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Daniel W Birch, Jerry T Dang, Noah J Switzer, Namdar Manouchehri, Xinzhe Shi, Ghassan Hadi, Shahzeer Karmali
BACKGROUND: Intraoperative hypothermia during both open and laparoscopic abdominal surgery may be associated with adverse events. For laparoscopic abdominal surgery, the use of heated insufflation systems for establishing pneumoperitoneum has been described to prevent hypothermia. Humidification of the insufflated gas is also possible. Past studies on heated insufflation have shown inconclusive results with regards to maintenance of core temperature and reduction of postoperative pain and recovery times...
October 19, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Benny Feng, Patricia Tang, Sharon Shui Yee Leung, Jayesh Dhanani, Hak-Kim Chan
BACKGROUND: Mechanically ventilated patients commonly suffer from ventilator-associated pneumonia, hypoxemia, and other lower respiratory tract infection as a result of pathogen colonization and poor sputum clearance. Consequently, there is a high rate of morbidity and mortality in these patients. Dry powder mannitol increases sputum clearance, and therefore, we developed a system to administer it to mechanically ventilated patients without disconnection from the ventilator. METHODS: The inspiratory line from a ventilator was split by using a three-way valve into two parallel lines where one contains a humidifier for normal breathing cycle and the other line contains a dry powder inhaler (Osmohaler™)...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
Atsushi Kawaguchi, Yutaka Yasui, Allan deCaen, Daniel Garros
OBJECTIVES: To assess the impact on a single PICU of introducing high-flow nasal cannula as a management tool for respiratory distress. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study, including an interrupted time series analysis with a propensity score adjustment and a matched-pair analysis. SETTING: A single university-affiliated children's hospital PICU. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Differences in clinical outcomes when comparing the pre-high-flow nasal cannula era (2004-2008) and the high-flow nasal cannula era (2010-2014), excluding 2009 as a washout period, and clinical impacts of high-flow nasal cannula as an exposure of interest...
October 12, 2016: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Enrique Ruiz-Trejo, Milla Puolamaa, Brian Sum, Farid Tariq, Vladimir Yufit, Nigel P Brandon
A simple chemical bath deposition is used to coat a complex porous ceramic scaffold with a conformal Ni layer. The resulting composite is used as a solid oxide fuel cell electrode, and its electrochemical response is measured in humidified hydrogen. X-ray tomography is used to determine the microstructural characteristics of the uncoated and Ni-coated porous structure, which include the surface area to total volume, the radial pore size, and the size of the necks between the pores.
October 14, 2016: ChemSusChem
A Pillai, V Daga, J Lewis, M Mahmoud, M Mushambi, D Bogod
Ten healthy volunteers received oxygen for 1 min, 2 min and 3 min at 10 l.min(-1) via a face mask, or humidified oxygen at 60 l.min(-1) via nasal prongs (Optiflow(TM) ) with the mouth closed and with the mouth open. The mean (SD) end-tidal oxygen partial pressure after 3 min face mask and Optiflow oxygenation, with mouth closed and open, were: 88.5 (6.2) kPa; 85.6 (6.4) kPa and 48.7 (26.4) kPa, respectively, p = 0.001. The equivalent mean (SD) transcutaneous oxygen partial pressures were: 34.6 (5...
November 2016: Anaesthesia
Sam E Mason, James M Kinross, Jane Hendricks, Thanjakumar H Arulampalam
BACKGROUND: Surgical Site Infection (SSI) occurs in 9 % of laparoscopic colorectal surgery. Warming and humidifying carbon dioxide (CO2) used for peritoneal insufflation may protect against SSI by avoiding postoperative hypothermia (itself a risk factor for SSI). This study aimed to assess the impact of CO2 conditioning on postoperative hypothermia and SSI and to perform a cost-effectiveness analysis. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of patients undergoing elective laparoscopic colorectal resection was performed at a single UK specialist centre...
October 12, 2016: Surgical Endoscopy
Mina Ha, Soon Young Lee, Seung-Sik Hwang, Hyesook Park, Seungsoo Sheen, Hae Kwan Cheong, Bo Youl Choi
OBJECTIVES: As of November 2011, the Korean government recalled and banned humidifier disinfectants (HDs) from the market, because four case-control studies and one retrospective epidemiological study proved the association between HDs and lung injury of unknown cause. The report reviewed the causal role of HDs in lung injury based on scientific evidences. METHODS: A careful examination on the association between the HDs and lung injury was based on the criteria of causality inference by Hill and the US Surgeon General Expert Committee...
2016: Epidemiology and Health
Won-Young Kim, Soonyoung Park, Hwa Jung Kim, Eun Jin Chae, Kyung-Hyun Do, Jin Won Huh, Chae-Man Lim, Younsuck Koh, Sang-Bum Hong
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Inhalation exposure to household chemicals can result in serious health problems, although the long-term outcomes are unclear. We evaluated the changes in lung function after home humidifier disinfectant (HD) exposure. METHODS: This post hoc analysis of a prospective nationwide cohort involved patients with inhalation lung injury due to HD. Patients underwent spirometric measurements at onset and annually thereafter. RESULTS: Forty subjects met the eligibility criteria...
October 12, 2016: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
Hironobu Abiko, Mitsuya Furuse, Tsuguo Takano
OBJECTIVES: In the use of activated carbon beds as adsorbents for various types of organic vapor in respirator gas filters, water adsorption of the bed and test gas humidity are expected to alter the accuracy in the estimation of breakthrough data. There is increasing interest in the effects of moisture on estimation methods, and this study has investigated the effects with actual breakthrough data. METHODS: We prepared several activated carbon beds preconditioned by equilibration with moisture at different relative humidities (RH = 40% - 70%) and a constant temperature of 20°C...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Occupational Health
A K Martusevich, S P Peretyagin, A A Martusevich, P V Peretyagin
The effects of inhalation of singlet oxygen mixture, dry and humidified ozone-oxygen mixture, and ozonated oils on heart rate variability as well as on the rate and control mechanisms of microcirculation were examined in rats. The most optimal were the responses of systemic and regional hemodynamics to inhalation of the gas produced by a generator of singlet oxygen and humidified ozone-oxygen mixtures. Singlet oxygen stabilized the cardiac rhythm and augmented microcirculation via activation of "internal" (endothelial and neurogenic) regulatory mechanisms...
September 2016: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
C Hurel, M Taneez, A Volpi Ghirardini, G Libralato
Bauxite extraction by-products (red mud) were used to evaluate their potential ability to stabilize trace elements from dredged and aerated/humidified marine sediment. The investigated by-products were: bauxaline(®)(BX) that is a press-filtered red mud; bauxsol™(BS) that is a press-filtered red mud previously washed with excess of seawater, and gypsum neutralized bauxaline(®) (GBX). These materials were separately mixed to dredged composted sediment sample considering 5% and 20% sediment: stabilizer ratios...
October 1, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Peivand Ghasemzadeh, Seyed Mahdi Rezayat, Sharareh Adeli, Nahid Rahbar-Roshandel
We investigated the effects of 25Mg-Porphyrin-Fullerene nanoparticles, (25MgPMC16) smart ferroporphyrin nanoparticles, on PC12 cells exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion. In order to explore its effect on cells under oxygen-glucose deprivation conditions, the cultures were pretreated with 25MgPMC16 24 hours prior to oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion. To initiate the oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion, the cell culture medium was replaced with a glucose-free medium and the cells were transferred to a humidified incubation chamber in a mixture of 95% N2 and 5% CO2 at 37° C for 30, 60 and 120 min...
August 2016: Acta Medica Iranica
Rachael C Heath Jeffery, David A Todd
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Respiratory Care
Kathrin Fricke, Stanislav Tatkov, Ulrike Domanski, Karl-Josef Franke, Georg Nilius, Hartmut Schneider
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with hypercapnia is associated with increased mortality. Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) can lower hypercapnia and ventilator loads but is hampered by a low adherence rate leaving a majority of patients insufficiently treated. Recently, nasal high flow (NHF) has been introduced in the acute setting in adults, too. It is an open nasal cannula system for delivering warm and humidified air or oxygen at high flow rates (2-50 L/min) assisting ventilation. It was shown that this treatment can improve hypercapnia...
2016: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
Jillian Lackey, Pascale Champagne, Brant Peppley
Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) perform well on light hydrocarbon fuels, and the use of biogas derived from the anaerobic digestion (AD) of municipal wastewater sludges could provide an opportunity for the CH4 produced to be used as a renewable fuel. Greenhouse gas (GHG), NOx, SOx, and hydrocarbon pollutant emissions would also be reduced. In this study, SOFCs were operated on AD derived biogas. Initially, different H2 dilutions were tested (N2, Ar, CO2) to examine the performance of tubular SOFCs. With inert gases as diluents, a decrease in cell performance was observed, however, the use of CO2 led to a higher decrease in performance as it promoted the reverse water-gas shift (WGS) reaction, reducing the H2 partial pressure in the gas mixture...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
Guorui Liu, Lili Yang, Jiayu Zhan, Minghui Zheng, Li Li, Rong Jin, Yuyang Zhao, Mei Wang
Cement kilns can be used to co-process fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators. However, this might increase emission of organic pollutants like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Knowledge of PCB concentrations and homolog and congener patterns at different stages in this process could be used to assess the possibility of simultaneously controlling emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and "dioxin-like" compounds. To date, emissions from cement kilns co-processing fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators have not been analyzed for PCBs...
September 14, 2016: Waste Management
Natália Gomes de Morais, Thacianna Barreto da Costa, Joana Maria Bezerra de Lira, Suênia da Cunha Gonçalves de Albuquerque, Valéria Rêgo Alves Pereira, Milena de Paiva Cavalcanti, Célia Maria Machado Barbosa de Castro
OBJECTIVES: Nutritional aggression in critical periods may lead to epigenetic changes that affect gene expression. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of neonatal malnutrition on the expression of toll-like receptor (TLR)-2, TLR-4, and NLRP3 receptors, caspase-1 enzyme, and interleukin (IL)-1 β production in macrophages infected with methicillin-resistant (MRSA) and methicillin-sensitive (MSSA) Staphylococcus aureus. METHODS: Wistar rats (N = 24) were divided in two distinct groups: nourished (17% casein) and malnourished (8% casein)...
June 23, 2016: Nutrition
Raghuram Chava, Menekhem Zviman, Madhavan Srinivas Raghavan, Henry Halperin, Farhan Maqbool, Romergryko Geocadin, Alfredo Quinones-Hinojosa, Aravindan Kolandaivelu, Benjamin A Rosen, Harikrishna Tandri
Early induction of therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is recommended in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (CA); however, currently no reliable methods exist to initiate cooling. We investigated the effect of high flow transnasal dry air on brain and body temperatures in adult porcine animals. Adult porcine animals (n = 23) under general anesthesia were subject to high flow of transnasal dry air. Mouth was kept open to create a unidirectional airflow, in through the nostrils and out through the mouth. Brain, internal jugular, and aortic temperatures were recorded...
September 16, 2016: Therapeutic Hypothermia and Temperature Management
Jihyun Emma Choi PhD, Sang-Bum Hong Md PhD, Kyung-Hyun Do Md PhD, Hwa Jung Kim Md PhD, Seockhoon Chung Md PhD, Eun Lee Md PhD, Jihyun Choi, Soo-Jong Hong
A large portion of the Korean population has been exposed to toxic humidifier disinfectants, and considering that the majority of the victims are infants, the magnitude of the damage is expected to be considerably larger than what has currently been revealed. The current victims are voicing problems caused by various diseases, including but not limited to lung, upper respiratory tract, cardiovascular, kidney, musculoskeletal, eye, and skin diseases, etc. However, there has been difficulty in gaining validation for these health problems and identifying causal relationships due to lack of evidence proving that toxic humidifier disinfectant is the specific causes of extrapulmonary diseases such as allergic rhinitis...
August 29, 2016: Environmental Health and Toxicology
Veronica Mardegan, Elena Priante, Elisabetta Lolli, Paola Lago, Eugenio Baraldi
Heated, humidified high-flow delivered by nasal cannulae (HHHFNC) is increasingly used for noninvasive respiratory support in preterm infants and critically ill children due to its perceived effectiveness and ease of use. Evidence from randomized controlled trials suggests that HHHFNC and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) are equally effective as postextubation support in preterm infants. HHHFNC is also used for weaning preterm infants from CPAP. Data on HHHFNC used as the primary support for treating respiratory distress syndrome are conflicting...
September 2016: American Journal of Perinatology
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