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Ya-Chi Li, Hui-Ling Lin, Fang-Chun Liao, Sing-Siang Wang, Hsiu-Chu Chang, Hung-Fu Hsu, Sue-Hsien Chen, Gwo-Hwa Wan
BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated the difference in bacterial contamination between conventional reused ventilator systems and disposable closed ventilator-suction systems. The aim of this study was to investigate the bacterial contamination rates of the reused and disposable ventilator systems, and the association between system disconnection and bacterial contamination of ventilator systems. METHODS: The enrolled intubated and mechanically ventilated patients used a conventional reused ventilator system and a disposable closed ventilator-suction system, respectively, for a week; specimens were then collected from the ventilator circuit systems to evaluate human and environmental bacterial contamination...
2018: PloS One
M Creaney, R M Moriarty, M Milner, C Murphy
Congenital muscular dystrophies are characterised by progressive skeletal muscle weakness from birth or early infancy. Maternal respiratory compromise, joint contractures and presence of spinal instrumentation or fusion are some of the anaesthetic challenges that may be encountered in the obstetric setting. The choice of anaesthetic technique for surgical delivery needs to be considered on an individual basis. Multi-disciplinary involvement is paramount to optimise peripartum care and outcomes. In this case report, we present the use of dexmedetomidine, humidified high-flow nasal oxygen, rocuronium and sugammadex in the anaesthetic management of a wheelchair-bound, non-invasive bilevel positive airway pressure ventilation-dependent parturient with congenital muscular dystrophy, who was presenting for caesarean section...
February 9, 2018: International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia
Andrew G Miller, Michael A Gentle, Lisa M Tyler, Natalie Napolitano
BACKGROUND: High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) use has greatly increased in recent years. In non-neonatal pediatric patients, there are limited data available to guide HFNC use, and clinical practice may vary significantly. The goal of this study was to evaluate current HFNC practice by surveying practicing pediatric respiratory therapists. METHODS: A survey instrument was posted on the American Association for Respiratory Care's AARConnect online social media platform in March 2017...
March 13, 2018: Respiratory Care
Mihir Sarkar, Rajasree Sinha, Satyabrata Roychowdhoury, Sobhanman Mukhopadhyay, Pramit Ghosh, Kalpana Dutta, Shibarjun Ghosh
Background: Early initiation of appropriate noninvasive respiratory support is utmost important intervention to avoid mechanical ventilation in severe bronchiolitis. Aim: This study aims to compare noninvasive continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) and hot humidified high-flow nasal cannulae (HHHFNC) as modes of respiratory support in infants with severe bronchiolitis. Methods: Prospective, randomized, open-label pilot study done in a tertiary-care hospital Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU)...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
Jason C Marvin, Silvia I Gallegos, Shaida Parsaei, Danieli C Rodrigues
PURPOSE: To evaluate the biocompatibility of five dental cement compositions after directly exposing human gingival fibroblast (HGF) and MC3T3-E1 preosteoblast cells to cement alone and cement applied on commercially pure titanium (cpTi) specimens. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nanostructurally integrated bioceramic (NIB), resin (R), resin-modified glass ionomer (RMGIC), zinc oxide eugenol (ZOE), and zinc phosphate (ZP) compositions were prepared according to the respective manufacturer's instructions...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Prosthodontics: Official Journal of the American College of Prosthodontists
Lingchen Kong, Jianzhong Li, Peng Wu, Jianhua Xu, Honglei Li, Haifei Long, Pan Liu, Fangfang Wei, Wenhong Peng
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the curative effect of lateral position ventilation combined with vibration sputum drainage on the patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). METHODS: A prospective randomized controlled trial was conducted. The patients with ARDS undergoing mechanical ventilation (MV) admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) of Linyi Central Hospital from January 2013 to June 2017 were enrolled, and they were divided into simple ventilation group and combined treatment group according to random number table...
March 2018: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
Manabu Zama, Yaeko Hara, Satoshi Fujita, Tadayoshi Kaneko, Masayuki Kobayashi
Nasal mucosa has roles in warming and humidifying inspired air and is highly sensitive to mechanical stimuli. Moreover, the upper part of the nasal mucosa expresses olfactory receptors processing olfactory information. Although the somatosensory map of the face in the primary (S1) and secondary (S2) somatosensory cortices is clearly documented, the map of the nasal mucosa and the effect of odors on their activities are largely unknown. This study aimed to identify the cortical regions in S1 and their temporal features in response to somatosensory stimulation of the nasal mucosa using an optical imaging technique in urethane-anesthetized rats...
March 5, 2018: Neuroscience
David Zwicker, Rodolfo Ostilla-Mónico, Daniel E Lieberman, Michael P Brenner
The nasal cavity is a vital component of the respiratory system that heats and humidifies inhaled air in all vertebrates. Despite this common function, the shapes of nasal cavities vary widely across animals. To understand this variability, we here connect nasal geometry to its function by theoretically studying the airflow and the associated scalar exchange that describes heating and humidification. We find that optimal geometries, which have minimal resistance for a given exchange efficiency, have a constant gap width between their side walls, while their overall shape can adhere to the geometric constraints imposed by the head...
March 5, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Elie Azoulay, Virginie Lemiale, Djamel Mokart, Saad Nseir, Laurent Argaud, Frédéric Pène, Loay Kontar, Fabrice Bruneel, Kada Klouche, François Barbier, Jean Reignier, Anabelle Stoclin, Guillaume Louis, Jean-Michel Constantin, Julien Mayaux, Florent Wallet, Achille Kouatchet, Vincent Peigne, Pierre Perez, Christophe Girault, Samir Jaber, Johanna Oziel, Martine Nyunga, Nicolas Terzi, Lila Bouadma, Christine Lebert, Alexandre Lautrette, Naike Bigé, Jean-Herlé Raphalen, Laurent Papazian, Antoine Rabbat, Michael Darmon, Sylvie Chevret, Alexandre Demoule
BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory failure (ARF) is the leading reason for intensive care unit (ICU) admission in immunocompromised patients. High-flow nasal oxygen (HFNO) therapy is an alternative to standard oxygen. By providing warmed and humidified gas, HFNO allows the delivery of higher flow rates via nasal cannula devices, with FiO2 values of nearly 100%. Benefits include alleviation of dyspnea and discomfort, decreased respiratory distress and decreased mortality in unselected patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure...
March 5, 2018: Trials
Jeongah Song, Woojin Kim, Yong-Bum Kim, Bumseok Kim, Kyuhong Lee
Pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic progressive disease with unknown etiology and has poor prognosis. Polyhexamethyleneguanidine phosphate (PHMG-P) causes acute interstitial pneumonia and pulmonary fibrosis in humans when it exposed to the lung. In a previous study, when rats were exposed to PHMG-P through inhalation for 3 weeks, lung inflammation and fibrosis was observed even after 3 weeks of recovery. In this study, we aimed to determine the time course of PHMG-P-induced lung inflammation and fibrosis. We compared pathological action of PHMG-P with that of bleomycin (BLM) and investigated the mechanism underlying PHMG-P-induced lung inflammation and fibrosis...
February 21, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Satoki Inoue, Yumiko Tamaki, Shota Sonobe, Junji Egawa, Masahiko Kawaguchi
Background: We describe a pediatric patient who suffered from critical abdominal distention caused by a combination of humidified, high-flow nasal cannula (HHFNC) oxygen therapy and nasal airway. Case presentation: A 21-month-old boy with a history of chronic lung disease was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Immediately after admission, his airway was established using a tracheal tube and mechanical ventilation was started. Five days after the commencement of mechanical ventilation, finally, his trachea was extubated...
2018: JA Clin Rep
T Riva, T H Pedersen, S Seiler, N Kasper, L Theiler, R Greif, M Kleine-Brueggeney
BACKGROUND: Transnasal humidified rapid insufflation ventilatory exchange (THRIVE) comprises the administration of heated, humidified, and blended air/oxygen mixtures via nasal cannula at rates of ≥2 litres kg-1  min-1 . The aim of this randomized controlled study was to evaluate the length of the safe apnoea time using THRIVE with two different oxygen concentrations (100% vs 30% oxygen) compared with standard low-flow 100% oxygen administration. METHODS: Sixty patients, aged 1-6 yr, weighing 10-20 kg, undergoing general anaesthesia for elective surgery, were randomly allocated to receive one of the following oxygen administration methods during apnoea: 1) low-flow 100% oxygen at 0...
March 2018: British Journal of Anaesthesia
Neeraj Mukesh Shah, Rebecca Francesca D'Cruz, Patrick B Murphy
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remains a common cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Patients with COPD and respiratory failure, whether acute or chronic have a poorer prognosis than patients without respiratory failure. Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) has been shown to be a useful tool in both the acute hospital and chronic home care setting. NIV has been well established as the gold standard therapy for acute decompensated respiratory failure complicating an acute exacerbation of COPD with reduced mortality and intubation rates compared to standard therapy...
January 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Michael Papetti, Piotr Kozlowski
Many aspects of cell physiology, including migration, membrane function, and cell division, are best understood by observing live cell dynamics over time using video microscopy. To probe these phenomena in colon epithelial cells using simple components with a limited budget, we have constructed an inexpensive (<$410) self-contained apparatus, consisting of a closed-loop, feedback-controlled system regulated by a PID (proportional-integrative-derivative) controller contained within a 0.077 m3 insulated acrylic box...
February 6, 2018: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
Peder Wolkoff
There is a long-standing dispute about indoor air humidity and perceived indoor air quality (IAQ) and associated health effects. Complaints about sensory irritation in eyes and upper airways are generally among top-two symptoms together with the perception "dry air" in office environments. This calls for an integrated analysis of indoor air humidity and eye and airway health effects. This overview has reviewed the literature about the effects of extended exposure to low humidity on perceived IAQ, sensory irritation symptoms in eyes and airways, work performance, sleep quality, virus survival, and voice disruption...
January 31, 2018: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
T Renda, A Corrado, G Iskandar, G Pelaia, K Abdalla, P Navalesi
Oxygen therapy is first-line treatment for hypoxaemic acute respiratory failure (ARF). High-flow nasal oxygen therapy (HFNO) represents an alternative to conventional oxygen therapy. HFNO provides humidified, titrated oxygen therapy matching or even exceeding the patients' inspiratory demand. The application of HFNO is becoming widespread in Intensive Care Units (ICUs), favoured by increasing evidence based on numerous studies supporting its efficacy. The mechanisms of action and physiological effects of HFNO are not yet fully understood...
January 2018: British Journal of Anaesthesia
Puntita Siengdee, Sarisa Klinhom, Chatchote Thitaram, Korakot Nganvongpanit
Background: Primary cultures from Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) allow scientists to obtain representative cells that have conserved most of their original characteristics, function, physiology and biochemistry. This technique has thus gained significant importance as a foundation for further cellular, cell biology and molecular research. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe conditions for the successful establishment of primary adult fibroblasts from Asian elephant carcasses...
2018: PeerJ
Carlos Bernuy-Lopez, Laura Rioja-Monllor, Takashi Nakamura, Sandrine Ricote, Ryan O'Hayre, Koji Amezawa, Mari-Ann Einarsrud, Tor Grande
The effect of A-site cation ordering on the cathode performance and chemical stability of A-site cation ordered LaBaCo₂O5+δ and disordered La0.5Ba0.5CoO3-δ materials are reported. Symmetric half-cells with a proton-conducting BaZr0.9Y0.1O3-δ electrolyte were prepared by ceramic processing, and good chemical compatibility of the materials was demonstrated. Both A-site ordered LaBaCo₂O5+δ and A-site disordered La0.5Ba0.5CoO3-δ yield excellent cathode performance with Area Specific Resistances as low as 7...
January 26, 2018: Materials
Jens Bräunlich, Friederike Mauersberger, Hubert Wirtz
BACKGROUND: Nasal Highflow (NHF) delivers a humidified and heated airflow via nasal prongs. Current data provide evidence for efficacy of NHF in patients with hypoxemic respiratory failure. Preliminary data suggest that NHF may decrease hypercapnia in hypercapnic respiratory failure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanism of NHF mediated PCO2 reduction in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). METHODS: In 36 hypercapnic COPD patients (PCO2 > 45 mmHg), hypercapnia was evaluated by capillary gas sampling 1 h after NHF breathing under four conditions A to D with different flow rates and different degrees of leakage (A = 20 L/min, low leakage, two prongs, both inside; B = 40 L/min, low leakage, two prongs, both inside; C = 40 L/min, high leakage, two prongs, one outside and open; D = 40 L/min, high leakage, two prongs, one outside and closed)...
January 24, 2018: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
Pcf Tan, A T Dennis
Failed airway management in the obstetric patient undergoing general anaesthesia is associated with major sequelae for the mother and/or fetus. Effective and adequate pre-oxygenation is an important safety strategy and a recommendation in all current major airway guidelines. Pre-oxygenation practice in the obstetric population may be suboptimal based on current literature. Recently, clinical applications for high flow nasal oxygen, also known as transnasal humidified rapid insufflation ventilatory exchange or THRIVE, are expanding in the non-obstetric population and may have theoretical benefits if used for pre-oxygenation and apnoeic oxygenation in the obstetric population...
January 2018: Anaesthesia and Intensive Care
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