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Caustics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905730/bubbles-drops-and-solid-particles-recognition-from-real-or-virtual-photonic-jets-reconstructed-by-digital-in-line-holography
#1
Matthias P L Sentis, Fabrice R A Onofri, Fabrice Lamadie
The image of the photonic jet (also called caustic) formed by a large, transparent, and spherical particle, reconstructed by digital in-line holography, is shown to be similar to the Airy pattern observed at the focus of a diffraction-limited lens. The analysis of this image, real or virtual depending on whether the particle relative refractive index is above or below one, allows characterizing the particle composition via its refractive index. Experiments clearly demonstrate the value of this method for the simultaneous 3D characterization and differentiation of the dynamics, size, and composition of gas, liquid, and solid particles in multiphase flows...
June 15, 2018: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892928/halofuginone-improves-caustic-induced-oxidative-injury-of-esophagus-in-rats
#2
Kıvılcım Karadeniz Cerit, Berna Karakoyun, Elif Bahadır, Meral Yüksel, Nurdan Bülbül, Feriha Ercan, E Tolga Dağlı, Berrak Ç Yeğen
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects of halofuginone in caustic esophageal burn injury in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Corrosive esophageal injury (CEI) was produced in male Wistar albino rats by instilling NaOH solution (1 ml, 37.5%) into the distal esophagus. Rats were decapitated on the 3rd day (early group) or 28th day (late group), and treated daily with either saline or halofuginone (100 µg/kg/day; i...
April 2018: Esophagus: Official Journal of the Japan Esophageal Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29890517/endoscopic-mucosal-autograft-for-treating-esophageal-caustic-strictures-preliminary-human-experience
#3
Kexin He, Lili Zhao, Shoushan Bu, Li Liu, Xiang Wang, Min Wang, Zhining Fan
 Esophageal caustic stricture is a stubborn disease and postoperative restenosis limits the clinical efficacy of endoscopic dilation. Autologous mucosal grafts have been successfully applied in the treatment of urethral stricture and in the prevention of stricture after extensive mucosal resection. We aimed to use mucosal autografting performed endoscopically to treat refractory esophageal stricture. METHODS : Three patients with intractable corrosive esophageal stricture were treated endoscopically by combining dilation with autologous mucosal transplantation...
June 11, 2018: Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29889306/ph-neutralizing-esophageal-irrigations-as-a-novel-mitigation-strategy-for-button-battery-injury
#4
Rachel R Anfang, Kris R Jatana, Rebecca L Linn, Keith Rhoades, Jared Fry, Ian N Jacobs
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Ingestion of button batteries (BB) can rapidly lead to caustic esophageal injury in infants and children, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. To identify novel mitigation strategies, we tested common weakly acidic household beverages, viscous liquids, and Carafate® for their ability to act as protective esophageal irrigations until endoscopic removal of the BB. STUDY DESIGN: Cadaveric and live animal model. METHODS: Apple juice, orange juice, Gatorade®, POWERADE®, pure honey, pure maple syrup, and Carafate® were screened using a 3 V lithium (3 V-CR2032) BB on cadaveric porcine esophagus...
June 11, 2018: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29869478/-about-a-cresol-intoxication
#5
S Fatihi, P Mols
Cresols are phenol derivatives commonly used as surface disinfectants. Ingestion may cause local mucocutaneous damage and extensive systemic toxicity : central nervous, cardiovascular, hematological, hepatic, renal and pulmonary. We describe the case of a 33-year-old woman who swallowed, without suicidal intent, 50 to 70 cm3 of a 50% cresol solution. Coma occurred within 5 minutes of ingestion, she presented a bradypnea with desaturation, and the SMUR team performed on-site an orotracheal intubation. On arrival at the hospital, the patient had typical caustic lesions around her mouth...
May 30, 2018: Revue Médicale de Bruxelles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29869087/prospective-study-of-the-effect-of-topical-application-of-mitomycin-c-in-refractory-pediatric-caustic-esophageal-strictures
#6
Carolyne Morcos Ghobrial, A E Eskander
BACKGROUND: Esophageal strictures resulting from caustic ingestion in children are usually difficult to be managed, and surgical replacement is usually required for cases refractory to frequent dilatation sessions. Topical Mitomycin C (MMC) has been recently used in the management of resistant strictures. We evaluated the efficacy of MMC application in treatment of long refractory caustic esophageal strictures. METHODS: This prospective study included 120 patients of both sexes with refractory caustic long esophageal strictures (> 3 cm in length)...
June 4, 2018: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29859991/early-assessment-of-burn-severity-in-human-tissue-ex-vivo-with-multi-wavelength-spatial-frequency-domain-imaging
#7
Chien Poon, Ulas Sunar, Daniel J Rohrbach, Smita Krishnamurthy, Thomas Olsen, Michael Kent, Nathan M Weir, Richard Simman, Jeffrey B Travers
Early knowledge about burn severity and depth can lead to improved outcome for patients. In this study, we investigated the change in optical properties in ex vivo human skin following thermal burn injuries. Human skin removed during body contouring procedures was subjected to thermal burn injury for either 10 or 60 s. Multi-wavelength spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) measurements were performed on each sample and the optical properties (absorption and scattering parameters) were obtained at each wavelength...
May 31, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29849286/novel-use-of-ophthalmic-ph-paper-to-diagnose-malicious-caustic-ingestion-in-a-pediatric-patient
#8
Neal P Johnson, Eric C Bruno
Occult caustic ingestion in the pediatric population is a challenging diagnosis to make in the emergency department. Failure to suspect and diagnose a caustic ingestion can lead to potentially life-changing comorbidities. Historically, the diagnosis of caustic ingestion has been clinical without any suitable diagnostic tools to aid in the suspicion of occult cases. In this case, we describe a novel use of ophthalmic pH paper to diagnose caustic ingestion in a three-year-old.
February 2018: Clinical practice and cases in emergency medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788901/recurrent-esophageal-stricture-from-previous-caustic-ingestion-treated-with-40-year-self-dilation-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#9
C Gambardella, A Allaria, G Siciliano, C Mauriello, R Patrone, N Avenia, A Polistena, A Sanguinetti, S Napolitano, G Conzo
BACKGROUND: Corrosive esophageal strictures are common. The severity of the strictures depends on type, quantity, duration of contact and concentration of the caustic substance ingested. Endoscopic balloon dilation and endoscopic bougienage are a cornerstone in the management of the benign esophageal strictures and are the most widely used treatments, but are expensive and invasive procedures. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of an 82-year-old patient with a corrosive esophageal stricture treated for over 40 years by means of home self-bougienage...
May 22, 2018: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782050/sequels-to-tattoo-removal-by-caustic-products
#10
K Hutton Carlsen, J Serup
BACKGROUND: Caustic products are used as affordable alternatives to laser removal of tattoos. OBJECTIVE: Describe a series of patients with sequels after tattoo removal by caustic products. METHODS: 11 patients with complications referred from 2013 to 2017 were studied. Objective findings, sequels, corrective treatments, cost and psychological aspects were obtained. Numeric Rating Scale (NRS, score 10 extremely dissatisfied) was used to describe patient satisfaction with tattoos before and after removal...
May 21, 2018: Skin Research and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761251/correlation-of-99mtc-sucralfate-scan-and-endoscopic-grading-in-caustic-oesophageal-injury
#11
Babalwa B Nondela, Sharon G Cox, Anita Brink, Alastair J W Millar, Alp Numanoglu
PURPOSE: To determine a correlation between the 99mTc sucralfate scan and the endoscopy findings in children with caustic oesophageal injury. METHODS: This is an observational analytic study of children who had both 99mTc sucralfate scan and endoscopy after caustic substance ingestion at our institution in a period between January 2009 and September 2016. The oesophageal injury was classified into low grade and high grade according to the degree of adhesion on 99mTc sucralfate scan and modification of Zargar endoscopic grading...
May 14, 2018: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756108/thoracoscopic-vagal-sparing-esophagectomy-and-colonic-interposition-for-caustic-stricture
#12
Deniz Tihan, Tuğba Matlım, Taylan Çelik, Fatih Altıntoprak, Oktar Asoğlu
Minimally invasive esophagectomy is an increasing trend in surgery. Thoracoscopic esophagectomy is applicable and an alternative procedure to conventional esophagectomy in patients especially with end-stage benign diseases like caustic stricture. A 33-year-old female patient was admitted to the department of general surgery with dysphagia. The patient was suffering from caustic stricture due to ingestion of hydrochloric acid. A totally thoracoscopic and laparoscopic vagal-sparing esophagectomy and colonic interposition was performed...
2018: Turkish Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697549/endoscopic-electrocautery-incisional-therapy-as-a-treatment-for-refractory-benign-pediatric-esophageal-strictures
#13
Michael A Manfredi, Susannah J Clark, Shawn Medford, Steven J Staffa, Peter Ngo, Thomas E Hamilton, C Jason Smithers, Russell W Jennings
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Refractory esophageal strictures are rare conditions in pediatrics, and are often due to anastomotic, congenital, or caustic strictures. Traditional treatment options include serial dilation and surgical stricture resection; endoscopic intralesional steroid injections, mitomycin C, and externally removable stents combined with dilation have had variable success rates. Although not as widely used, endoscopic electrocautery incisional therapy (EIT) has been reported as an alternative treatment for refractory strictures in a small number of adult series...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694077/chaos-in-dirac-electron-optics-emergence-of-a-relativistic-quantum-chimera
#14
Hong-Ya Xu, Guang-Lei Wang, Liang Huang, Ying-Cheng Lai
We uncover a remarkable quantum scattering phenomenon in two-dimensional Dirac material systems where the manifestations of both classically integrable and chaotic dynamics emerge simultaneously and are electrically controllable. The distinct relativistic quantum fingerprints associated with different electron spin states are due to a physical mechanism analogous to a chiroptical effect in the presence of degeneracy breaking. The phenomenon mimics a chimera state in classical complex dynamical systems but here in a relativistic quantum setting-henceforth the term "Dirac quantum chimera," associated with which are physical phenomena with potentially significant applications such as enhancement of spin polarization, unusual coexisting quasibound states for distinct spin configurations, and spin selective caustics...
March 23, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682245/caustic-ingestion-in-children-in-south-of-iran-a-two-year-single-center-study
#15
Seyed Mohsen Dehghani, Maryam Bahmanyar, Hazhir Javaherizadeh
BACKGROUND Caustic ingestion is one of the most important injuries during childhood, which leads to serious sequel. In this study, we evaluated the clinical manifestations, endoscopic appearance, complications, and treatment results in patients with caustic ingestion in our hospital. METHODS Hospital chart of patients with caustic ingestion who admitted to Nemazee Teaching Hospital affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences during a 2-year period (2015-2016) were reviewed retrospectively. The age, sex, nature of the caustic agent, clinical presentations, grade of injury in endoscopy, degree of parents' education, site of ingestion, accidental or intentional attempts, complications, and outcomes were reviewed...
January 2018: Middle East Journal of Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669210/sodium-hydroxide-production-from-seawater-desalination-brine-process-design-and-energy-efficiency
#16
Fengmin Du, David M Warsinger, Tamanna I Urmi, Gregory P Thiel, Amit Kumar, John H Lienhard V
The ability to increase pH is a crucial need for desalination pretreatment (especially in reverse osmosis) and for other industries, but processes used to raise pH often incur significant emissions and nonrenewable resource use. Alternatively, waste brine from desalination can be used to create sodium hydroxide, via appropriate concentration and purification pretreatment steps, for input into the chlor-alkali process. In this work, an efficient process train (with variations) is developed and modeled for sodium hydroxide production from seawater desalination brine using membrane chlor-alkali electrolysis...
May 15, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666025/-ingestion-of-caustic-substances-an-analysis-of-the-safety-and-benefit-of-a-less-aggressive-protocol
#17
Noelia Ripoll Trujillo, Lidia Martínez Sánchez, Anna Habimana Jordana, Victoria Trenchs Sainz de La Maza, Víctor Vila Miravet, Carles Luaces Cubells
INTRODUCTION: The ingestion of a caustic agent is the most common cause of admission after being in contact with a domestic product. A group of patients could be considered low risk and not require aggressive procedures such a corticosteroid administration and endoscopy, especially in the paediatric population. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and benefit of a less aggressive protocol for patients defined as low risk. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An analytical-observational study conducted on patients who consulted for caustic ingestion between January 2011 and December 2015...
April 14, 2018: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652218/adsorptive-conversion-of-nitrogen-dioxide-from-etching-vent-gases-over-activated-carbon
#18
Mei-Ling Fang, Ching-Yi Wu, Ming-Shean Chou
Some metal etching operations emit limited flow rates of waste gases with reddish-brown NO2 fume, which may cause visual and acidic-odor complaints, as well as negative health effects. In this study, tests were performed by passing caustic-treated waste gases vented from Al-etching operations through columns packed either with virgin or regenerated granular activated carbon (GAC) to test their adsorptive conversion performance of NO2 in the gases. The gases contained 5-55 ppm NO2 and acetic and nitric acids of below 3 ppm...
April 13, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625770/temperature-dependence-of-antibody-adsorption-in-protein-a-affinity-chromatography
#19
Walpurga Krepper, Peter Satzer, Beate Maria Beyer, Alois Jungbauer
Staphylococcal protein A affinity chromatography is a well-established platform for purification of clinical-grade antibodies. The wild type ligand has been mutated to improve caustic stability, elution behavior, and/or to increase binding capacity. Several modified protein A ligands are nowadays commercially available, one of them being the thermosensitive chromatography medium Byzen Pro from Nomadic Bioscience Co., Ltd. According to the manufacturer, Byzen Pro has the ability to release IgG upon a change in temperature...
May 25, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620016/electronic-scattering-focusing-and-resonance-by-a-spherical-barrier-in-weyl-semimetals
#20
Ming Lu, Xiao-Xiao Zhang
We solve the Weyl electron scattered by a spherical step potential barrier. Tuning the incident energy and the potential radius, one can enter both quasiclassical and quantum regimes. Transport features related to far-field currents and integrated cross sections are studied to reveal the preferred forward scattering. In the quasiclassical regime, a strong focusing effect along the incident spherical axis is found in addition to optical caustic patterns. In the quantum regime, at energies of successive angular momentum resonances, a polar aggregation of electron density is found inside the potential...
May 31, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
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