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Murugan Mukilan, Wieslaw Bogdanowicz, Ganapathy Marimuthu, Koilmani Emmanuvel Rajan
Activity-dependent expression of immediate-early genes (IEGs) is induced by exposure to odor. The present study was designed to investigate whether there is differential expression of IEGs ( Egr-1 , C-fos ) in the brain region mediating olfactory memory in the Indian greater short-nosed fruit bat Cynopterus sphinx We assumed that differential expression of IEGs in different brain regions may orchestrate a preference odor (PO) and aversive odor (AO) memory in C. sphinx We used preferred (0.8% wt/wt of cinnamon powder) and aversive (0...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Yuan Wang, Kewei Feng, Haihua Yang, Zhiwei Zhang, Yahong Yuan, Tianli Yue
Penicillium expansum , as a main postharvest pathogen of fruits, can secrete patulin (PAT), causing fruit decay and health problems. In this study, the antifungal test, SEM (scanning electron microscope) observation, transcriptional profile, PAT biosynthesis, and physiological characters of P. expansum exposed to cinnamaldehyde and citral combination (Cin/Cit) were evaluated. Cin/Cit could inhibit the mycelial growth and spore germination of P. expansum in a dose-dependent manner. Besides, Cin/Cit caused spores and mycelia wrinkled and depressed by SEM observation...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Poliana M M Carvalho, Cícero A F Macêdo, Tiago F Ribeiro, Andressa A Silva, Renata E R Da Silva, Luís P de Morais, Marta R Kerntopf, Irwin R A Menezes, Roseli Barbosa
The Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown (Verbenaceae) species, has effects sedative, analgesic and spasmolytic properties. This study had as its main objective to evaluate the essential oil of L. alba (EOLa) effect and that of its main constituents, citral and limonene, over tracheal smooth muscle from Wistar rats. EOLa, citral and limonene promoted relaxation of tracheal smooth muscle in contractions induced by potassium (60 mM K+ ), presenting an EC50 of 148 ± 7 μg/mL for the EOLa, 136 ± 7 μg/mL for citral and 581 ± 7 μg/mL for limonene...
March 2018: Biotechnology Reports
Navnidhi Chhikara, Ragni Kour, Sundeep Jaglan, Pawan Gupta, Yogesh Gat, Anil Panghal
Citrus medica (Citron) is an underutilized fruit plant having various bioactive components in all parts of the plant. The major bioactive compounds present are iso-limonene, citral, limonene, phenolics, flavonones, vitamin C, pectin, linalool, decanal, and nonanal, accounting for several health benefits. Pectin and heteropolysachharides also play a major role as dietary fibers. The potential impact of citron and its bioactive components to prevent or reverse destructive deregulated processes responsible for certain diseases has attracted different researchers' attention...
March 29, 2018: Food & Function
Takayuki Maruoka, Akira Kitanaka, Yoshitsugu Kubota, Genji Yamaoka, Tomohiro Kameda, Osamu Imataki, Hiroaki Dobashi, Shuji Bandoh, Norimitsu Kadowaki, Terukazu Tanaka
Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) is intractable due to its high propensity for relapse. Novel agents are thus needed for SCLC treatment. Lemongrass essential oil (LG-EO) and its major constituent, citral, have been reported to inhibit the proliferation and survival of several types of cancer cells. However, the precise mechanisms through which LG-EO and citral exert their effects on SCLC cells have not been fully elucidated. SCLC cells express Src and have high levels of Src-tyrosine kinase (Src-TK) activity. In most SCLC cell lines, constitutive phosphorylation of Stat3(Y705), which is essential for its activation, has been detected...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Oncology
Zachary T Bitzer, Reema Goel, Samantha M Reilly, Ryan J Elias, Alexey Silakov, Jonathan Foulds, Joshua Muscat, John P Richie
BACKGROUND: Flavoring chemicals, or flavorants, have been used in electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) since their inception; however, little is known about their toxicological effects. Free radicals present in e-cigarette aerosols have been shown to induce oxidative stress resulting in damage to proliferation, survival, and inflammation pathways in the cell. Aerosols generated from e-liquid solvents alone contain high levels of free radicals but few studies have looked at how these toxins are modulated by flavorants...
March 13, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Qiuli OuYang, Nengguo Tao, Miaoling Zhang
Citral exhibits strong antifungal activity against Penicillium digitatum . In this study, 41 over-expressed and 84 repressed proteins in P. digitatum after 1.0 μL/mL of citral exposure for 30 min were identified by the iTRAQ technique. The proteins were closely related with oxidative phosphorylation, the TCA cycle and RNA transport. The mitochondrial complex I, complex II, complex III, complex IV and complex V, which are involved in oxidative phosphorylation were drastically affected. Among of them, the activities of mitochondrial complex I and complex IV were apparently suppressed, whereas those of mitochondrial complex II, complex III and complex V were significantly induced...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Bagora Bayala, Imaël H N Bassole, Salwan Maqdasy, Silvère Baron, Jacques Simpore, Jean-Marc A Lobaccaro
Cymbopogon species are used as traditional remedies in Burkina Faso for treating several diseases. We aimed to study the effects of their essential oils on cancer cell lines. For that purpose, Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf. and Cymbopogon giganteus Chiov. were studied for their essential oils after various chemical extractions. Antioxidant, potential anti-inflammatory action (inhibition of lipoxygenase) and cytotoxic activities were also tested on various prostate cancer and glioblastoma cell lines. Thirty-three compounds were identified in the essential oil of C...
February 28, 2018: Biochimie
Cristina M Pérez Zamora, Carola A Torres, María B Nuñez
The Verbenaceae family includes 2600 species grouped into 100 genera with a pantropical distribution. Many of them are important elements of the floras of warm-temperature and tropical regions of America. This family is known in folk medicine, and its species are used as digestive, carminative, antipyretic, antitussive, antiseptic, and healing agents. This review aims to collect information about the essential oils from the most reported species of the Verbenaceae family growing in South America, focusing on their chemical composition, antimicrobial activity, and synergism with commercial antimicrobials...
March 1, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Md Fazle Alam, Supriya Varshney, Masood Alam Khan, Amaj Ahmed Laskar, Hina Younus
The study of drug-DNA interactions is of great importance, as it paves the way towards the design of better therapeutic agents. Here, the interaction of DNA with a therapeutic and prophylactic drug citral has been studied. We have attempted to ascertain the mode of binding of citral with calf thymus DNA (Ct-DNA) through various biophysical techniques. Analysis of the UV-visible absorbance spectra and fluorescence spectra indicated the formation of a complex between citral and Ct-DNA. Competitive binding assays with ethidium bromide (EB), acridine orange (AO) and Hoechst 33258 reflected that citral possibly intercalates within the Ct-DNA...
February 22, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Emma Mani López, Georgina P Valle Vargas, Enrique Palou, Aurelio López Malo
The antimicrobial activity of lemongrass ( Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil (EO) in the vapor phase on the growth of Penicillium expansum inoculated on bread was evaluated, followed by a sensory evaluation of the bread's attributes after EO exposure. The lemongrass EO was extracted from dry leaves of lemongrass by microwave-assisted steam distillation. The chemical composition of the lemongrass EO was determined using a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer. The refractive index and specific gravity of the EO were also determined...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Xuesheng Han, Tory L Parker
Lemongrass ( Cymbopogon flexuosus ) essential oil (LEO), which has citral as its main component, has exhibited anti-inflammatory effect in both animal and human cells. In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of a commercially available LEO in pre-inflamed human dermal fibroblasts. We first studied the impact of LEO on 17 protein biomarkers that are critically associated with inflammation and tissue remodeling. LEO significantly inhibited production of the inflammatory biomarkers vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10), interferon-inducible T-cell alpha chemoattractant (I-TAC), and monokine induced by gamma interferon (MIG); decreased levels of the tissue remodeling biomarkers collagen-I and III, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1); and inhibited the immunomodulatory biomarker macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF)...
June 2017: Biochimie Open
Siyamak Ebrahimi Nigjeh, Swee Keong Yeap, Norshariza Nordin, Behnam Kamalideghan, Huynh Ky, Rozita Rosli
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer remains a leading cause of death in women worldwide. Although breast cancer therapies have greatly advanced in recent years, many patients still develop tumour recurrence and metastasis, and eventually succumb to the disease due to chemoresistance. Citral has been reported to show cytotoxic effect on various cancer cell lines. However, the potential of citral to specifically target the drug resistant breast cancer cells has not yet been tested, which was the focus of our current study...
February 13, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Andrea Tarazona, José V Gómez, Rafael Gavara, Rufino Mateo-Castro, José V Gimeno-Adelantado, Misericordia Jiménez, Eva M Mateo
Aspergillus steynii and Aspergillus tubingensis are possibly the main ochratoxin A (OTA) producing species in Aspergillus section Circumdati and section Nigri, respectively. OTA is a potent nephrotoxic, teratogenic, embryotoxic, genotoxic, neurotoxic, carcinogenic and immunosuppressive compound being cereals the first source of OTA in the diet. In this study bioactive ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH) films containing cinnamaldehyde (CINHO), linalool (LIN), isoeugenol (IEG) or citral (CIT) which are major components of some plant essential oils (EOs) were produced and tested against A...
February 3, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Rūta Jurevičiūtė, Kristina Ložienė, Maurizio Bruno, Antonella Maggio, Sergio Rosselli
Distillation time can both to optimise the production and to engineer the composition of essential oil in essential oil bearing plants. Purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of duration of hydrodistillation on composition of essential oil of Thymus × citriodorus, the natural source of commercially important geraniol and citral, a component with valuable biological properties. Essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation at different distillation times and analysed by GC/MS analytical methods...
February 2, 2018: Natural Product Research
Wen-Chien Lu, Da-Wei Huang, Chiun-C R Wang, Ching-Hua Yeh, Jen-Chieh Tsai, Yu-Ting Huang, Po-Hsien Li
Citral is a typical essential oil used in the food, cosmetic, and drug industries and has shown antimicrobial activity against microorganisms. Citral is unstable and hydrophobic under normal storage conditions, so it can easily lose its bactericide activity. Nanoemulsion technology is an excellent way to hydrophilize, microencapsulate, and protect this compound. In our studies, we used a mixed surfactant to form citral-in-water nanoemulsions, and attempted to optimize the formula for preparing nanoemulsions...
January 2018: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
Chien-Chun Li, Hsiang-Fu Yu, Chun-Hua Chang, Yun-Ta Liu, Hsien-Tsung Yao
The essential oil from a lemongrass variety of Cymbopogon flexuosus [lemongrass oil (LO)] is used in various food and aroma industry products and exhibits biological activities, such as anticancer and antimicrobial activities. To investigate the effects of 200 LO (200 mg/kg) and 400 LO (400 mg/kg) and its major component, citral (240 mg/kg), on drug-metabolizing enzymes, oxidative stress, and acetaminophen toxicity in the liver, male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a pelleted diet and administered LO or citral by gavage for 2 weeks...
January 2018: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
Beatriz Chueca, Adriana Renzoni, Daniel Berdejo, Rafael Pagán, William L Kelley, Diego García-Gonzalo
Food preservation by the use of essential oils (EOs) is being extensively studied, because of the antimicrobial properties of their individual constituents (ICs). Three resistant mutants (termed CAR, CIT and LIM) of Escherichia coli MG1655 were selected by subculturing with the ICs carvacrol, citral and (+)-limonene oxide, respectively. These derivative strains showed increased MIC values to ICs and concomitant enhanced resistance to various antibiotics (ampicillin, trimethoprim, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, kanamycin, novobiocin, norfloxacin, cephalexin and nalidixic acid) compared with the parental strain (WT)...
January 26, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Huaixiang Tian, Zhuoyan Lu, Danfeng Li, Jing Hu
Citral-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (citral-SLNs) were prepared via a high-pressure homogenization method, using glyceryl monostearate (GMS) as the solid lipid and a mixture of Tween 80 (T-80) and Span 80 (S-80) at a weight ratio of 1:1 as the surfactant. The microstructure and properties of the citral-SLNs were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA)...
May 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Eleni Fitsiou, Gregoria Mitropoulou, Katerina Spyridopoulou, Manolis Vamvakias, Haido Bardouki, Alex Galanis, Katerina Chlichlia, Yiannis Kourkoutas, Mihalis Ι Panayiotidis, Aglaia Pappa
The aim of the study was to characterize the chemical composition and biological properties of the essential oil from the plant Lippia citriodora grown in Greece. The essential oil volatiles were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry GC-MS indicating citral as the major component. Τhe antimicrobial properties were assayed using the disk diffusion method and the minimum inhibitory and non-inhibitory concentration values were determined. Listeria monocytogenes , Staphylococcus epidermidis , Staphylococcus aureus , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , and Aspergillus niger were sensitive to Lippia citriodora oil, but not Escherichia coli , Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella typhimurium , and Pseudomonas fragi ...
January 12, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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