose of the present study was to compare the clinical outcomes of caustic ingestion injury in elderly and non-elderly adults with regard to gender, intent of exposure, substance ingested, severity of mucosal injury, complications, and mortality. Caustic substance exposures reported to the National Toxicological Information Centre in Slovakia during 1998-2015 were reviewed retrospectively. The patients were divided into two groups: the non-elderly (<60 years) and elderly adults (≥60 years)...
October 14, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036140/wavefronts-caustic-and-intensity-of-a-plane-wave-refracted-by-an-arbitrary-surface-the-axicon-and-the-plano-spherical-lenses
#20
Paula Ortega-Vidals, Omar de Jesús Cabrera-Rosas, Ernesto Espíndola Ramos, Salvador Alejandro Juárez Reyes, Israel Julían Macías, Gilberto Silva-Ortigoza, Ramón Silva-Ortigoza, Citlalli Teresa Sosa-Sánchez
The aim of the present work is to obtain an integral representation of the field associated with the refraction of a plane wave by an arbitrary surface. To this end, in the first part we consider two optical media with refraction indexes n1 and n2 separated by an arbitrary interface, and we show that the optical path length, ϕ, associated with the evolution of the plane wave is a complete integral of the eikonal equation in the optical medium with refraction index n2. Then by using the k function procedure introduced by Stavroudis, we define a new complete integral, S, of the eikonal equation...
September 1, 2017: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
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