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Caustics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036912/caustic-ingestion-in-the-elderly-influence-of-age-on-clinical-outcome
#1
Blazena Caganova, Tatiana Foltanova, Erik Puchon, Elena Ondriasova, Silvia Plackova, Tomas Fazekas, Magdalena Kuzelova
Caustic poisonings are still associated with many fatalities. Studies focusing on the elderly are rare. The purpose of the present study was to compare the clinical outcomes of caustic ingestion injury in elderly and non-elderly adults with regard to gender, intent of exposure, substance ingested, severity of mucosal injury, complications, and mortality. Caustic substance exposures reported to the National Toxicological Information Centre in Slovakia during 1998-2015 were reviewed retrospectively. The patients were divided into two groups: the non-elderly (<60 years) and elderly adults (≥60 years)...
October 14, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036140/wavefronts-caustic-and-intensity-of-a-plane-wave-refracted-by-an-arbitrary-surface-the-axicon-and-the-plano-spherical-lenses
#2
Paula Ortega-Vidals, Omar de Jesús Cabrera-Rosas, Ernesto Espíndola Ramos, Salvador Alejandro Juárez Reyes, Israel Julían Macías, Gilberto Silva-Ortigoza, Ramón Silva-Ortigoza, Citlalli Teresa Sosa-Sánchez
The aim of the present work is to obtain an integral representation of the field associated with the refraction of a plane wave by an arbitrary surface. To this end, in the first part we consider two optical media with refraction indexes n1 and n2 separated by an arbitrary interface, and we show that the optical path length, ϕ, associated with the evolution of the plane wave is a complete integral of the eikonal equation in the optical medium with refraction index n2. Then by using the k function procedure introduced by Stavroudis, we define a new complete integral, S, of the eikonal equation...
September 1, 2017: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036052/geometrical-optics-and-optimal-transport
#3
Jacob Rubinstein, Gershon Wolansky
The Fermat principle is generalized to a system of rays. It is shown that all the ray mappings that are compatible with two given intensities of a monochromatic wave, measured at two planes, are stationary points of a canonical functional, which is the weighted average of the actions of all the rays. It is further shown that there exist at least two stationary points for this functional, implying that in the geometrical optics regime the phase from intensity problem has inherently more than one solution. The caustic structures of all the possible ray mappings are analyzed...
October 1, 2017: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016329/preliminary-evaluation-of-percutaneous-treatment-of-echinococcal-cysts-without-injection-of-scolicidal-agent
#4
Giovanni Firpo, Ambra Vola, Raffaella Lissandrin, Francesca Tamarozzi, Enrico Brunetti
Puncture, Aspiration, Injection of scolicidal agent, Re-aspiration is the most widely used percutaneous treatment of cystic echinococcosis (CE). Among its perceived risks is chemical sclerosing cholangitis, a serious complication due to the caustic effect of the scolicidal solution on the biliary tree, when a patent cystobiliary fistula occurs. To simplify the protocol, we decided to omit injection and reaspiration of the scolicidal agent and to implement a full course of albendazole (ABZ) therapy instead of the routine 1-month ABZ prophylaxis...
October 2, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977311/toxic-exposures-in-children-involving-legally-and-illegally-commercialized-household-sanitizers
#5
Alessandra Marcuz de Souza Campos, Fábio Bucaretchi, Luciane Cristina Rodrigues Fernandes, Carla Borrasca Fernandes, Eduardo Mello de Capitani, Ana Raquel Medeiros Beck
OBJECTIVES: To analyze and to compare clinical repercussions of accidents involving legally and illegally commercialized household sanitizers in children under 7 years of age. METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional design was used to collect data from electronic database of a regional Poison Control Center during one year. Data were analyzed by means of descriptive non-parametric statistics and association tests. Results: The sample had 737 reported cases. Most of the accidents occurred with children under 3 years of age (median: 1 year of age; interquartile interval: 1-3 years of age), at home (92...
January 2017: Revista Paulista de Pediatria: Orgão Oficial da Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963377/a-frog-in-the-throat
#6
Hunniya Waseem, Matthew Welch
CLINICAL INTRODUCTION: A 44-year-old woman, with an unremarkable medical history, presented in the middle of the night with discomfort in her throat. She described being assaulted by an assailant who put his 'fist in her mouth', trying to suffocate her. On examination, she had normal observations and no signs of injury, other than scratch marks around her mouth; she reported no odynophagia and was able to swallow fluids readily. During examination, she complained that lying flat made her increasingly uncomfortable and was causing burgeoning dyspnoea...
October 2017: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957268/practical-algorithm-for-custom-made-caustic-beams
#7
Timor Melamed, Amir Shlivinski
We present a practical algorithm for designing an aperture field (source) that propagates along a predefined generic beam trajectory that consists of both convex and concave sections. We employ here the mechanism that forms the well-known Airy beam in which the beam trajectory follows a smooth convex caustic of the geometric optics rays and generalize it for a class of beams that are referred to as "caustic beams" (CBs). The implementation is based on "back-tracing" rays from the predefined beam trajectory to the source's aperture to form its phase distribution...
July 1, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957184/caustic-beams-from-unusual-powers-of-the-spectral-phase
#8
Pablo Vaveliuk, Alberto Lencina, Óscar Martínez-Matos
Caustic optical beams arising from a spectral phase whose power lies in an unusual range of values less than two are presented. Unlike what happens for conventional phase powers greater than two, it is feasible to generate caustic structures having properties that do not follow the established sorting. For instance, an asymptotic cusp caustic beam having a cusp point at infinity is demonstrated. For the sake of completeness, the caustic beam properties are analyzed within the whole real range of the phase power...
October 1, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946417/comparison-of-ultrasound-assisted-and-traditional-caustic-leaching-of-spent-cathode-carbon-scc-from-aluminum-electrolysis
#9
REVIEW
Jin Xiao, Jie Yuan, Zhongliang Tian, Kai Yang, Zhen Yao, Bailie Yu, Liuyun Zhang
The spent cathode carbon (SCC) from aluminum electrolysis was subjected to caustic leaching to investigate the different effects of ultrasound-assisted and traditional methods on element fluorine (F) leaching rate and leaching residue carbon content. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) dissolved in deionized water was used as the reaction system. Through single-factor experiments and a comparison of two leaching techniques, the optimum F leaching rate and residue carbon content for ultrasound-assisted leaching process were obtained at a temperature of 70°C, residue time of 40min, initial mass ratio of alkali to SCC (initial alkali-to-material ratio) of 0...
January 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942656/use-of-self-expanding-nitinol-stents-in-the-pediatric-management-of-refractory-esophageal-caustic-stenosis
#10
Verónica Alonso, Devicka Ojha, Harsha Nalluri, Juan Carlos de Agustín
BACKGROUND: The treatment of recurrent esophageal stricture secondary to the ingestion of a caustic agent is an arduous task. Self-expanding esophageal stents may be an alternative to repeated endoscopic esophageal dilations. CASE REPORT: We present the case of a two-year-old male with a severe and long esophageal stricture successfully treated by the combination of dilations and stent placement. After five months of serial pneumatic dilations, three self-expanding nitinol stents internally coated with silicone were introduced through a gastrostomy, covering the entire esophagus...
October 2017: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894776/diagnostic-accuracy-of-computed-tomography-scan-in-detection-of-upper-gastrointestinal-tract-injuries-following-caustic-ingestion
#11
Hooman Bahrami-Motlagh, Mohammad Hadizadeh-Neisanghalb, Hassan Peyvandi
INTRODUCTION: Endoscopy is an invasive procedure and finding noninvasive alternative tools in detection of probable upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract injuries following caustic ingestion is an area of interest. The present study aimed to evaluate the screening performance characteristics of thoraco-abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan in this regard. METHODS: This prospective cross sectional study was conducted on patients presenting to emergency department following acute caustic ingestion...
2017: Emergency (Tehran, Iran)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894772/epidemiologic-features-and-outcomes-of-caustic-ingestions-a-10-year-cross-sectional-study
#12
Athena Alipour Faz, Fahimeh Arsan, Hassan Peyvandi, Mahbobeh Oroei, Omid Shafagh, Maryam Peyvandi, Maryam Yousefi
INTRODUCTION: Caustic ingestions are among the most prevalent causes of toxic exposure. The present 10-year survey aimed to evaluate the epidemiologic features and outcomes of caustic ingestion cases presenting to emergency department. METHODS: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study on patients who were admitted to a referral toxicology center during 2004 to 2014, following caustic ingestion. Baseline characteristics, presenting chief complaint, severity of mucosal injury, complications, imaging and laboratory findings as well as outcomes (need for ICU admission, need for surgery, mortality) were recorded, reviewing patients' medical profile, and analyzed using SPSS 22...
2017: Emergency (Tehran, Iran)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881910/effect-of-polaprezinc-on-experimental-corrosive-esophageal-burns-in-rats
#13
A Ozbayoglu, K Sonmez, R Karabulut, Z Turkyilmaz, A Poyraz, O Gulbahar, A C Basaklar
Unconsciously caustic ingestion is one of the most common causes of serious esophageal strictures in children. The aim of this study is to determine the efficiency of polaprezinc in preventing stricture formation after corrosive esophageal burns (CEB); this was the first time it has been used to treat experimental CEB in rats. Twenty-four rats were divided into four groups, three of which received CEB by the instillation of 1 mL of 10% NaOH solution into their isolated esophageal segments for three minutes...
November 1, 2017: Diseases of the Esophagus: Official Journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877001/total-laparoscopic-approach-for-transhiatal-esophagectomy-and-gavriliu-s-esophagoplasty-in-children-with-caustic-esophageal-injuries
#14
Louise Montalva, Jérôme Viala, Daphné Michelet, Fernanda Frade, Hubert Lardy, Christine Vitoux, Arnaud Bonnard
BACKGROUND: Esophageal repair after caustic injury is a surgical challenge in children. The aim of this study was to report the first results of a total laparoscopic approach in transhiatal esophagectomy and esophageal replacement by an anisoperistaltic gastric tube. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of data from children operated on with a laparoscopic approach for transhiatal esophagectomy and Gavriliu's esophagoplasty between 2011 and 2015 was performed...
October 2017: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876244/the-economic-pre-treatment-of-coal-mine-drainage-water-with-caustic-and-ozone
#15
B H Boyden, L Nador, S Addleman, L Jeston
Coal mine drainage waters are low in pH with varying amounts of iron and manganese and are generally brackish. The Austar Coal Mine in NSW, Australia, sought alternatives to their current lime dosing as the pre-treatment before the downstream reverse osmosis plant. Undesirable operating aspects of the current system include manganese and gypsum scaling/fouling, the need for anti-scalants and reduced water recovery. Thirteen processes for acid mine drainage were initially considered. The preferred process of caustic and ozone for Mn(II) oxidation was pilot tested at up to 0...
September 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875824/applications-of-bauxite-residue-a-mini-review
#16
Ajay S Verma, Narendra M Suri, Suman Kant
Bauxite residue is the waste generated during alumina production by Bayer's process. The amount of bauxite residue (40-50 wt%) generated depends on the quality of bauxite ore used for the processing. High alkalinity and high caustic content in bauxite residue causes environmental risk for fertile soil and ground water contamination. The caustic (NaOH) content in bauxite residue leads to human health risks, like dermal problems and irritation to eyes. Moreover, disposal of bauxite residue requires a large area; such problems can only be minimised by utilising bauxite residue effectively...
September 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866548/interactive-dynamic-volume-illumination-with-refraction-and-caustics
#17
Jens G Magnus, Stefan Bruckner
In recent years, significant progress has been made in developing high-quality interactive methods for realistic volume illumination. However, refraction - despite being an important aspect of light propagation in participating media - has so far only received little attention. In this paper, we present a novel approach for refractive volume illumination including caustics capable of interactive frame rates. By interleaving light and viewing ray propagation, our technique avoids memory-intensive storage of illumination information and does not require any precomputation...
August 29, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817080/feasibility-study-of-an-optical-caustic-plasmonic-light-scattering-sensor-for-human-serum-anti-dengue-protein-e-antibody-detection
#18
Antonio A García, Lina S Franco, Miguel A Pirez-Gomez, José L Pech-Pacheco, Jorge F Mendez-Galvan, Carlos Machain-Williams, Lourdes Talavera-Aguilar, José H Espinosa-Carrillo, Miriam M Duarte-Villaseñor, Christian Be-Ortiz, Luz E Espinosa-de Los Monteros, Ariel Castillo-Pacheco, Julian E Garcina-Rejon
Antibody detection and accurate diagnosis of tropical diseases is essential to help prevent the spread of disease. However, most detection methods lack cost-effectiveness and field portability, which are essential features for achieving diagnosis in a timely manner. To address this, 3D-printed oblate spheroid sample chambers were fabricated to measure green light scattering of gold nanoparticles using an optical caustic focus to detect antibodies. Scattering signals of 20-200 nm gold nanoparticles using a green laser were compared to green light emitting diode (LED) light source signals and to Mie theory...
August 17, 2017: Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803468/functional-multi-nanolayer-coatings-of-amorphous-carbon-tungsten-carbide-with-exceptional-mechanical-durability-and-corrosion-resistance
#19
Narguess Nemati, Mansoor Bozorg, Oleksiy V Penkov, Dong-Gap Shin, Asghar Sadighzadeh, Dae-Eun Kim
A novel functional multilayer coating with periodically stacked nanolayers of amorphous carbon (a:C)/ tungsten carbide (WC) and an adhesion layer of chromium (Cr) was deposited on 304 stainless steel using a dual magnetron sputtering technique. Through process optimization, highly densified coatings with high elasticity and shear moduli, excellent wear resistance, as well as minimal susceptibility to corrosive and caustic media could be acquired. The structural and mechanical properties of the optimized coatings were studied in detail by a variety of techniques...
August 14, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799279/oesophageal-replacement-with-stomach-a-personal-series-and-review-of-published-experience
#20
Karim Awad, Bruce Jaffray
AIM: To describe the outcomes of oesophageal replacement using stomach in children. METHODS: All children undergoing oesophageal replacement in a regional centre were prospectively recorded in a customised database and subjected to continual follow up. Complications within 30 days were classified as early, and all other complications were classified as late. Outcomes were related to a comprehensive analysis of published experience where studies were classified as having long-term follow up if the median duration exceeded 5 years...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
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